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Personality disorders


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Define what constitutes a “personality disorder”.
Explore the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality.
Review the three (3) major personality “clusters”.
Look at the ten (10) individual personality disorders.

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Personality disorders

  2. 2. Goals  Define what constitutes a “personality disorder”.  Explore the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality.  Review the three (3) major personality “clusters”.  Look at the ten (10) individual personality disorders.
  3. 3. Disclaimer The following information may lead you to diagnose your significant other, friends, children, in-laws, siblings, parents, boss, coworkers, bank teller, pet…or even worse… yourself! Consume with care.
  4. 4. Core areas of Personality Disorders Personality disorders involve: 1. 2. 3. 4. Extreme and distorted thought patterns. Problematic emotional response patterns. Pattern of impulse control problems. Pattern of significant interpersonal problems. These long term patterns are not better explained by culture, another mental health disorder, chemical use or a physical illness/condition.
  5. 5. Personality Disorder Basics  Individuals with personality disorders usually do not seek help/treatment on their own. Often driven by:       Other Disorders (depression, anxiety, substance) Employment or legal issues Behavioral Issues (fights, gambling, alcohol/drugs, sexual acting out, disordered eating, etc.) Although difficult to treat, evidence indicates that both medication and therapy can work. Some personality disorders lessen during middle age (without treatment) while others continue throughout life despite intervention. Personality disorders are diagnosed based on psychological evaluation (including testing), personal history and severity of symptoms.
  6. 6. Five Factor Model (FFM) The Five Factor Model are five general dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. They are spectrum based with these five areas deemed “healthy” aspects of personality:  Openness (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious) Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience.  Conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. easygoing/careless) Tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior.
  7. 7. Five Factor Model (FFM)    Extraversion (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved) Energy, positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others. Agreeableness (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind) A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic. Neuroticism (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident) A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability. Curious where you fall on the spectrum? Take the Five Factor Personality Test
  8. 8. DSM-5, Cluster A – Odd or Eccentric    Paranoid - Hypersensitive and easily insulted; they scan their environment for clues or suggestions that validate their ideas/biases. Persistently holds grudges and are very suspicious. Schizoid - Indifferent towards social relationships; lean heavily towards a solitary lifestyle. Often indifferent to praise or criticism with an emotional flatness or coldness. Schizotypal - Often display odd or eccentric behaviors with inappropriate or constricted affect. May have a strong/vivid fantasy world and/or odd beliefs (clairvoyance, telepathy, etc.). Usually lack close friends and are socially anxious.
  9. 9. Cluster A – Odd or Eccentric
  10. 10. DSM 5, Cluster B – Dramatic, Emotional or Erratic     Antisocial - Disregard for the rights of others that begins in childhood/early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Sneaky, impulsive, deceitful behaviors with no remorse and/or indifference towards behaviors. Narcissistic - Grandiosity with a need for admiration and a lack of empathy for others. Preoccupied with competence, power and prestige. Often envious of others with a sense of entitlement and will exploit others to meet their needs. Histrionic - Excessive need for approval and desire to be the center of attention. Are often animated, dramatic, seductive or flirtatious. Feels relationships are closer than what they may actually be. Borderline - Poor self-image/identity with an abnormal level of mood swings. Chaotic and unbalanced in their interpersonal relationships with fear of abandonment. Will swing from worshipping someone to demonizing them. High levels of impulsive behaviors (shopping, sex, substances, etc.).
  11. 11. DSM-5 Cluster B – Dramatic, Emotional & Erratic
  12. 12. DSM-5, Cluster C – Anxious or Fearful    Avoidant - Ongoing pattern of social inhibition coupled with feelings of inadequacy. Have an extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation and will avoid social interactions. Carry feelings of being socially inept and unlikeable. Dependent - View the world as being uncaring and dangerous and themselves as inadequate and weak. Feel unable to cope on their own and have difficulties making everyday decisions without extensive advice from others. Obsessive-compulsive - Preoccupied with rules, lists, details, order (etc.). Are often rigid in their belief system, have strict morals and want things done exactly their way. May also hoard items of no value and be very tightfisted with money.
  13. 13. Cluster C – Anxious or Fearful
  14. 14. Prevalence Rates Cluster A, Odd or Eccentric  Paranoid, 2.3 - 4.4%  Schizoid, 3.1 - 4.9%  Schizotypal, 3.9 - 4.6% Cluster B, Dramatic, Emotional or Erratic  Antisocial, .2 - 3.3%  Borderline, 1.6 - 5.9%  Histrionic, 1.8%  Narcissistic, 6.2% Cluster C, Anxious or Fearful  Avoidant, 2.4%  Dependent, .49 - .6%  Obsessive Compulsive, 2.1 - 7.9% Source: DSM-5
  15. 15. Next Up Treatment for personality disorders and the comorbid conditions that can accompany them. Andy Novinska - MS, LCPC, CADC