Plastic surgeryPlastic surgery in England Ireland and Australia LILY PAYTYAN ANDREY KUZNECOV
CHAPTER 1PLASTIC SURGERY IN ENGLAND AND IRELAND ANDREY KUZNECOV
HistoryReconstructive surgery techniques were being carried outin India by 800 BC. Sushruta, the father of Indiansurgery made important contributions to the field of plasticand cataract surgery in 6th century BC. The medical works ofboth Sushruta and Charak originally in Sanskrit weretranslated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphatein 750 AD. The Arabic translations made their wayinto Europe via intermediaries.The ancient Egyptians and Romans also performed plasticcosmetic surgery. The Romans were able to performsimple techniques, such as repairing damaged earsfrom around the 1st century BC. For religiousreasons, they did not dissect either human beings oranimals, thus their knowledge was based in its entiretyon the texts of their Greek predecessors.Notwithstanding, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some Aulus Cornelius Celsus,surprisingly accurate anatomical descriptions, some of who lived in the first century AD,which — for instance, his studies on the genitalia and described plastic surgery of the face, using skin from other parts of the body.the skeleton — are of special interest to plastic surgery.
20th century Everybody considers that father of Plastic surgery was English surgeon (Harold Delf Gillies) who had been interested in Development of plastic surgery at the Queen Mary’s hospital Sidkep England ,In World War I, a New Zealand otolaryngologist working inLondon, Harold Gillies, developed many of the techniques ofmodern plastic surgery in caring for soldiers suffering fromdisfiguring facial injuries. His work was expanded uponduring World War II by his cousin and former student ArchibaldMcIndoe, who pioneered treatments for RAF aircrew suffering Walter Yeo, a British soldier, is often cited as the firstfrom severe burns. McIndoes radical, experimental known person to have benefited from plastic surgery. Thetreatments, led to the formation of the Guinea Pig Club. In photograph shows him before the procedure (left) and1946, Gillies carried out the first female-to-male sex after (right) receiving askin graft performed by Sir Haroldreassignment surgery. Gillies in 1917.
Kinds of plastic Surgery reconstractive aestheticReconstractive plastic operations help us to delete Aesthetic plastic operations are applications of methods ofdeformations defects of tissues and organs and restore their plastic surgery with aim for improvement of their appearancefunctions by the methods of plastic surgery. Such operations are Owing to such operations people can extend their youth and feelmade for people who getting corporal injuries as a result of illlness their beauty and so it allows you not to get an emotionalor something else or inherent defects crisis and improve the quality of your life in different ways.Reconstractive operations which was spent succesfullly canchange peoples’ lives and return senses of full blown lives.
Classification of aesthetic operations to the area of implementation : •Rejuvenation of face (facelifting)• Plastique of eyes(blefaroplastique)• Plastique of nose(rinoplastique, septoplastique)• Plastique of auricles (otoplastique)• Plastique of lips (Heloplastique)• remoplantation of hair• Plastique of chin (mentoplastique, mentoplastique or genioplastique)• Plastique of cheekbonne(maliroplastique)• Plastique of neck и underchin area (cervicoplastique)•Plastique of chest (mammoplastique)• Plastique of stomach (abdominoplastique, lipocsation)• Plastique of buttocks(gluteroplastique)• Plastique of hands (brahiplastique)•Plastique of shin(cruroplastique and fermoplastique)• Plastique of neck(platismoplastique)•Tightenning of skin (panniculectomia, torsoplastique)•Complex plastique• Reconstractive plastique
Classification of aesthetic operations to the area of implementation :For ladieslipocsation; rinoplastique (correction of nose); mammoplastique blefaroplastiqe(correction of eyes);Face lifting.For men: remplantation of hair ortoplastique rinoplastique; Blefaroplastique; facelifting.
Growth of amount of Aesthetic Plastic operationsAccording to statistics from the American Society forAesthetic PlasticSurgery (ASAPS), the numberof basic procedures in 2009 amounted to nearly 10million, including cosmetic procedures such as Botoxinjections. For comparison, in 2008 there were 10.3million. Maximumnumber of transactions was recorded in2007 - 11.7 million. In 2009, the aestheticsurgery market has beensome decline. In 2010 thisnumber reached approximately 11.1 million (11% from 2009)
Growth of amount of Aesthetic Plastic operations (graphics)Operations ml 12 11 10 operations, ml. 9 2007 г. 2008 г. 2009 г. 2010 г.
Top 4 of plastic operations in Great BritainWomen in the Uk are 85-90% of the visits to plastic surgeons. The most popular operations were named breast augmentation(28%), rhinoplasty (17%), blepharoplasty (11%), liposuction (15%). Amount of operation% chest rinoplastique plastique of eyes Lipocsation 21% 39% 16% 24%
Geographical trends of plastic surgeryThe international society of aesthetic plastic surgery (ISAPS) published the global statistical report "ISAPS Biennial Global Survey (TM)".The study was attended by leading world countries and regions. This is the first study to provide independent and reliable data on the plastic surgery at the international level.The report provides a list of countries in which there is the greatest number of plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures. The United States continues to head the list of leaders. It is also interesting to note, countries that had almost not been associated in the world community with plastic surgery, however, now ingrained position in the traditional centers of beauty.
Geographical trends of plastic surgery (TABLE)1 USA 13 ITALY2 CHIINA 14 FRANCE3 BRASILIA 15 CANADA4 INDIA 16 TAIWAN5 MEXIQUE 17 GREAT BRITAIN6 JAPAN 18 COLUMBIA7 SOUTH COREA 19 GREECE8 GERMAN 20 THAILAND9 TURKEY 21 AUSTRALIA10 SPAIN 22 VENESUEL11 ARGENTIN 23 SAUD ARABIA12 RUSSIA 24 HOLLAND
Geographical trends of plastic surgeryAs can be seen from the table, the united kingdom is not a leader in the production of plastic operations. This type of surgery is developed here in the least degree. In all England there is only 800 doctors- dermatologists! Plastic surgeons say that "the british are not ashamed of their wrinkles. They call it "grow old with dignity. "In englishwomen, traded to the plastic surgeon is not the last place is the question of cost of operation. So 40% of the respondents admitted that gladly have turned to plastic surgery abroad in case, if there would be its price was cheaper. The Representative of the Association James Murphy commented on these results: "Although the patient and recognized that the security for them is a priority, for some reason they still subject to undue influence of price figures procedure. But that is exactly the case, when the miser pays twice - to save on quality of the clinic and skill of the surgeon is not"However, nine-tenths of the total number of patients british plastic surgeons still are women, and the most demanded among them surgery - breast augmentation. In the past year, its popularity has increased by 10%,to 9418 cases.
Plastic surgery in Great BritainDespite the economic crisis, the number of operations on removal of gynecomastia (i.e. excessive increase mammary glands of men) in the past year has grown by more than a quarter (28%) and amounted to a total of 741 case, compared to 581 in 2009-m and 323 in 2008-мгодах, say representatives of the British Association of aesthetic plastic surgeons (BAAPS).These operations are on the second place on popularity among men after rhinoplasty (993 operations in 2010). All these operations represent approximately one-half of the total number of aesthetic surgical interventions, conducted among men, - 3861. operations 800 Plastic Operations 2010 г 700 600 500 ginecomastia 400 rinoplastic 300 others 200 100 0 2008 г. 2009 г. 2010 г.
The british research medical tourismThe national institute for research in the field of health in the Uk finances a new study on the medical tourism.Scientists from the University of York will try to objectively assess the potential advantages and disadvantages of treatment abroad.Investigators will question the travelers who are going to cross the state border for the sake of aesthetic procedures - it dentistry, plastic surgery, cosmetology services. In addition, the study will include details on infertility treatment abroad. The researchers will examine how patients take the decision on operations abroad, what kind of information they use, what web sites to visit, whether listen to the opinion of friends, are involved in the discussions on Internet forums, how well they have been informed before the selection. Patients will also be asked about that, how much successfully passed treatment abroad.
How many earn plastic surgeons (of the total number of registered)Country Profit Profit Profit Profit Profit(region) >250 тыс.$ 250-500 500-750 750-1000 < 1000 тыс.$ тыс.$ тыс.$ тыс.$USA 30,6% 17,3%Western 30,8% 27,4% 20,1%EuropeBrasilia 56% 32,2% -Australia 20,3%Japan 35,7%Corea 33,3%China 55,6%
10 of the most popular aesthetic surgery (according to Forbes)1 - breast augmentationThe number in 2009: 311 957 Difference in% compared to 2008.:−12,3% Average price: 3 860 $ -3 $ 541 Duration of the procedure: 1-2hours 7 -a breast Lift2 LiposuctionThe number in 2009: 283 735 The number in 2009: 98 279 DifferenceThe difference in% compared to 2008.: −16,8% in% compared to 2008.: −15.1% of theAverage cost: 2 803 $ -3 $095 Average value: 4 414 $ Duration of theDuration of the procedure: from 45 minutes to 2 hours procedure: 1,5-3,5 hours3 - Blepharoplasty 8 - Lifting personsThe number in 2009: 149 943 The number in 2009: 94 247 DifferenceThe difference in% compared to 2008.: −23.1%OF in% compared to 2008.: −28.9% of theAverage cost: 2 717 $ Average value: 6 881 $ Duration: 2-3Duration of the procedure: 1-3 hours hours4 - Rhinoplasty 9 - the forehead LiftThe number in 2009: 138 258 The number in 2009: 30 789 DifferenceThe difference in% compared to 2008.: −9,3% in% compared to 2008.: −30.7% of theAverage cost: 4 493 $Duration of the procedure: 1-2 hours Average value: 3 276 $ Duration of the procedure: 1-2 hours5 - Abdominoplasty 10 - Otoplasty (plastic ears)The number in 2009: 923 127 Difference in% compared to 2008.: The number in 2009: 21 817 Difference−13.2% of the Average cost of: 5 381 $ Duration of the procedure: 2-5hours in% compared to 2008.: −12% Average6 - breast Reduction (for women) cost: 3 104 $The number in 2009: 113 511 Difference in% compared to 2008.:−18.9% of the Average price: 5 637 $ Duration of the procedure: 2-4hours
Techniques and procedures However, some researchers are convinced that, over time, the plastic surgery, which now is the prerogative of mostly very wealthy citizens, will be available to all and will become asFurther refinement of the techniques of skin grafts after commonplace thing, as a visit to the hair salon. On this evidencethe second world war, in the 50-ies of the XX century, a and recent statistical data: during the last six months the numbernew quality of anaesthesia (the possibility to conduct of people wishing to improve their appearance surgically hasoperations under local anesthesia) did plastic surgery increased in the Uk by 25 per cent, the number of those whosafer, and, therefore, more common. wish to increase bust - by 33 per cent, down by 18 percent. The number of those, who wants to correct his face, in particular, the shape of the nose, rose by 11%and 20%
CHAPTER 2Plastic Surgery In Australia LILY PAYTYAN
Beginings of Plastic Surgery in Australia Australia Plastic Surgery is one of the pre-eminent plastic surgery facilities in Sydney. At Australia Plastic Surgery, the focus is on quality advanced cosmetic plastic surgery. With this in mind, Dr Barnouti and Dr Kohout emphasize pre- operative education, intra-operative technique, and post-operative comfort. Central to this idea is the treatment of the patient as an individual, tailoring care to the patients particular needs. Dr Kohout and Dr Barnouti are Australian trained Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons with FRACS (Plast); a key credential indicating their complete, extensive training and ongoing educational and ethical standards. Each patient will experience careful consideration by the surgeon and staff at Australia Plastic Surgery. Thorough examination, including a medical history, is utilized to optimize the patients outcome. Realistic expectations are discussed, with in depth conversation about options, risks, and benefits for each procedure considered. It is important that patients do not feel pressured in the decision making process. Careful time and thought is encouraged before deciding about any surgical procedures. The author of this article Lili Paytyan
Australian Plastic Surgery Objective Setting and ParticipantsAbstractOBJECTIVE:To explore, among middle-aged women, the relationship between having everhad cosmetic surgery and the frequency of use of other health services.SETTING AND PARTICIPANTSA nationally representative sample of the "mid-aged" (45-50 years) cohort ofwomen who participated in the 1996 WHA baseline postal survey. Responseswere received from 14 100 women (a response rate of 54%).
RESULTS OF PLASTIC SURGERY IN AUSTRALIARESULTSSeven per cent of women reported ever having had cosmetic surgery.After adjusting for demographic variables, multivariate analysis confirmedthat women who had had cosmetic surgery were significantly more likelyto use health services more frequently (eg, surgical procedures,consultations with specialists and alternative healthcare providers).Cosmetic surgery was also associated with a greater number of chronicillnesses and use of medication for anxiety and sleep problems. visits to surgeons visit 0% 0% surgeons 7% do not visit 93%
CHAPTER 3PLASTIC SURGERY IN USA ANDREY KUZNECOV LILY PAYTYAN
ANCESTOR OF PLASTIC SURGERY IN USA• Johns Hopkins was also home to Dr. John Staige Davis, who was considered by most to be the first American to dedicate his practice solely to plastic surgery. He spent many years of his life working to establish specialized divisions within the practice of plastic surgery, and in 1916 he contributed a landmark paper to Journal of the American Medical Association which described the role of plastic surgery within the medical establishment, again emphasizing the importance of specialization within the field.
THE 1940S AND 50S• In 1946, the time had clearly come for the publishing of a scientific journal targeted specifically for plastic surgeons. In July of that year, the first issue of the Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery became a reality. Since then, the journal has continually served as a forum for the dissemination of knowledge and important discoveries among plastic surgeons and their medical colleagues, all aimed at providing benefit to patients.• With board certification in place and the birth of plastic surgery’s own medical journal, plastic surgery became fully integrated into the medical establishment by 1950, where it began to make its move into the consciousness of the public. Out of the field hospitals of the Korean War came even more advances in reconstructive surgery, including internal wiring techniques to deal with facial fractures, and the use of rotation flaps to correct massive skin injuries and deformities.
MODERN PLASTIC SURGERY IN USA 1960S-80S• The modern history of plastic surgery really started to take shape in the 1960s and the 1970s. Plastic surgeons were moving to the forefront of the medical establishment, including one plastic surgeon who was appointed Surgeon General in 1969, and another who won a Nobel Prize.• There were also many significant scientific developments during this time. Silicone was a newly created substance which was growing in popularity as a staple of certain plastic surgery procedures. Initially, it was used to treat skin imperfections. Then, in 1962, Dr. Thomas Cronin created and unveiled a new breast implant device which was made from silicone. Over the next decade or so, silicone implants were developed for use in just about every imaginable part of the face and body.• In the 1980s, plastic surgeons and plastic surgery advocates made a big push to expand public awareness and improve public perception of plastic surgery. This increase in both the quantity and quality of information available to consumers, together with the economic boom of the 1980s, began to make plastic surgery more accessible to mainstream America.
PLASTIC SURGERY IN USA TODAY• In the 2000s, cosmetic surgery has enjoyed an explosion in popularity, and medical advances have made possible reconstructive feats that were once only a dream of what might one day be. In this age of accelerated communication, the internet and television have gotten in on the game, and we can now view just about any kind of plastic surgery procedure from the comfort of our own homes.• Currently, the most important trend in plastic surgery is a move toward less invasive procedures designed to stave off the visible signs of aging. In fact, the most popular procedures at this time entail the use of injectable substances, such as facial wrinkle fillersand, most notably, Botox. It is estimated that there are over 1.1 million botox injections administered in the U.S. every year, and that number is steadily growing.• Even among plastic surgeons themselves, there has been a considerable ethical debate afoot concerning the advent of “Plastic Surgery Reality TV” The television show “Extreme Makeover”, while popular, has been the subject of some controversy. How much is too much, and what sort of values are we teaching through programming like this?• Of course, several other shows with plastic surgery themes have followed in the footsteps of "Extreme Makeover". Despite the ongoing debates about their merits, there is no doubt that people are thinking and talking about plastic surgery more than ever before in its history. We are all better educated as consumers about the potential risks and rewards of plastic surgery, and the stigma that was once attached to cosmetic surgery is falling by the wayside.
CONCLUSION• We think that plastic operations have some pluses such a minusesOn the one hand you can see that• You have to suffer in the name of fashionBut everybody want to have beautifulappearance in this worldBut not everybody allow to themselves spend ahuge amount of money for their beauty (prettyappearance)
THE END PRESENTED BY LILY PAYTYANANDREY KUZNECOV