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Visual vocab


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AP Bio
Andrew Shaw
Unit 5

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Visual vocab

  1. 1. Visual VocabUnit 5Andrew ShawAP Bio 5th
  2. 2. Codon Sequences of three nucleotides  DNAsequence chromatogram. 3 of the bases equal one codon.
  3. 3. ElongationA cycle in which the polypeptide is elongated by 1 amino acid per cycle.  Elongation adds 1 amino acid
  4. 4. Exon Exonsare the DNA bases that are transcribed into mRNA and  Exonsare the eventually code for bases being amino acids in the copied proteins
  5. 5. Frame Shift Mutationa genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides that is not evenly divisible by three from a DNA sequence  Sickle cell anemia is caused by a frame shift mutation
  6. 6. Helicase Theyare motor proteins that move directionally along a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone, separat ing two nucleic acid strands Does this count…
  7. 7. Initiation Initiation involves the small subunit of the ribosome binding to the 5 end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF).  Initiator proteins break the bonds between the base pairs
  8. 8. Intron Long segments of nucleotides that have no coding information  Sequence of human T intron 7 DNA
  9. 9. Ligase an enzyme that can catalyse the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond  DNA “glue”
  10. 10. Missense Mutationa point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino  this can render the resulting acid[ protein nonfunctional. Such mutations are responsible for diseases such as Epidermolysis bullosa
  11. 11. mRNA a molecule of RNA that encodes a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis  RNA Protein Synthesis Model
  12. 12. Mutagens is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the  The Teenage natural background level. Mutant Ninja Turtles were mutated by a mutagen
  13. 13. Nonsense Mutation pointmutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon  Sickle cell anemia is caused by a nonsense mutation
  14. 14. Nuclease anenzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotide  The enzyme DNA subunits of nucleic nuclease checks acids all the pairs in the DNA chain for any mistakes
  15. 15. Point Mutationa type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material,
  16. 16. Polymerases primary function of a polymerase is the polymerization of new DNA or RNA against an existing DNA or RNA template in the processes of replication and  RNA Polymerase transcription.
  17. 17. Polyribosomesa cluster of ribosomes linked together by a molecule of messenger RNA and forming the site of protein synthesis
  18. 18. Primary Transcript an RNA molecule that has not yet undergone any modification after its synthesis
  19. 19. Primase anenzyme involved in the replication of DNA
  20. 20. Promotora region of DNA that facilitates the transcription of a particular gene
  21. 21. Redundancy(in DNA) DNAthat contains repeated sequences at each end called terminal repeats
  22. 22. Replication biologicalprocess that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA
  23. 23. Semiconservative model themechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells.
  24. 24. Spliceosomea complex of snRNA and protein subunits that removes introns from a transcribed pre-mRNA (hnRNA) segment
  25. 25. TATA Box isa DNA sequence that indicates the point at which a genetic sequence can be read and decoded.
  26. 26. Telomerasea ribonucleoprotein that is an enzyme which adds DNA sequence repeats
  27. 27. Termination Eukaryotes initiate DNA replication at multiple points in the chromosome, so replication forks meet and terminate at many points in the chromosome
  28. 28. Terminator sectionof genetic sequence that marks the end of gene or operon on genomic DNA for transcription.
  29. 29. Transcription Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA
  30. 30. Transcription Factors is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereb y controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to mRNA
  31. 31. Translation the cell uses messenger RNA to produce proteins
  32. 32. Translocation Chromosomal translocation, that is a chromosomal segment is moved from one position to another, either within the same chromosome or to another chromosome.
  33. 33. Transformation the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, incorporatio n and expression of exogenous genetic material (exogenous DNA) from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membrane
  34. 34. tRNA an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 73 to 93 nucleotides in length, that is used in biology to bridge the four-letter genetic code (ATCG) in messenger RNA
  35. 35. Wobblea non-Watson- Crick base pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules