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(3) vowels (dimension & presentation)


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(3) vowels (dimension & presentation)

  1. 1. Physical Dimension & PresentationVOWELS ONE
  2. 2. Definition:Vowel is a speech soundproduced by humans when thebreath flows out through the mouthwithout being blocked by the teeth,tongue, or lips.
  3. 3.  A clear understanding of the vowels isimportant because vowels are thenucleus (peak) of the syllable. As we have discussed in the previoussection, twelve vowels (12) arecommonly used in British English andfifteen (15) vowels are used in AmericanEnglish (consists of the eastern dialects).
  4. 4. BBC / RP GAPNOTE: In this subject, we will concern about the British English as the standardpronunciation of General English that is used by Oxford EnglishDictionary (OED).
  5. 5. Position of the tongue in relation tothe parts of the mouth (front – back)Chart of The English Vowel Phonetic Symbols based on the English Oxford Dictionary(OED)Position ofthemandible(Open - Close)ORVerticalposition ofthe tonguetowardsthe palatalarea(High – Low)(High)(Low)Shape ofthe lipsduring theproductionof thesound
  6. 6.  Thus, we all have known, that vowels aredescribed based on the physical dimension,such as:Closeness / HeightFrontnessRounding
  7. 7.  The closeness category refers to the position ofthe mandible (open - close category); while theheight of a vowel refers to the vertical position ofthe tongue towards the palatal area (high – lowcategory); The frontness refers to the horizontal position ofthe tongue in relation to the front or back of themouth; and The rounding refers to the position of the lipsduring the production of the vowel.
  8. 8.  For the purposes of clarity and consistency of theparameters of vowel sounds, thus, it is determinedsequentially based on the three aspects of vowels asfollows: Describing the sound based on the closeness or heightaspect; Describing the sound based on the frontness aspect; and Describing the sound based on the rounding aspect.Thus, to make a sound parameter of /i:/, for example, wecan describe it as:“/i:/ is a close (high) front unrounded vowel (sound)”.
  9. 9. THE COMPLETE VOWELPRESENTATION FORMAT:So far, we have known that each vowel is discussed interms of parameter (physical dimensions) of:closeness (height), frontness, and rounding.Thus, we can determine all the vowel sounds as follows:
  10. 10. Vowels: Closeness: Frontness: Rounding: Example:[i:] close front unrounded See /si:/[i] close front unrounded Any /eni/[ɪ] near-close near-front unrounded Sit /sɪt/[æ] near-open front unrounded Hat /hæt/[e] open-mid front unrounded Ten /ten/[ɑ:] open back unrounded Arm /ɑ:(r)m/[ʌ] open-mid back unrounded Cup /kʌp/[ɔ:] open-mid back rounded Saw /sɔ:/[ɒ] open back rounded Got /gɒt/[ɜ:] open-mid central unrounded Fur /fɜ:(r)/[ə] mid central unrounded Ago /ə’gəʊ/[u:] close back rounded Too /tu:/[ʊ] near-close near-back rounded Put /pʊt/
  11. 11. Other aspects (physical dimensions) ofdescribing the vowel sounds are based on:Tenseness (Tense-Lax)Closeness of Syllables (Open-ClosedSyllables)Length (Long-Short)abc
  12. 12. A. TENSENESS (TENSE - LAX ): Tense vowels require tension inparticular muscles for productionand are long in duration. The tense vowels in British Englishare /i:/, /i/ /u:/, /3:/, /ɔ:/, /ɑ:/.
  13. 13.  Lax vowels are produced when themuscles are in resting postures and areshort in duration. The lax vowels in British English are/I/, /e/, /æ/, /ə/, /ʊ/, /ɒ/, and /ʌ/. Both tense and lax vowels can initiate a syllable.Examples:eat /i:t/ → (tense vowel)and /ænd/ → (lax vowel)
  14. 14.  Open and closed syllables (closeness of syllables)are two common syllable types used in the Englishlanguage. An open syllable is a syllable that ends with a tensevowel or diphthong.In a monosyllabic word, the basic phonologicalpattern for an open syllable is CV (Consonant-Vowel). A closed syllable is a syllable that ends with aconsonant sound.In a monosyllabic word, the basic phonologicalpatterns for a closed syllable is VC (Vocal-Consonant)or CVC (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant).B. CLOSENESS (OPEN - CLOSED SYLLABLES):
  15. 15.  Tense vowels can appear in both open andclosed syllables, whereas lax vowels canappear only in closed syllables.Examples:tea /ti:/ → (tense vowel, open syllable).cool /ku:l/ → (tense vowel, closed syllable).sit /sɪt/ → (lax vowel, closed syllable).cup /kʌp/ → (lax vowel, closed syllable).
  16. 16.  Vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowelsound. The long vowels in British English are:/i:/, /u:/, /3:/, /ɔ:/, and /ɑ:/ In phonetics, symbols for denoting vowel length is (ː),but is often written as colon (:).C. LENGTH (LONG - SHORT ):