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COMMUNICATION
ACCOMMODATION
THEORY
Based on the research of Howard Giles
WHAT IS ACCOMMODATION?
defined as the ability to adjust, modify, or regulate
one’s behavior in response to another.-
Outline • What is CommunicationAccommodation
Theory?
• Social Psychology and Social Identity
• Assumptions of Communication
AccommodationTheory
• Ways to Adapt
– Convergence
– Divergence
– Overaccommodation
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION
ACCOMMODATION THEORY?
- underlying motivations and consequences of what
happens when two speakers shift their communication styles.
During communication encounters, people will try to
accommodate or adjust their style of speaking to others.
Social
Psychology
and Social
Identity
• Recognizing the importance of the self and its
relationship to group identity, HenriTajfel and
JohnTurner (1986) developed Social Identity
Theory.This theory suggests that a person’s
self-concept is comprised of a personal
identity as well as a social identity.
• Social identity, then, is primarily based on
the comparisons that people make between
in-groups (groups to which a person feels he
or she belongs) and out-groups (groups to
which a person feels he or she does not
belong).
ASSUMPTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
ACCOMMODATION THEORY
• Speech and behavioral similarities and dissimilarities exist in all
conversations.
• The manner in which we perceive the speech and behaviors of
another will determine how we evaluate a conversation.
• Language and behaviors impart information about social status
and group belonging.
• Accommodation varies in its degree of appropriateness, and
norms guide the accommodation process.
Ways
to
Adapt
• Convergence: Merging
Thoughts Ahead
• Divergence:Vive la Différence
• Overaccommodation:
MiscommunicatingWith a
Purpose
CONVERGENCE
Strategy whereby individuals adapt to each other’s communicative
behaviors. People may adapt to speech rate, pause, smiling, eye gaze,
and other verbal and nonverbal behaviors.
DIVERGENCE
When there are no attempts to demonstrate similarities between
speakers. In other words, two people speak to each other with no concern
about accommodating each other.
OVERACCOMMODATION
A term attributed to people who, although acting from good
intentions, are perceived, instead, as patronizing or demeaning.
Sensory
overaccom
modation
• overly adapting to others who
are perceived as limited in their
abilities (physical, linguistic, or
other)
Overaccommodation
Dependency
overaccomm
odation,
• which occurs when a speaker
places the listener in a lower-
status role, and the listener is
made to appear dependent on
the speaker.
Overaccommodation
Intergroup
overaccom
modation
• occurs when speakers place
listeners in cultural groups
without acknowledging
individual uniqueness
Overaccommodation
end

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Communication Accommodation Theory

  • 2. WHAT IS ACCOMMODATION? defined as the ability to adjust, modify, or regulate one’s behavior in response to another.-
  • 3. Outline • What is CommunicationAccommodation Theory? • Social Psychology and Social Identity • Assumptions of Communication AccommodationTheory • Ways to Adapt – Convergence – Divergence – Overaccommodation
  • 4. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ACCOMMODATION THEORY? - underlying motivations and consequences of what happens when two speakers shift their communication styles. During communication encounters, people will try to accommodate or adjust their style of speaking to others.
  • 5. Social Psychology and Social Identity • Recognizing the importance of the self and its relationship to group identity, HenriTajfel and JohnTurner (1986) developed Social Identity Theory.This theory suggests that a person’s self-concept is comprised of a personal identity as well as a social identity. • Social identity, then, is primarily based on the comparisons that people make between in-groups (groups to which a person feels he or she belongs) and out-groups (groups to which a person feels he or she does not belong).
  • 6. ASSUMPTIONS OF COMMUNICATION ACCOMMODATION THEORY • Speech and behavioral similarities and dissimilarities exist in all conversations. • The manner in which we perceive the speech and behaviors of another will determine how we evaluate a conversation. • Language and behaviors impart information about social status and group belonging. • Accommodation varies in its degree of appropriateness, and norms guide the accommodation process.
  • 7. Ways to Adapt • Convergence: Merging Thoughts Ahead • Divergence:Vive la Différence • Overaccommodation: MiscommunicatingWith a Purpose
  • 8. CONVERGENCE Strategy whereby individuals adapt to each other’s communicative behaviors. People may adapt to speech rate, pause, smiling, eye gaze, and other verbal and nonverbal behaviors.
  • 9. DIVERGENCE When there are no attempts to demonstrate similarities between speakers. In other words, two people speak to each other with no concern about accommodating each other.
  • 10. OVERACCOMMODATION A term attributed to people who, although acting from good intentions, are perceived, instead, as patronizing or demeaning.
  • 11. Sensory overaccom modation • overly adapting to others who are perceived as limited in their abilities (physical, linguistic, or other) Overaccommodation
  • 12. Dependency overaccomm odation, • which occurs when a speaker places the listener in a lower- status role, and the listener is made to appear dependent on the speaker. Overaccommodation
  • 13. Intergroup overaccom modation • occurs when speakers place listeners in cultural groups without acknowledging individual uniqueness Overaccommodation
  • 14. end

Editor's Notes

  1. When two people speak, they frequently mimic each other’s speech and behavior. Often, we will talk to another who uses the same language we do, gestures similarly, and even speaks at a similar rate.
  2. Accommodation is usually done unconsciously. We tend to have internal cognitive scripts that we draw on when we find ourselves in conversations with others. In a conversation with a 15-year-old girl, you might find yourself using teen vocabulary; with an 85-year-old, you might slow your speech and use more facial animation.
  3. Communication Accommodation Theory rests on the premise that when speakers interact, they adjust their speech, their vocal patterns, and their gestures to accommodate others.
  4. Intro: it’s important to address the theoretical vehicle that launched Giles’s thinking: Social Identity Theory. One of the central concepts discussed in the research of social psychology is identity (After Reading bullet number 1) According to Giles and friends (2003), “accommodation is fundamental to identity construction” Personal identity - body characteristics, psychological behaviors ; social identity – affiliation with a group (After reading bullet number 2) But how can we connect this to CAT, researchers and theorists in Social Identity suggest that people are “motivated to join the most attractive groups and/or give an advantage to the groups to which one belongs”. We usually find our own in-groups. Note that people strive to acquire or maintain positive social identity, and when social identity is perceived as unsatisfactory, they will either join a group they feel more at home in or make the existing group a more positive experience.
  5. INTRO: Recalling that accommodation is influenced by a number of personal, situational, and cultural circumstances, we identify several assumptions I. These varied experiences and backgrounds will determine the extent to which one person will accommodate another. The more similar our attitudes and beliefs are to those of others, the more we will be attracted to and accommodate those others. E.G. There are cases that older people can’t understand teenagers or even teenagers can’t connect or accommodate older people, since the experiences encountered by both parties are different. Or simply because of GENERATION GAP. But if both of you have similar experiences tendency is conversation and accommodation exist. II. Perception is the process of attending to and interpreting a message, whereas evaluation is the process of judging a conversation. E.G. interview: He gets a sense of the interview atmosphere (perception) and then reacts accordingly/get relaxed or get tensed (evaluation). We may greet someone, for instance, and engage in small talk(perception is normal atmosphere od small talk like chill), but then be surprised when we hear that the other person recently got divorced(evaluation is you react accordingly). III. Specifically, language has the ability to communicate status and group belonging between communicators in a conversation. The language used in a conversation will likely reflect the individual with the higher social status. In addition, group belonging comes into play because inferred in this quotation is a desire to be part of the “dominant” group. E.G. During an interview, interviewer usually is the dominant between the two and is capable to be the dominant person during the conversation. Another example would be social classes black vs white IV. Accommodation can vary in social appropriateness and that accommodation is rooted in norm usage. there are times when accommodating another is important, yet here are also times when accommodation is inappropriate. For instance on one research it found that people from marginalized cultures are usually expected to adapt (accommodate) to others. It is inappropriate because we should not always expect that they should accommodate for us. “Norms put constraints of varying degree . . . on the accommodative moves that are perceived as desirable in an interaction” (p. 253). Therefore, the general norm that a younger person is obedient to an older person suggests that an interviewee will be more accommodative in his communication to an interviewer.
  6. II. from French, literally ‘long live the difference. an expression of approval of difference, especially that between the sexes
  7. Convergence is also based on attraction (Giles, 2008). Usually, when communicators are attracted to others, they will converge in their conversations. Attraction is a broad term that encompasses a number of other characteristics, such as liking, charisma, and credibility.
  8. Divergence is not the same as inattentiveness. Racial and ethnic groups—“deliberately use their language or speech style as a symbolic tactic for maintaining their identity, cultural pride, and distinctiveness” for example, that you are traveling in France; everywhere you go the French people you encounter encourage you to speak French. You are surprised at that until you realize that you, as a visitor, should not expect the French to converge to your language. Finally, although not as often as for the reasons cited previously, divergence is likely to occur because the other in the conversation is viewed to be a “member of undesirable groups, considered to hold noxious attitudes, or display a deplorable appearance”. For example, Pat may also use vocabulary and pronunciation that clearly mark him as a member of the upper-middle class. In each case, the divergence is carried out by the individual who wishes to imply a status difference between the two.
  9. the overaccommodation yields poor communication. Why? Because Although the speaker apparently has the intention of showing respect, the listener perceives it as distracting and disrespectful. There are three types of overaccommodation: sensory overaccommodation, dependency overaccommodation, and intergroup overaccommodation
  10. Example are people with disabilities, sometimes if we over accommodate we make them feel subordinated because of their limited abilities.
  11. The listener also believes that the speaker controls the conversation to demonstrate higher status. For instance, during assimilation into their new communities, many refugees are made to feel subordinate when conversing with others. Although government workers may believe that during their conversations with refugees they are doing what is right (helping refugees understand various procedures and rules associated with documentation), refugees may feel quite dependent on the speaker (immigration official).
  12. After reading This involves speakers lumping listeners into a particular group, failing to treat each person as an individual. At the heart of this overaccommodation is stereotyping, and there can be far-reaching consequences. For example Maxin’s Story – An after Yolanda an kumadto kami Manila nag transfer man laanay kami school for the mean time, just because taga province kami, an mga students didto nag ask kun may internet ba kamo ha iyo or nasakay ba kamo didto hin baka? And with that perception we accommodated some of them negatively. There are serious implications to overaccommodation, including losing motivation for further language acquisition, avoiding conversations, and forming negative attitudes toward speakers and society