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Dynamic spectrum and the 
race for mobile capacity 
29th October 2014 
(c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014
(c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 
Agenda 
• Increasing role for licence exempt spectrum sharing 
in serving the growi...
Anytime, anywhere on a mobile 
device ….. 
• Mobile devices are becoming the 
dominant means of access to a 
growing host ...
Capacity is important but there 
are other factors 
Wireless access networks 
WAN + LAN 
(c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited ...
Spectrum availability is critical to 
meeting expectations for wireless 
.47-.79 GHz .8 .9 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.6 
GSM 
GSM 
3G 
...
Licence exempt access is now a key 
tool in meeting mobile demand 
• Licence exempt networks have taken an 
increasing sha...
Wi-Fi family tree 
(c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 
802.11b 
11 Mbps , 20 MHz DSSS, 
Band : 2.4 GHz 
802.11a 
54 Mbp...
5 GHz is good for adding capacity 
Band Capacity 
(MHz) 
Status 
5150 to 5250 MHz 100 the “new global band” 
5250 to 5350 ...
60 GHz – massive additional 
licence-exempt capacity 
• Opportunity to deploy 
large additional Wi-Fi 
capacity 
• Fits we...
Adding more sub-5 GHz capacity 
depends on more efficient sharing 
• Although spectrum is fully allocated, 
much is left u...
Lower frequencies help fill coverage 
gaps and enhance capacity 
(c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 
Source: BT R&D 
Si...
TV white spaces - global opportunity 
to access lower frequencies 
• UHF frequencies have bee allocated for TV 
broadcasti...
Dynamic Spectrum Access can enable a 
full range of business models 
Facilitates centralised 
infrastructure investment 
(...
IEEE 802.11af adds TV white 
spaces to the Wi-Fi band family 
• First wireless LAN standard using geo-location 
databases ...
Three bands improve scalability of 
Wi-Fi coverage 
10-20 metres 
Kilometres 
(c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 
TV Wh...
Triple-band Wi-Fi set to become 
the new norm 
• Adding 802.11 af to standard Wi-Fi 
brings TV white spaces coverage 
and ...
(c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 
Summary 
• Increasing personal connectivity is driving 
demand for more capacity an...
(c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 
Thank you 
• Contact: 
Andrew@larkhillconsult.co.uk 
About Larkhill 
18
Further reading 
• Background material and information about pilots 
etc. Dynamic Spectrum Alliance 
• The Centre for Whit...
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Dynamic Spectrum Access and the race for mobile capacity

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An overview of how dynamic spectrum access enables the latest generation of Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11af ) to achieve greater coverage and capacity

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Dynamic Spectrum Access and the race for mobile capacity

  1. 1. Dynamic spectrum and the race for mobile capacity 29th October 2014 (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014
  2. 2. (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 Agenda • Increasing role for licence exempt spectrum sharing in serving the growing mobile data demand • Importance of lower frequencies – significance of TV white spaces and dynamic spectrum access • What the arrival of 802.11af and triple band access points will mean for Wi-Fi
  3. 3. Anytime, anywhere on a mobile device ….. • Mobile devices are becoming the dominant means of access to a growing host of online services • Tablets and smartphones have broadened Internet use • As services use higher quality images & video, wireless network capacity needs to rise…. • Spectrum is a key input … (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014
  4. 4. Capacity is important but there are other factors Wireless access networks WAN + LAN (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 4 Broadband Internet of Things Capacity Coverage Flexibility Resilience
  5. 5. Spectrum availability is critical to meeting expectations for wireless .47-.79 GHz .8 .9 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.6 GSM GSM 3G LTE Wi-FI LTE • Access to spectrum is key to extracting value from wireless technology • Harmonised access enables economies of scale in equipment • Wider bands enable greater performance – affecting the dimensioning of networks • Lower frequencies enable better coverage • Future networks need to straddle multiple bands to deliver the best possible connectivity (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 to users wherever they are Frequency 1GHz 2GHz 3.5GHz TV + 802.11af Radio 200 MHz 600 THz
  6. 6. Licence exempt access is now a key tool in meeting mobile demand • Licence exempt networks have taken an increasing share of mobile data traffic • Licence exemption (LE) is a powerful tool for wireless innovation • It enables flexible, ad-hoc and device-to-device (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 direct links • Until now, LE has been confined to short range applications & higher frequencies • Dynamic spectrum access technology allows higher transmission power according to location & safe sharing with licensed users Source: TCS-Sensor Lab 6
  7. 7. Wi-Fi family tree (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 802.11b 11 Mbps , 20 MHz DSSS, Band : 2.4 GHz 802.11a 54 Mbps, 20 MHz OFDM Band : 5 GHz 802.11g 54 Mbps, 20 MHz OFDM Band : 2.4 GHz 802.11n 600 Mbps, 20/40 MHz, OFDM + MIMO Bands: 2.4 or 5 GHz 802.11af 600 Mbps Band: TVWS 802.11ac 1.3 Gbps Band: 5 GHz 802.11ad 6 Gbps Band: 60 GHZ WiGig .47-.79 (UHF) 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 60 Frequency (GHz) .47-.79 (UHF) 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 60 Frequency (GHz) .47-.79 (UHF) 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 60 Frequency (GHz) .47-.79 (UHF) 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 60 Frequency (GHz) Source: Mediatek, Larkhill analysis
  8. 8. 5 GHz is good for adding capacity Band Capacity (MHz) Status 5150 to 5250 MHz 100 the “new global band” 5250 to 5350 MHz 100 OK in many regulatory domains 5350 to 5470 MHz ? problematic everywhere 5470 to 5725 MHz 255 OK in EU; radars limit its use elsewhere 5725 to 5825 MHz 100 OK in EU, but limited to 25 mW 5825 to 5925 MHz EU plans to share with road tolling (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 Source: Mediatek, Larkhill analysis
  9. 9. 60 GHz – massive additional licence-exempt capacity • Opportunity to deploy large additional Wi-Fi capacity • Fits well with urban environments where user density is high and fibre access is widely available • In-room networks • Point to point links for backhaul (line of sight) (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014
  10. 10. Adding more sub-5 GHz capacity depends on more efficient sharing • Although spectrum is fully allocated, much is left unused – geographically and temporally • Dynamic spectrum access uses new technology to enable opportunistic, licence-exempt access • This provides a great opportunity to boost the coverage and capacity that Wi-Fi networks can enable • The Dynamic Spectrum Alliance is taking the technology around the world (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 OK, you can use channels x, y, z Geolocation database My device I’m in Glasgow 10
  11. 11. Lower frequencies help fill coverage gaps and enhance capacity (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 Source: BT R&D Simulation of coverage with 20% access point penetration, in a 1 km2 dense urban area in Fulham, London 11 Wi-Fi , 5 GHz Wi-Fi , 2.4 GHz TV White Spaces – 600 MHz
  12. 12. TV white spaces - global opportunity to access lower frequencies • UHF frequencies have bee allocated for TV broadcasting (470-790 MHz in EU) • Unused gaps in these bands are called TV white spaces (TVWS) • New Dynamic spectrum access technology protects TV reception whilst releasing valuable new capacity for licence-exempt use • Already commercialised in the US, pilot deployments are underway across the rest of the world, as regulators prepare enabling frameworks (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 12 Image source: Ofcom
  13. 13. Dynamic Spectrum Access can enable a full range of business models Facilitates centralised infrastructure investment (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 Scope for innovation Coexistence of multiple users/applications Can protect services against effects of interference Enables infrastructure investment by end users Wi-Fi LTE 13
  14. 14. IEEE 802.11af adds TV white spaces to the Wi-Fi band family • First wireless LAN standard using geo-location databases for access to spectrum • IETF PAWS will be the predominant interface • Adapted from state-of-the-art 802.11ac PHY • 6,7 or 8 MHz TV channels for global applicability • < 35 Mbit/s per TV channel (8 MHz) • < 560 Mbps with 4 TV channels bonded and 4 spatial paths • Enterprise management of database access • Using a Registered Location Secure Server • Maintains a local copy of local white space map (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 8 8 8 8 14 8 Total: 8 MHz 8 8 8 8 Total: 16 MHz 8 8 8 8 Total: 32 MHz 802.11af channel configurations
  15. 15. Three bands improve scalability of Wi-Fi coverage 10-20 metres Kilometres (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 TV White Spaces 5 GHz 2.4 GHz Tens of metres
  16. 16. Triple-band Wi-Fi set to become the new norm • Adding 802.11 af to standard Wi-Fi brings TV white spaces coverage and capacity • New triple band Wi-Fi will help improve coverage and capacity, in urban and rural locations • First prototypes were tested in the Glasgow White Spaces Pilot in June 2014 (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014
  17. 17. (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 Summary • Increasing personal connectivity is driving demand for more capacity and better coverage • Spectrum clearance is too slow, so dynamic spectrum access (DSA) technology enables faster access to extra capacity • DSA will revolutionise spectrum access & management • 3. Initially, enabling the TV white spaces to fill coverage gaps as well as adding valuable capacity, using the new 802.11af standard • Providing a foundation for other bands to be added over time (3.5 GHz is currently under discussion in the US) 17 Source: Microsoft
  18. 18. (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014 Thank you • Contact: Andrew@larkhillconsult.co.uk About Larkhill 18
  19. 19. Further reading • Background material and information about pilots etc. Dynamic Spectrum Alliance • The Centre for White Space Communications (University of Strathclyde) • Microsoft dynamic spectrum access pilots • White spaces applications in Singapore • Airties: 802.11ac is not sufficient (c) Larkhill Consultancy Limited 2014

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