Introduction to Linked Data
E-Culture Working Group
APAN Bandung 2014
Andrew Howard - The Australian National University
TGN
yago:
dbpedia:

skos:
rdfs:

rdf:
dc:

foaf:

dcterms:
owl:
xsd:
Demo
•

Find and display places of interest within some distance of the
current location on a map with the data retrieved ...
The problem space
•

How to classify a wide range of information about something in a
way that can express the physical, c...
Metadata
Metadata
ExifTool:ExifToolVersion='9.27'
System:FileName='DSC02682.jpg'
System:Directory='.'
System:FileSize='6.9...
Data
Data
!

Face1
Name
Biography
Face2
Face1
Metadata
ExifTool:ExifToolVersion='9.27'
System:FileName='DSC02682.jpg'
Syst...
Exploring connections
Data
!

Face1
Name

Linked data
!

Retrieve the Biography by searching for a
Name.
Biography

!

!

...
The Foundations
!

XMLSchema, RDF and Dublin Core
URI
•

universal resource identifier!
•
•

•

Just like a URL, describes a document location
Adds a description of concepts...
Namespaces
•

Also known as prefixes

•

Defines a more readable form/abbreviation for a URI
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1...
Description

Namespace

dc

Dublin Core Metadata Element
Set

dcam

Dublin Core abstract
model

dcmitype

Dublin Core Type...
Finding all the pieces
•

Schema are published in a variety of forms
•

RDF/XML, Turtle, OWL, JSON, HTML

•

The location ...
Resources
•

openstreetmap.org
openweatherdata.org
sensorpedia.com

•

Examples used in this
presentation

•

•

•

visual...
XML Schema
Primitive Datatypes
string
boolean
decimal
float
double
duration*
dateTime
time
date
gYearMonth
gYear
gMonthDay
...
XML Schema
Primitive Datatypes
Constraining facets
!

length
minLength
maxLength
pattern
enumeration
whitespace
preserve, ...
XML Schema
Derived Datatypes
normalizedString
token
language
NMTOKEN
NMTOKENS
Name
NCName
ID
IDREF
IDREFS
ENTITY
ENTITIES
...
The building blocks for describing descriptions

rdfs:
(RDF Schema)

rdf:
(RDF Syntax)

xsd:
(XML Schema Description Primi...
rdfs:
(RDF Schema)
xsd:
(XML Schema Description Primitive and Derived Datatypes )

rdf:
(RDF Syntax)
Inference Graph
dcterms:
(Qualified Dublin Core)

dcmitypes:
(Qualified Dublin Core)

dc: (Unqualified Dublin Core)
rdfs:
(RDF Schema)
xsd:
(...
Dublin Core
•

The primary description system for most library collections

•

Two forms
•

Simple [ dc: ]
•

•

Defines th...
Simple Dublin Core [ dc: ]
Title

Format

Creator

Identifier

Subject

Source

Description

Language

Publisher

Relation
...
Simple Dublin Core [ dc: ]
•

Identifying Simple and Qualified Dublin core:
•

Simple Dublin Core fields use mixed case (for...
Qualified Dublin Core [ dcterms: ]
•

A refinement of the original Dublin Core standard to refine, qualify
and narrow the str...
Qualified Dublin Core (continued) [dcterms:]
•

abstract

•

coverage!

•

hasFormat

•

isVersionOf

•

requires

•

acces...
owl:
(OWL Schema Vocabulary)
dcterms:
(Qualified Dublin Core)

dc:(elements)
(Qualified Dublin Core)

DC: (Unqualified Dublin...
skos: (SKOS Vocabulary)
grddl: (Gleaning Resource Descriptions from
Dialects of Languages)

owl:
(OWL Schema Vocabulary)

...
Foundation Schema
Foundation Schema
skos: (SKOS Vocabulary)
grddl: (Gleaning Resource Descriptions from
Dialects of Langua...
Crosswalk
schema: <—> dbpedia:

Crosswalk
dbpedia: <—> frbr:

frbr:
(FRBR subjects)

schema:
(schema.org subjects)

dbpedi...
Crosswalks: Linking Data
•

Define sameAs relationships between schema classes and
properties

•

schema1:SubjectA

•

for ...
Controlled Vocabularies
•

Controlled Vocabularies are a set of common definitions
•

Typically a key/value/label combinati...
Controlled Vocabulary examples
Vocabulary

Description

MESH

The set of labeled concepts specified by the Medical Subject ...
RDF Summary
•

XMLSchema
•

Data types

•

RDF Syntax & Schema

•

Dublin Core
•

Simple & Qualified

•

Controlled Vocabul...
How do you use it
How to describe
!

Face2
Face1

Face
Name
Biography
Institutional affiliation
!

Event
Name
Location
Name...
Information Axis

Places

Other

Description

People

Spatial

Objects
Events

Biographical,
Social

Subjects

Physical
!
...
Information Axis

Places

Spatial
Temporal

People

Objects
Events

Biographical,
Social

Subjects

Physical
!

Distinct

...
Mt Fuji

Mt Fuji
Face1

Face2
What to Describe
•

Dependant on the context of the asset
•

What information is important to describe

•

Who is the targ...
•

Person
•
•

Biography

•

Institutional Affiliation

•
•

Name

Face image

Face1

Event
•

Time and Date

•

Web site a...
Describing content
•

Time, Date and Location

•

Mt Fuji
•
•

Snow coverage

•
•

Geographic

Volcanic activity

Environm...
How to describe
•

Schema selection
•

Media specific schema (exif, XMP, MP3 or other tags)

•

Use Qualified Dublin Core as...
Derived information
•

Image metadata provides lat and lng of the
camera position
•

Mt Fuji lat and lng are known
Mt Fuji...
Derived information
•

Is this Face known
•

if known: Can we find other images of this Person

•

Face2

Face1

if not kno...
What can you do with this stuff ?
•

http://linkeddata.org
Demo 2
•

Changing the information displayed in the map information boxes

•

Demo 1 review
•

"label", "lng", "lat", "abs...
•

Environment

•

Economy

•

Health

•

Energy

•

Society

•

Demographics
RDF tools
•

Open Source toolkits for RDF manipulation
•
•

•

Parsers, Triple Stores, SPARQL endpoint, OAI-PMH
Evaluated:...
RDF Tools Redland RDF
•

Common namespace definitions for processing RDF/XML and generating
Turtle with rapper

!

rapper -...
Working Group Activity
•

Please translate the qualified Dublin Core schema into your local
language
Base schema
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefix
@prefi...
prefix.cc
Namespace lookup for RDF developers
yago
rdf
foaf
dbp
owl
dc
rdfs
dbo
rss
skos

geo
sc
gldp
fb
geonames
sioc
gr
x...
Summary
•

Basis of Linked Open Data
•

Foundation schema

•

Subject schema
•

Dublin Core

•

What and How to describe

...
APAN 2014 Bandung E-Culture Working Group Introduction to Linked Data
APAN 2014 Bandung E-Culture Working Group Introduction to Linked Data
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APAN 2014 Bandung E-Culture Working Group Introduction to Linked Data

  1. 1. Introduction to Linked Data E-Culture Working Group APAN Bandung 2014 Andrew Howard - The Australian National University
  2. 2. TGN yago: dbpedia: skos: rdfs: rdf: dc: foaf: dcterms: owl: xsd:
  3. 3. Demo • Find and display places of interest within some distance of the current location on a map with the data retrieved from Wikipedia SELECT DISTINCT (str(?label) as ?label) ?lng ?lat ?abstract ?link ? thumbnail (GROUP_CONCAT(?type; separator=',') as ?types) WHERE { ?res <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#long> ?lng. ?res <http:// www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#lat> ?lat. ?res rdfs:label ? label . ?res foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf ?link. ?res <http://dbpedia.org/ ontology/thumbnail> ?thumbnail. ?res <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/ abstract> ?abstract. ?res rdf:type ?type_url . ?type_url rdfs:label ? type . MINUS {?res a <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/PopulatedPlace>}. FILTER ((?lng > 107.60059118270874 AND ?lng < 107.61589050292967 AND ?lat > -6.920153640158125 AND ?lat < -6.909630654323788) AND LANG(?label)='en' AND LANG(?abstract)='en' AND LANG(?type)='en') } Limit 1000
  4. 4. The problem space • How to classify a wide range of information about something in a way that can express the physical, conceptual and structural which can describe the information encoded, supports different languages, is machine readable, can be extended to express additional information and handles a spectrum of detail.
  5. 5. Metadata Metadata ExifTool:ExifToolVersion='9.27' System:FileName='DSC02682.jpg' System:Directory='.' System:FileSize='6.9 MB' System:FileModifyDate='2013:10:23 16:38:59+11:00' System:FileAccessDate='2014:01:16 11:19:57+11:00' System:FileInodeChangeDate='2013:10:23 20:00:44+11:00' System:FilePermissions='rw-r--r-x' File:FileType='JPEG'! File:MIMEType='image/jpeg' File:CurrentIPTCDigest='05d527abc9c08dc95c357f7c93492053' File:ExifByteOrder='Big-endian (Motorola, MM)' File:ImageWidth='3072'! File:ImageHeight='2304'! File:EncodingProcess='Baseline DCT, Huffman coding' File:BitsPerSample='8' File:ColorComponents='3' File:YCbCrSubSampling='YCbCr4:4:4 (1 1)' JFIF:JFIFVersion='1.01' JFIF:ResolutionUnit='inches' JFIF:XResolution='72' JFIF:YResolution='72' IPTC:CodedCharacterSet='UTF8' IPTC:ApplicationRecordVersion='2' IPTC:ObjectName='DSC02682' IPTC:Keywords='From MobileMe' Photoshop:IPTCDigest='05d527abc9c08dc95c357f7c93492053' ICC-header:ProfileCMMType='Lino' ICC-header:ProfileVersion='2.1.0' ICC-header:ProfileClass='Display Device Profile' ICC-header:ColorSpaceData='RGB ' ICC-header:ProfileConnectionSpace='XYZ ' ICC-header:ProfileDateTime='1998:02:09 06:49:00' ICC-header:ProfileFileSignature='acsp' ICC-header:PrimaryPlatform='Microsoft Corporation' ICC-header:CMMFlags='Not Embedded, Independent' ICC-header:DeviceManufacturer='IEC ' ICC-header:DeviceModel='sRGB' ICC-header:DeviceAttributes='Reflective, Glossy, Positive, Color' ICC-header:RenderingIntent='Perceptual' ICC-header:ConnectionSpaceIlluminant='0.9642 1 0.82491' ICC-header:ProfileCreator='HP ' ICC-header:ProfileID='0' ICC_Profile:ProfileCopyright='Copyright (c) 1998 HewlettPackard Company' ICC_Profile:ProfileDescription='sRGB IEC61966-2.1' ICC_Profile:MediaWhitePoint='0.95045 1 1.08905' ICC_Profile:MediaBlackPoint='0 0 0' ICC_Profile:RedMatrixColumn='0.43607 0.22249 0.01392' ICC_Profile:GreenMatrixColumn='0.38515 0.71687 0.09708' ICC_Profile:BlueMatrixColumn='0.14307 0.06061 0.7141' ICC_Profile:DeviceMfgDesc='IEC http://www.iec.ch' ICC_Profile:DeviceModelDesc='IEC 61966-2.1 Default RGB colour space - sRGB' ICC_Profile:ViewingCondDesc='Reference Viewing Condition in IEC61966-2.1' ICC_Profile:Luminance='76.03647 80 87.12462' ICC_Profile:Technology='Cathode Ray Tube Display' ICC_Profile:RedTRC='(Binary data 2060 bytes, use -b option to extract)' ICC_Profile:GreenTRC='(Binary data 2060 bytes, use -b option to extract)' ICC_Profile:BlueTRC='(Binary data 2060 bytes, use -b option to extract)' ICC-view:ViewingCondIlluminant='19.6445 20.3718 16.8089' ICC-view:ViewingCondSurround='3.92889 4.07439 3.36179' ICC-view:ViewingCondIlluminantType='D50' ICC-meas:MeasurementObserver='CIE 1931' ICC-meas:MeasurementBacking='0 0 0' ICC-meas:MeasurementGeometry='Unknown (0)' ICC-meas:MeasurementFlare='0.999%' ICC-meas:MeasurementIlluminant='D65' IFD0:Make='SONY' IFD0:Model='DSC-W70' IFD0:Orientation='Horizontal (normal)' IFD0:XResolution='72' IFD0:YResolution='72' IFD0:ResolutionUnit='inches' IFD0:ModifyDate='2009:09:18 17:24:05' ExifIFD:ExposureTime='1/100' ExifIFD:FNumber='2.8' ExifIFD:ExposureProgram='Program AE' ExifIFD:ISO='640' ExifIFD:ExifVersion='0221' ExifIFD:DateTimeOriginal='2009:09:18 17:24:05' ExifIFD:CreateDate='2009:09:18 17:24:05' ExifIFD:CompressedBitsPerPixel='8' ExifIFD:ExposureCompensation='0' ExifIFD:MaxApertureValue='2.8' ExifIFD:MeteringMode='Center-weighted average' ExifIFD:LightSource='Unknown' ExifIFD:Flash='Off, Did not fire' ExifIFD:FocalLength='6.3 mm' ExifIFD:FlashpixVersion='0100' ExifIFD:ColorSpace='sRGB' ExifIFD:ExifImageWidth='3072' ExifIFD:ExifImageHeight='2304' ExifIFD:CustomRendered='Normal' ExifIFD:ExposureMode='Auto' ExifIFD:WhiteBalance='Auto' ExifIFD:SceneCaptureType='Standard' ExifIFD:Contrast='Normal' ExifIFD:Saturation='Normal' ExifIFD:Sharpness='Normal' XMP-x:XMPToolkit='XMP Core 4.4.0' XMP-dc:Description='' XMP-dc:Subject='[From MobileMe]' XMP-dc:Title='DSC02682' Composite:Aperture='2.8' Composite:ImageSize='3072x2304' Composite:ShutterSpeed='1/100' Composite:FocalLength35efl='6.3 mm' Composite:LightValue='6.9'
  6. 6. Data Data ! Face1 Name Biography Face2 Face1 Metadata ExifTool:ExifToolVersion='9.27' System:FileName='DSC02682.jpg' System:Directory='.' System:FileSize='6.9 MB' System:FileModifyDate='2013:10:23 16:38:59+11:00' System:FileAccessDate='2014:01:16 11:19:57+11:00' System:FileInodeChangeDate='2013:10:2 3 20:00:44+11:00' System:FilePermissions='rw-r--r-x' File:FileType='JPEG'! File:MIMEType='image/jpeg' File:CurrentIPTCDigest='05d527abc9c08 dc95c357f7c93492053' File:ExifByteOrder='Big-endian (Motorola, MM)' File:ImageWidth='3072'! File:ImageHeight='2304'! File:EncodingProcess='Baseline DCT, Huffman coding' File:BitsPerSample='8' File:ColorComponents='3' File:YCbCrSubSampling='YCbCr4:4:4 (1 1)' JFIF:JFIFVersion='1.01' JFIF:ResolutionUnit='inches' JFIF:XResolution='72' JFIF:YResolution='72' IPTC:CodedCharacterSet='UTF8' IPTC:ApplicationRecordVersion='2' IPTC:ObjectName='DSC02682' IPTC:Keywords='From MobileMe' Photoshop:IPTCDigest='05d527abc9c08 dc95c357f7c93492053' ICC-header:ProfileCMMType='Lino' ICC-header:ProfileVersion='2.1.0' ICC-header:ProfileClass='Display Device Profile' ICC-header:ColorSpaceData='RGB ' ICCheader:ProfileConnectionSpace='XYZ ' ICC-header:ProfileDateTime='1998:02:09 06:49:00' ICC-header:ProfileFileSignature='acsp' ICC-header:PrimaryPlatform='Microsoft Corporation' ICC-header:CMMFlags='Not Embedded, Independent' ICC-header:DeviceManufacturer='IEC ' ICC-header:DeviceModel='sRGB' ICC-header:DeviceAttributes='Reflective, Glossy, Positive, Color' ICC-header:RenderingIntent='Perceptual' ICCheader:ConnectionSpaceIlluminant='0.96 42 1 0.82491' ICC-header:ProfileCreator='HP ' ICC-header:ProfileID='0' ICC_Profile:ProfileCopyright='Copyright (c) 1998 Hewlett-Packard Company' ICC_Profile:ProfileDescription='sRGB IEC61966-2.1' ICC_Profile:MediaWhitePoint='0.95045 1 1.08905' ICC_Profile:MediaBlackPoint='0 0 0' ICC_Profile:RedMatrixColumn='0.43607 0.22249 0.01392' ICC_Profile:GreenMatrixColumn='0.38515 0.71687 0.09708' ! Face2 Name Biography ! Event Name Event Location Event Date ! Copyright and attribution
  7. 7. Exploring connections Data ! Face1 Name Linked data ! Retrieve the Biography by searching for a Name. Biography ! ! ! Face2 Name ! ! Biography ! Face(1):Name and Face(2):Name were at an Event at a Location and Date. Event Name Event Location Event Date ! ! ! Copyright and attribution ! ! Find others who were also at the Event or at the same Location on the same Date.
  8. 8. The Foundations ! XMLSchema, RDF and Dublin Core
  9. 9. URI • universal resource identifier! • • • Just like a URL, describes a document location Adds a description of concepts A pointer to a resource and concept ! http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date ! http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# ! http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Class ! http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Building/floorArea
  10. 10. Namespaces • Also known as prefixes • Defines a more readable form/abbreviation for a URI http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#Class http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Building/floorArea ! ! @prefix dc: @prefix rdfs: @prefix dbp: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> . ! dc:date rdfs:Class dbp:Building/floorArea
  11. 11. Description Namespace dc Dublin Core Metadata Element Set dcam Dublin Core abstract model dcmitype Dublin Core Type Vocabulary dcterms Dublin Core Metadata Terms doap Description of a Project (DOAP) vocabulary foaf Friend of a Friend (FOAF) vocabulary grddl Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages owl The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary (OWL 2) rdf The RDF Vocabulary (RDF) rdfs The RDF Schema vocabulary (RDFS) Ontology for a few terms of the DCMI abstract model from the http://purl.org/dc/dcam/ namespace The Description of a Project (DOAP) vocabulary, described using W3C RDF Schema and the Web Ontology Language. This ontology partially describes the built-in classes and properties that together form the basis of the RDF/XML syntax of OWL 2. The content of this ontology is based on Tables 6.1 and 6.2 in Section 6.4 of the OWL 2 RDF-Based Semantics specification, available at http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-rdf-based-semantics/. skos SKOS Vocabulary An RDF vocabulary for describing the basic structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading lists, taxonomies, 'folksonomies', other types of controlled vocabulary, and also concept schemes embedded in glossaries and terminologies. vann A vocabulary for annotating vocabulary descriptions Describes a vocabulary for annotating descriptions of vocabularies with examples and usage notes. vs SemWeb Vocab Status ontology This vocabulary was created in the FOAF project, based on experience with FOAF, Dublin Core and other early RDF vocabularies. Deployment experience shows that changing namespace URIs is expensive and unrewarding, so this vocabulary provides terms to support in-place evolution of structured data vocabularies. By indicating status at the level of terms rather than vocabularies, dictionary-style, fine grained improvements become easier. Different organizations and parties can agree or disagree on the status of a vocabulary term; however the status published alongside the term may deserve special attention. Future work could include patterns for citing announcements and decisions, or using SKOS to decentralise the extension of the basic status levels. xsd XML Schema description
  12. 12. Finding all the pieces • Schema are published in a variety of forms • RDF/XML, Turtle, OWL, JSON, HTML • The location specified in the prefix typically negotiates content • if you use a browser you see the documentation • if you use a rdf tool you get RDF/XML or Turtle • No single canonical source • No global common definitions of prefixes
  13. 13. Resources • openstreetmap.org openweatherdata.org sensorpedia.com • Examples used in this presentation • • • visualizing.org • ! dbpedia.org http://www.ozemu.com/apan37/linkeddata/ • • vocab.org prefix.cc
  14. 14. XML Schema Primitive Datatypes string boolean decimal float double duration* dateTime time date gYearMonth gYear gMonthDay gDay gMonth hexBinary base64Binary anyURI QNAME* NOTATION ! xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive Datatypes )
  15. 15. XML Schema Primitive Datatypes Constraining facets ! length minLength maxLength pattern enumeration whitespace preserve, replace, collapse xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive Datatypes )
  16. 16. XML Schema Derived Datatypes normalizedString token language NMTOKEN NMTOKENS Name NCName ID IDREF IDREFS ENTITY ENTITIES integer nonPositiveInteger negativeInteger long int short byte nonNegativeInteger unsignedLong unsignedInt unsignedShort unsignedByte positiveInteger xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive Datatypes )
  17. 17. The building blocks for describing descriptions rdfs: (RDF Schema) rdf: (RDF Syntax) xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive and Derived Datatypes )
  18. 18. rdfs: (RDF Schema) xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive and Derived Datatypes ) rdf: (RDF Syntax)
  19. 19. Inference Graph
  20. 20. dcterms: (Qualified Dublin Core) dcmitypes: (Qualified Dublin Core) dc: (Unqualified Dublin Core) rdfs: (RDF Schema) xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive and Derived Datatypes ) rdf: (RDF Syntax)
  21. 21. Dublin Core • The primary description system for most library collections • Two forms • Simple [ dc: ] • • Defines the names of descriptions (called elements or fields) but no types Qualified [ dcterms: ] • Defines both the names of the elements and the type of the data which should be used. Compatible with and extends Simple. • Use Qualified Dublin Core when possible
  22. 22. Simple Dublin Core [ dc: ] Title Format Creator Identifier Subject Source Description Language Publisher Relation Contributor Coverage Date Rights Type
  23. 23. Simple Dublin Core [ dc: ] • Identifying Simple and Qualified Dublin core: • Simple Dublin Core fields use mixed case (for example; dc:Subject, dc:Title) • Qualified Dublin Core use lower case (for example; dcterms:subject, dcterms:title but may also be seen as dc:subject and dc:title) • Examination of the encoding form of the data may be required • All fields are optional • All fields are repeatable
  24. 24. Qualified Dublin Core [ dcterms: ] • A refinement of the original Dublin Core standard to refine, qualify and narrow the structure of the data which should be stored in each field/element. • Adds a set of encoding schemes for the fields/elements which supports: • Format notation and Parsing Rules which allow structured interpretation of the data • Controlled Vocabularies
  25. 25. Qualified Dublin Core (continued) [dcterms:] • abstract • coverage! • hasFormat • isVersionOf • requires • accessRights • created • hasPart • language! • rights! • accrualMethod • creator! • hasVersion • license • rightsHolder • accrualPeriodicity • date! • identifier! • mediator • source! • accrualPolicy • dateAccepted • instructionalMethod • medium • spatial • alternative • dateCopyrighted • isFormatOf • modified • subject! • audience • dateSubmitted • isPartOf • provenance • tableOfContents • available • description! • isReferencedBy • publisher! • temporal • bibliographicCitation • educationLevel • isReplacedBy • references • title! • conformsTo • extent • isRequiredBy • relation! • type! • contributor! • format! • issued • replaces • valid
  26. 26. owl: (OWL Schema Vocabulary) dcterms: (Qualified Dublin Core) dc:(elements) (Qualified Dublin Core) DC: (Unqualified Dublin Core) rdfs: (RDF Schema) xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive and Derived Datatypes ) rdf: (RDF Syntax)
  27. 27. skos: (SKOS Vocabulary) grddl: (Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages) owl: (OWL Schema Vocabulary) vs: (SemWeb Vocab Status ontology) vann: (A vocabulary for annotating vocabulary descriptions) dcterms: (Qualified Dublin Core) dc:(elements) (Qualified Dublin Core) DC: (Unqualified Dublin Core) rdfs: (RDF Schema) xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive and Derived Datatypes ) rdf: (RDF Syntax)
  28. 28. Foundation Schema Foundation Schema skos: (SKOS Vocabulary) grddl: (Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages) owl: (OWL Schema Vocabulary) vs: (SemWeb Vocab Status ontology) vann: (A vocabulary for annotating vocabulary descriptions) dcterms: (Qualified Dublin Core) dc:(elements) (Qualified Dublin Core) DC: (Unqualified Dublin Core) rdfs: (RDF Schema) xsd: (XML Schema Description Primitive and Derived Datatypes ) rdf: (RDF Syntax)
  29. 29. Crosswalk schema: <—> dbpedia: Crosswalk dbpedia: <—> frbr: frbr: (FRBR subjects) schema: (schema.org subjects) dbpedia: (DBPedia subjects) foaf: (Friend of a Friend Schema) Foundation Schema
  30. 30. Crosswalks: Linking Data • Define sameAs relationships between schema classes and properties • schema1:SubjectA • for example: schema2:Subject2XYZ • dcterms:coverage.x sameAs • schema:Thing.Intangible.StructuredValue.GeoCoordinates.latitude
  31. 31. Controlled Vocabularies • Controlled Vocabularies are a set of common definitions • Typically a key/value/label combination • May be flat or hierarchical • Common example is a selection list or box where you can choose from one or a set of values • Many Controlled Vocabularies exist supporting the common interchange of information through the use of a carefully selected list of terms, words or phrases which may be broad or specific to a particular area of research or classification • Multilingual Controlled Vocabularies support interchange of information across cultural and language boundaries
  32. 32. Controlled Vocabulary examples Vocabulary Description MESH The set of labeled concepts specified by the Medical Subject Headings. DCMIType The set of classes specified by the DCMI Type Vocabulary, used to categorize the nature or genre of the resource. UDC The set of conceptual resources specified by the Universal Decimal Classification. IMT The set of media types specified by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. NLM The set of conceptual resources specified by the National Library of Medicine Classification. DDC The set of conceptual resources specified by the Dewey Decimal Classification. LCSH The set of labeled concepts specified by the Library of Congress Subject Headings. TGN The set of places specified by the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names. LCC The set of conceptual resources specified by the Library of Congress Classification.
  33. 33. RDF Summary • XMLSchema • Data types • RDF Syntax & Schema • Dublin Core • Simple & Qualified • Controlled Vocabularies
  34. 34. How do you use it How to describe ! Face2 Face1 Face Name Biography Institutional affiliation ! Event Name Location Name Street Address, City, Country Latitude and Longitude Date ! Image Copyright and attribution
  35. 35. Information Axis Places Other Description People Spatial Objects Events Biographical, Social Subjects Physical ! Distinct Temporal Abstract ! ! Periodic Conceptual Structural
  36. 36. Information Axis Places Spatial Temporal People Objects Events Biographical, Social Subjects Physical ! Distinct Abstract ! ! Periodic Conceptual Structural
  37. 37. Mt Fuji Mt Fuji Face1 Face2
  38. 38. What to Describe • Dependant on the context of the asset • What information is important to describe • Who is the target audience • How could the asset be connected to other information or other similar assets • What discipline or area of study is represented
  39. 39. • Person • • Biography • Institutional Affiliation • • Name Face image Face1 Event • Time and Date • Web site address • Event attended by • • List of People Event organised by • Organising Committee • • Face2 Event Committee Location of Event • Name of Location • Latitude and Longitude of Location
  40. 40. Describing content • Time, Date and Location • Mt Fuji • • Snow coverage • • Geographic Volcanic activity Environment • • • Weather Sea Person • • Name Object • Position in image • Identification Mt Fuji
  41. 41. How to describe • Schema selection • Media specific schema (exif, XMP, MP3 or other tags) • Use Qualified Dublin Core as the default • Try to choose additional well defined and common schema • schema.org (Google, Yahoo, Bing searches) • dbpedia.org (Linked Open Data) • Discipline specific schema
  42. 42. Derived information • Image metadata provides lat and lng of the camera position • Mt Fuji lat and lng are known Mt Fuji • Camera direction and distance from Mt Fuji can be calculated
  43. 43. Derived information • Is this Face known • if known: Can we find other images of this Person • Face2 Face1 if not known: Search for a name • Is the Place known • Can an Event be generated based on knowing that People were at a Place at the same Time • Can the details of the Event be found on the web • Can a list of People attending the Event be found • Search for images of each Person in the list Mt Fuji Face1 Face2
  44. 44. What can you do with this stuff ? • http://linkeddata.org
  45. 45. Demo 2 • Changing the information displayed in the map information boxes • Demo 1 review • "label", "lng", "lat", "abstract", "link", "thumbnail", “types" • LANG(?label)='en' AND LANG(?abstract)='en' AND LANG(? type)='en'
  46. 46. • Environment • Economy • Health • Energy • Society • Demographics
  47. 47. RDF tools • Open Source toolkits for RDF manipulation • • • Parsers, Triple Stores, SPARQL endpoint, OAI-PMH Evaluated: ARC2, Sesame 2, OpenLink Virtuoso, Redland Selected Redland RDF Library and Tools • Good documentation and tools • Language bindings • Perl, PHP, Python • SPARQL endpoint • Small memory footprint
  48. 48. RDF Tools Redland RDF • Common namespace definitions for processing RDF/XML and generating Turtle with rapper ! rapper -o turtle -f 'xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"' -f 'xmlns:geo="http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#"' -f 'xmlns:dcam="http://purl.org/dc/dcam/"' -f 'xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"' -f 'xmlns:yago="http://yago-knowledge.org/resource/"' -f 'xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"' -f 'xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"' -f 'xmlns:dbp="http://dbpedia.org/property/"' -f 'xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"' -f 'xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"' -f 'xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"' -f 'xmlns:dbo="http://dbpedia.org/ontology/"' -f 'xmlns:rss="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/"' -f 'xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"' -f 'xmlns:geo="http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#"' -f 'xmlns:sc="http://purl.org/science/owl/sciencecommons/"' -f 'xmlns:geonames="http://www.geonames.org/ontology#"' -f 'xmlns:sioc="http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#"' -f 'xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#"' -f 'xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#"' -f 'xmlns:akt="http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal#"' -f 'xmlns:dbpedia="http://dbpedia.org/resource/"' -f 'xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"' -f 'xmlns:cyc="http://sw.opencyc.org/concept/"' -f 'xmlns:dct="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"' -f 'xmlns:dbpprop="http://dbpedia.org/property/"' -f 'xmlns:vcard="http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#"' -f 'xmlns:schema="http://schema.org/"' -f 'xmlns:biblio="http://purl.org/net/biblio#"' -f 'xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/"' -f 'xmlns:wn="http://xmlns.com/wordnet/1.6/"' -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f -f 'xmlns:crm="http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/"' 'xmlns:http="http://www.w3.org/2006/http#"' 'xmlns:mime="http://purl.org/NET/mediatypes/"' 'xmlns:grddl="http://www.w3.org/2003/g/data-view#"' 'xmlns:cc="http://creativecommons.org/ns#"' 'xmlns:doap="http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#"' 'xmlns:exif="http://www.w3.org/2003/12/exif/ns#"' 'xmlns:rddl="http://www.rddl.org/"' 'xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"' 'xmlns:cc="http://creativecommons.org/ns#"' 'xmlns:vs="http://www.w3.org/2003/06/sw-vocab-status/ns#"' 'xmlns:vann="http://purl.org/vocab/vann/"' 'xmlns:admin="http://webns.net/mvcb/"' 'xmlns:pdf="http://ns.adobe.com/pdf/1.3/"' 'xmlns:xmp="http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/"' ‘xmlns:contact="http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#"' ‘xmlns:et='http://ns.exiftool.ca/1.0/' ‘xmlns:ExifTool='http://ns.exiftool.ca/ExifTool/1.0/' ‘xmlns:System='http://ns.exiftool.ca/File/System/1.0/' ‘xmlns:File='http://ns.exiftool.ca/File/1.0/' ‘xmlns:JFIF='http://ns.exiftool.ca/JFIF/JFIF/1.0/' ‘xmlns:IPTC='http://ns.exiftool.ca/IPTC/IPTC/1.0/' ‘xmlns:Photoshop=‘http://ns.exiftool.ca/Photoshop/Photoshop/1.0/' ‘xmlns:ICC-header=‘http://ns.exiftool.ca/ICC_Profile/ICC-header/1.0/' -f ‘xmlns:ICC_Profile=‘http://ns.exiftool.ca/ICC_Profile/ICC_Profile/1.0/' -f -f -f -f -f -f -f ‘xmlns:ICC-view=‘http://ns.exiftool.ca/ICC_Profile/ICC-view/1.0/' ‘xmlns:ICC-meas=‘http://ns.exiftool.ca/ICC_Profile/ICC-meas/1.0/' ‘xmlns:IFD0=‘http://ns.exiftool.ca/EXIF/IFD0/1.0/' ‘xmlns:ExifIFD='http://ns.exiftool.ca/EXIF/ExifIFD/1.0/' ‘xmlns:XMP-x='http://ns.exiftool.ca/XMP/XMP-x/1.0/' ‘xmlns:XMP-dc='http://ns.exiftool.ca/XMP/XMP-dc/1.0/' ‘xmlns:Composite='http://ns.exiftool.ca/Composite/1.0/' {INPUT} > {OUTPUT}
  49. 49. Working Group Activity • Please translate the qualified Dublin Core schema into your local language
  50. 50. Base schema @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix @prefix dc: dcam: dcmitype: dcterms: doap: foaf: grddl: owl: rdf: rdfs: skos: vann: vs: xsd: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . <http://purl.org/dc/dcam/> . <http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/> . <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . <http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#> . <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . <http://www.w3.org/2003/g/data-view#> . <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> . <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> . <http://purl.org/vocab/vann/> . <http://www.w3.org/2003/06/sw-vocab-status/ns#> . <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
  51. 51. prefix.cc Namespace lookup for RDF developers yago rdf foaf dbp owl dc rdfs dbo rss skos geo sc gldp fb geonames sioc gr xsd akt dbpedia dcterms dcterms cyc dct dbpprop bibo swrc void commerce org content
  52. 52. Summary • Basis of Linked Open Data • Foundation schema • Subject schema • Dublin Core • What and How to describe • Open Data services

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