RespirationPhonationResonationArticulationOrgan of Speech(Anatomical & Physiological Correlates)Eka Andriyani, S.Pd.,M.Hum
In order to better understand the IPA, somebasic information in the areas of anatomy andphysiology is needed. The information about anatomical andphysiological correlates is intended to provideyou with an understanding of the complicatedrelationships of structure, function, and theproduction of speech sounds.
Processes of Speech Production are:RespirationPhonationResonationArticulationThe relationships form interdependent processes necessary forthe production of speech.
It is important to remember that inaddition to their singular functions,each of these four processes hasan interactive component affectingthe entire vocal tract.
A. RESPIRATION Respiration is the process of modifying the airfrom the lungs for use in breathing and speaking. Respiration depends on the nasal, oral, andpharyngeal cavities for air intake, which involves:a) Pulmonary system;b) Chest wall;c) Major and minor thoracic muscle groups; andd) Abdominal muscles.
The pulmonary system iscomposed of:Trachea, Bronchi, Lungsthat work together to bring oxygento the body.
1. Pulmonary SystemA tube of cartilage (soft bone) that connects the larynx andthe bronchi and is lined with a mucous membrane.Two cartilaginous tubes that are continuous with tracheaand are lined with mucous membrane.Elastic structures that expand and contract in relation to airsupply.An airway to the lungs. (Usually called “voice box”).Parts of throat that connects inner nose to the throat.The long curved bones which form the cage, which enable thelungs to facilitate breathing by expanding the chest cavity.Muscle that pumps blood throughout the blood vessels byrepeated, rhythmic contractions.The internal nose area.The area consists of the buccal cavity (area between the lipsand the cheeks) and mouth cavity.
.The basic framework of thechest wall includes:the vertebral column, the ribcage, the pectoral girdle, and thepelvic girdle.
The major muscles include the diaphragm, theexternal intercostals, and the internal intercostals. The minor muscles are the scalenes, transversethoracic, quadratus lumborum, pectoralis major, andpectoralis minor. The abdominal muscles include rectusabdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, andtransverse abdominis.
# PROCESS OF RESPIRATION: Respiration in the human body involves the flow of gasin outward (expiratory) and inward (inspiratory) cycles.The flow of gas is the result of pressure changes in thelungs related to the size of the thorax (chest cavity). Expiration occurs when the size of the thorax is reducedand the lung is compressed causing air to be pushed out. Inspiration results in the increase in the size of the thorax(chest cavity). The lungs expand in volume and lung pressure isbelow atmospheric pressure. As a result, air rushes(flows) into the expanded lung.
B. PHONATION Phonation is the modification of theairstream from the lungs by themovement of the structures in thelaryngeal area (an airway to the lungs). In other words, phonation can be statedas production of sound at the level ofthe larynx (voice-box).
PhonationLarynx VocalFoldsMusclesThe structures of phonation include the vocalfolds, larynx and its membrane, and muscles.
The vocal folds are comprised of a “vocalligament” (two strong bands enclosedwithin the vocal folds) and the“thyroarytenoid muscle” (a broad, thinmuscle that lies parallel and functions infine tonal control of the vocal folds). The glottis, is the name given to the spacebetween the vocal folds.VOCAL FOLDS (VOCAL CORDS)
There are numerous postures or conditions of thevocal folds including open and closed:When the vocal folds are open, air escapes throughthe glottis creating a friction type noise with novibration. This posture allows for the “voicelessphonemes”.When the vocal folds are closed, the air stream fromthe lungs creates pressure behind the closed glottisand causes the vocal folds to separate and vibrate.The open posture creates “voiced phonemes”.
The process of phonation is not completelyunderstood and researchers are still seekinganswers to specific questions about laryngealfunctioning. One of the most widely acceptedtheories of phonation is called the “myoelastic-aerodynamic theory”. The theory can be best explained through thefollowing steps:# PROCESS OF PHONATION:
1) The glottis is constricted (not necessarilycompletely closed) by the contraction of themuscles;2) Upon reaching the constriction, the air from thelungs increase the amount of pressure against theglottis and creates a pressure;3) The pressure at the glottis continues to increase asthe folds close from the pressure; and4) The folds are blown apart and air is emitted (flowed)causing repeated open and closed automatically.
Resonation is the modification of the airstreamfrom the lungs by the size, shape, and movementof the structures of nasal area, oral area, andpharyngeal areas (parts of throat that connectsinner nose to the throat). The structures of resonation are:C. RESONATION1 • Nasal Cavity2 • Oral Cavity3 • Pharyngeal Cavity
The process of modifying sound from the larynx isaccomplished by the air stream moving through the nasalcavity, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cavity (parts of throatthat connects inner nose to the throat). The changing shape created by muscle movement andvarying tension of the membranes in the cavities producesthe various formants. Formants are the overtone or resonances of the vocaltract. In other words, formants are described as thespectral peaks of the sound spectrum of the voice. Eachphoneme has a distinct pattern of formants.# PROCESS OF RESONATION:
Articulation is the process of modifying theair stream by the various articulators. The structures for articulation are called the“articulators”. The articulators are the lips, teeth, tongue,hard palate, soft palate (velum), and glottis.These structures with the exception of theglottis, compose the oral cavity.D. ARTICULATION
The lips are the outermost articulator. Bilabial and labiodental consonants areformed by the lips. Examples: /p/, /b/, /m/, and /w/1. LIPS
There are two types of teeth, deciduous (milk orbaby teeth) and permanent teeth. It is obvious that the deciduous teeth areimportant for both eating and speech. They arealso important in shaping the mouth for the 32permanent teeth and for the production ofphonemes. These teeth and their alignment playa key role in the production of phonemes.2. TEETH
The permanent teeth are the upper and lowercentral incisors (front cutting teeth), the upperand lower lateral incisors, the upper and lowercuspids (canines), the upper and lower firstbicuspids, the upper and lower second bicuspids,the upper and lower first molars, the upper andlower second molars, and the upper and lowerthird molars. The labiodental and dental consonants areformed directly by the teeth. Examples: /f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/
The tongue is considered by many phoneticiansto be the most important articulator because of itsgreat flexibility and its capacity to compensate forother structural problems. The four major areas of the tongue are the tip(the foremost section), the blade (just behind thetip and in the front area), the front (just below thehard palate), and the back (the area below thevelum). The dorsum refers to the superiorsurface of the tongue.3. TONGUE
The hard palate is composed of the two maxillaryand two palatine bones. The integrity of the hard palate is important forresonance and as a point of attachment for muscletissue. The front section of the hard palate is calledalveolar ridge. Numerous consonants are formed using the alveolar,post alveolar, and palatal area as a placement. Example: /j/4. HARD PALATE
The soft palate is locate directly behind the hardpalate and is comprised of muscle tissue with amembranous covering. The movement of the softpalate allows for velopharyngeal closure. The velar consonants are formed by the role ofthe velum in articulation. Examples: /k/, /g/, /ŋ/5. SOFT PALATE
The glottis is the space between the vocal foldswhen open. This area is important in both theproduction of glottal sounds and for differentiatingvoiced and voiceless sounds.6. GLOTTISGlottis
Numerous muscles organizedinto muscle groups areimportant to articulation.THE MUSCLES
The process of articulation involves VelopharyngealFunctioning and Tonsil Ring (a near circle of lymph tissuelocated near the entrance of the nasal and oral cavity, whichserves as a protection system cleaning the body of wastematerial). Understanding the concept of velopharyngeal closure isaccomplished by the movement of the velum, at the level ofthe superior constrictor (position of broad to narrow),backward and upward to meet the back wall of the pharynx. This movement of the velum is used in a language for theproduction of all phonemes except the nasals /m/, /n/, and/ŋ/.# PROCESS OF ARTICULATION:
ACTIVE & PASIVE ARTICULATORS Active articulators are those moveableparts of the vocal tract that participate inthe production of speech. Passive articulators are relativelystationary parts of the vocal tract.