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Lithium Ion Batteries : 
Going the Distance 
Axeon Technologies Ltd, Dr Allan Paterson 17th Feb 2011
Plan 
Introduction to Axeon 
Products - Automotive 
Lithium Ion Cell Chemistry 
Currently Available Technology 
3 
Future ...
Axeon : The Company
About Axeon 
Axeon designs and manufactures advanced 
lithium-ion battery systems for a variety of end 
market application...
Axeon Locations 
150 professional and 300 production staff 
Axeon Confidential 6 
Current locations: 
UK, Dundee – HQ, Eng...
Axeon’s automotive experience 
Electric urban delivery 
vehicle: producing in 
volume for British 
manufacturer 
Over a mi...
Product Areas 
Energy Storage 
Micro-generation (~10-15KWh) 
Community energy storage (25-100KWh) 
Utility level (MW) 
Nic...
Complete solution 
Axeon Confidential 9 
Cell sub 
component 
production 
and test 
Cell 
Electroactive 
“Ingredients” 
e....
Partnership Strategy 
Technology 
Academic research 
Cell suppliers (see next 
Axeon Confidential 10 
slide) 
Governments ...
Our cell partnerships are key 
Axeon, which is cell-agnostic, has 
relationships with all major suppliers of high 
capacit...
Lithium Ion Cell Chemistry
“Rocking chair” Lithium Ion Battery 
Negative Electrode Electrolyte Positive Electrode 
Axeon Confidential 13 
Graphite Li...
Cell Chemistry - The Challenges 
Future Development Requires….. 
Reduce cost – materials (raw and synthesis) 
Improve safe...
Main contender cell chemistries 
Cell level 
Energy 
density / 
Wh/kg 
Cell level 
Energy 
density / 
Wh/l 
Durability 
Cy...
Example - Lithium Iron Phosphate 
LiFePO4 remains attractive for Automotive 
Electrochemical Performance 
Cycle Life / Pow...
Cell Chemistry - Future Developments 
Materials Chemistry Challenge  New Advanced Battery Materials 
High Power Density HE...
Alternative Battery Chemistries 
High Energy Density EV – Future ?  
Lithium Transition Metal Oxide Cathodes 
E.g. Layered...
Lithium-Air Batteries – High Energy Density? 
Potentially 10 x Energy Density compared to current Li-ion tech 
Use of poro...
Lithium-Air Schematic 
Dispense with intercalation cathode use O2 from air! 
Li2O2 
Dis-charge 
20 
Li anode Electrolyte C...
Lithium-Air Schematic 
Dispense with intercalation cathode use O2 from air! 
Li2O2 
Charge 
21 
Li+ 
O2 
Li anode Electrol...
Li-Air – The Challenges... 
Many Issues Remain : 
Cyclability 
Oxygen Selective Membrane , Suitable Electrolyte, 
Recharge...
Cell Chemistry – Commercial Availability? 
Conversion rxn, e.g Li/Fe3F3 
Secondary Zn-Air 
(M=Co,V etc) 
Li / Sulphur 
LiF...
Possible current/future cell options 
Short Term Medium Term Long Term 
City / EV LFP / LiMn2O4 
Pouch 
NCM / TMO 
Pouch/C...
RD Programs
Relative theoretical energy densities 
Dynamite = 1375 Wh/kg 
Wood = 4000 Wh/kg 
Petrol = 12000 Wh/kg – highly energy inef...
Example Axeon Development Projects 
OR 
Future Project (C) 
Axeon Confidential 27 
TSB Project (A) 
TSB Project (B) 
Cells...
Technology Strategy Board RD Project (A) 
“Advanced High Energy Density Battery and Next Generation BMS” 
+ + 
+ 
Next Gen...
Project Plan 
Work Package Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 
Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 
Bench Top 
Software 
“A” D...
TSB (B): Li-M-Si-O / Si Alloy battery for PHEV 
The University of St Andrews 
Si based alloy based next generation of nega...
Project Plan 
Q2 
10 
Q3 10 Q41 10 Q1 11 Q2 11 Q3 11 Q4 11 Q1 12 Q2 12 Q2 12 
Cathode 
Development 
Anode 
Development 
Sc...
St Andrews - Technology 
Positive electrodes based on Fe highly attractive (cost and safety). 
LiFePO4 operates at 3.4V vs...
St Andrews - Technology 
Alternative synthetic routes give single phase: (e.g. hydrothermal) 
Best reported electrochemist...
Nexeon - Technology 
Up to 9x Gravimetric, 3 x Volumetric Energy Density 
Silicon Fibres robust to volume change 
Axeon Co...
Performance 
Tune Capacity (mAh/g) by varying pillar : core ratio 
Axeon Confidential 35 
Optimised Electrochemical Perfor...
Conclusions
Summay 
Axeon has extensive real world experience of EV and HEV 
batteries including a range of cell chemistries and Batte...
Axeon 
Nobel Court, Tel: +44 (0)1382 400040 
Wester Gourdie, Fax: +44 (0)1382 400044 
Dundee, DD2 4UH, 
Scotland, UK www.a...
Lithium Ion Batteries: Going the Distance (Feb 2011)
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Lithium Ion Batteries: Going the Distance (Feb 2011)

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Lithium Ion Batteries: Going the Distance (Feb 2011)

  1. 1. Lithium Ion Batteries : Going the Distance Axeon Technologies Ltd, Dr Allan Paterson 17th Feb 2011
  2. 2. Plan Introduction to Axeon Products - Automotive Lithium Ion Cell Chemistry Currently Available Technology 3 Future Developments? Role of Nano-technology R&D Projects / Collaborations Case Study
  3. 3. Axeon : The Company
  4. 4. About Axeon Axeon designs and manufactures advanced lithium-ion battery systems for a variety of end market applications: Automotive (electric and hybrid vehicles) Energy storage Cordless power tools Axeon Confidential 5 Mobile products Europe’s largest privately-owned independent lithium-ion battery systems supplier, processing over 70 million cells a year
  5. 5. Axeon Locations 150 professional and 300 production staff Axeon Confidential 6 Current locations: UK, Dundee – HQ, Engineering, automotive production UK, Birmingham – Sales and engineering office Poland – volume production, planned automotive production Germany – European business development, strategic purchasing Switzerland – Small pack engineering Italy – Sales office US, Detroit – Sales Office Asia - strategic purchasing
  6. 6. Axeon’s automotive experience Electric urban delivery vehicle: producing in volume for British manufacturer Over a million vehicle miles driven since 2007 = Axeon is developing smaller lighter batteries using innovative battery technology Designing and developing PHEV packs for JLR Axeon Confidential 7 20MW of batteries shipped Volume production; conversion of Peugeot vehicles for the leading British vehicle converter. Range includes cars, people carriers and vans HEV sports car: developing leading-edge technology for premium European manufacturer
  7. 7. Product Areas Energy Storage Micro-generation (~10-15KWh) Community energy storage (25-100KWh) Utility level (MW) Niche solutions (e.g. hybrid ferries) Power Tool Axeon Confidential 8 High volume, low cost manufacture A-rated supplier to Bosch Mobile Power Solutions for applications that require advanced electronics Bespoke solutions
  8. 8. Complete solution Axeon Confidential 9 Cell sub component production and test Cell Electroactive “Ingredients” e.g. Coatings Cell Raw Materials/process e.g. Lithium Carbonate Cell Assembly and test Battery Assembly and test Battery pre conditioning Battery Supply Value Chain Axeon Value Proposition Responsible Support Inform
  9. 9. Partnership Strategy Technology Academic research Cell suppliers (see next Axeon Confidential 10 slide) Governments Participation with relevant industry bodies
  10. 10. Our cell partnerships are key Axeon, which is cell-agnostic, has relationships with all major suppliers of high capacity Lithium cells Local staff & agents assigned to cell audit All suppliers subject to on-site quality audits All cells subject to in-house qualification Axeon Confidential 11 Verification of supplier specifications Environmental testing Cycle testing Abuse testing
  11. 11. Lithium Ion Cell Chemistry
  12. 12. “Rocking chair” Lithium Ion Battery Negative Electrode Electrolyte Positive Electrode Axeon Confidential 13 Graphite Li+ ions & Separator LiCoO2 Issues : Expensive, Toxicity, Cycle life, Power Research concentrated on replacing LiCoO2 LiMn2O4 LiFePO4 [LFP] / LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 [NCM] / Other?
  13. 13. Cell Chemistry - The Challenges Future Development Requires….. Reduce cost – materials (raw and synthesis) Improve safety – short circuits, thermal runaway. Cycle life – 1000s for EV, cycle life 10,000s for HEVs Calendar life - 10 years (transport) Axeon Confidential 14 Power Density – HEV, PHEV Energy Density – PHEV, EV, load leveling Materials Chemistry Challenges
  14. 14. Main contender cell chemistries Cell level Energy density / Wh/kg Cell level Energy density / Wh/l Durability Cycle life (100 % DoD) Price $/Wh (Estimate) Power C-rate Safety Thermal Runaway onset LiCoO2 170-185 450-490 500 0.31-0.46 1C 170oC LiFePO4 EV/PHEV 90-125 130-300 2000 0.3-0.6 5C cont. 10C pulse 270oC LiFePO4 HEV 80-108 200-240 1000 0.8-1.2 30C cont. 50C pulse 270oC Axeon Confidential 15 NCM HEV 150 270-290 1500 0.5-0.58 20C cont 40C pulse 215oC NCM EV/PHEV 155-190 330-365 1500 0.5-0.58 1C cont 5C pulse 215oC Titanate vs NCM / LMO 65-100 118-200 12000 1-1.7 10C cont. 20C pulse Not susceptible NCA 95-120190 280 1000 0.45-0.6 4C cont 10C pulse 200oC Manganese Spinel EV/PHEV 90-110160 280 1000 0.45-0.55 3-5C cont 255oC
  15. 15. Example - Lithium Iron Phosphate LiFePO4 remains attractive for Automotive Electrochemical Performance Cycle Life / Power capability Enabled by new Nano-materials Nano-particulate agglomerates – Fast diffusion Doped / Carbon coated to make better conductor Axeon Confidential 16 Safety No oxygen release Avoid thermal runaway Issues Cost / cycle life for Ultrahigh Power application
  16. 16. Cell Chemistry - Future Developments Materials Chemistry Challenge New Advanced Battery Materials High Power Density HEV – Future? “Nano-Materials” High surface area – Internal = Meso-porous materials External = Nano-tubes/wires Nano-rods/ wires TiO (B) C-Coated Mesoporous LiMn2O4 Next generation nano-phosphates – Li-[Transition Metal]-Phosphates {Mn/Co/V} Axeon Confidential 17 Hurdles– cost, energy density Advanced Surface coatings SiO2 , RuO2, etc 20nm 2LiMnPO4
  17. 17. Alternative Battery Chemistries High Energy Density EV – Future ? Lithium Transition Metal Oxide Cathodes E.g. Layered xLi2MnO3• (1-x)LiMO2 An electrochemically inactive (Li2M'O3) component is integrated with an electrochemically active (LiMO2)component to provide improved structural and electrochemical stability. High energy density, High cell voltage, Long cycle life. Alloys of Li with Silicon (Si) or Tin (Sn) Nexilion, Sony Corporation (C/Sn/Co)) Amorphous Alloy - Very high energy density / capacity However very large volume expansions that need to be accommodated Limited size/capacity cells produced commercially so far Axeon Confidential 18 New Improved Electrolyte - Higher operating voltages The use of high V cathodes limited by the solvent oxidation 4.4 V vs. Li/Li+. Requires new electrolytes Ionic liquids show most promise. Poor conductivity limits rate capability.
  18. 18. Lithium-Air Batteries – High Energy Density? Potentially 10 x Energy Density compared to current Li-ion tech Use of porous cathode, small % catalyst allows rechargeability Hurdles – cycle life, rate capability. “Battery 500” project : IBM, UC Berkeley and five US National Labs Electric vehicle battery that gives up to 500 miles per charge IBM believes its nano-scale semiconductor fabrication techniques can Axeon Confidential 19 increase the surface area of the lithium-air battery's electrodes by 100 times. achieve range goal 2 year feasibility study
  19. 19. Lithium-Air Schematic Dispense with intercalation cathode use O2 from air! Li2O2 Dis-charge 20 Li anode Electrolyte Composite porous cathode O2 charge Li+
  20. 20. Lithium-Air Schematic Dispense with intercalation cathode use O2 from air! Li2O2 Charge 21 Li+ O2 Li anode Electrolyte Composite porous cathode
  21. 21. Li-Air – The Challenges... Many Issues Remain : Cyclability Oxygen Selective Membrane , Suitable Electrolyte, Recharge Potential / Hysteresis Rate Capability Axeon Confidential 22 Electrolyte stability How long to commercialisation....10years?
  22. 22. Cell Chemistry – Commercial Availability? Conversion rxn, e.g Li/Fe3F3 Secondary Zn-Air (M=Co,V etc) Li / Sulphur LiFe-Sulphides/Silicates Aerogel Li Vanadates Li - Nano-silicon / Tin Alloy + high V TMO Li4Ti5O12 Anode + Mn based Nano-titanate anode + Adv 5V Mn based LiMnPO4 and LiFexMnyPO4 Na/Li3[M](PO4)2F3 Secondary Li-Air Ionic liquid Electrolyte Relative Capability 2015- 2020+? 23 Q4 2013 LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 LiwMnxNiyCozO2 LiMn1/2Ni1/2O2 LiMn2O4 Q1 2011 Q1 2012 Q2 2012 Q3 2012 Q4 2012 Q1 2013 Q2 2013 Q3 2013 Q2 2011 Q3 2011 Q4 2011 LiFePO4 LiCoO2 LiFePO4(Doped or Coated with RuO2/TiO2. etc) LiNixCoyAlZO2 Li2MnO3•LiMn1/2Ni1/2O2 Doped Co,Al,Ti etc Mn Based Nano+Mesoporous Li2MnO3•LiMn1/2Ni1/2O2 Axeon 2010 Confidential
  23. 23. Possible current/future cell options Short Term Medium Term Long Term City / EV LFP / LiMn2O4 Pouch NCM / TMO Pouch/Can Silicon/Tin-alloy Rechargeable metal air systems Urban Delivery EV LFP/NCM NCM / TMO Pouch/Can PHEV LFP/NCM Pouch NCM / TMO Pouch/Can 24 Performance HEV Small Format LFP Small Format LFP Advanced Nano- Material electrodes Axeon 2010 Confidential
  24. 24. RD Programs
  25. 25. Relative theoretical energy densities Dynamite = 1375 Wh/kg Wood = 4000 Wh/kg Petrol = 12000 Wh/kg – highly energy inefficient Axeon Confidential 26
  26. 26. Example Axeon Development Projects OR Future Project (C) Axeon Confidential 27 TSB Project (A) TSB Project (B) Cells (D) Development roadmap programmes Consortia Status TSB (A) - Pouch cell NCM/BMS Axeon, Allied Ricardo Awarded TSB (B) - TMO/Si Alloy Axeon, St Andrews University, Nexeon, Ricardo Awarded Future project (C) - Li-Sulphur battery Oxis Energy, Axeon others TBD Planned Cells (D) Testing sample cells now Envia Systems Ongoing
  27. 27. Technology Strategy Board RD Project (A) “Advanced High Energy Density Battery and Next Generation BMS” + + + Next Generation, Increased Functionality, Smaller, Lighter, Cheaper, BMS For a 30kWh EV battery, cells alone : NCM Chemistry Pouch Cells Small City Car + Weight reduced by ~28%compared to LiFePO4 Volume reduced by ~ 47% Axeon Confidential 28 cells alone Weight / Volume reduction NCM pouch cells, up to 340Wh/l and 170Wh/kg. Combined with a smaller/lighter Ricardo BMS should prove to be a highly efficient technical solution. Increased performance High efficiency, via adaptive BMS capable of dynamic active and passive balancing.
  28. 28. Project Plan Work Package Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Bench Top Software “A” Design “A” Vehicle “A” Build / Test NOW Axeon Confidential 29 “B” Design “B” Vehicle “B” Build / Test “B” Vehicle Test “A” Certification
  29. 29. TSB (B): Li-M-Si-O / Si Alloy battery for PHEV The University of St Andrews Si based alloy based next generation of negative electrodes High volumetric and specific energy Problem – particle fracture due to large volume expansion Fix – Accommodate stress strain of volume expansion via nanostructure Coupled with Li-TM-Silicate positive electrode Axeon Confidential 30 Overall = High energy density 250 to 300 Wh/kg, low cost. PHEV Battery Pack construction Cell Chemistry characterisation BMS calibration Pack Engineering and Construction Further Battery Management System Development Smaller, Lighter, Cheaper BMS
  30. 30. Project Plan Q2 10 Q3 10 Q41 10 Q1 11 Q2 11 Q3 11 Q4 11 Q1 12 Q2 12 Q2 12 Cathode Development Anode Development Scale Up Cell Fabrication Axeon Confidential 31 BMS Development Initial BMS Testing Pack Engineering Chemistry Characterisation Testing / Validation Where We Are Now. = = = =
  31. 31. St Andrews - Technology Positive electrodes based on Fe highly attractive (cost and safety). LiFePO4 operates at 3.4V vs. lithium now used in commercial cells. Electrochemical activity in Li2FeSiO4 reported. (3V vs Li) Cheaper raw raw materials. Difficult to prepare single phase, and structural change on cycling Poor e- conductivity (analogous to phosphates) and room temp performance Mn highly attractive: higher potential than Fe-Silicate (~ 4V) possibility of removing more than 1 Li (Mn4+ more stable than Fe4+) = High Capacity = High Energy Axeon Confidential 32 Remains Inexpensive and safe Structures related to LISICON (LIthium SuperIonic CONductor) materials with all cations tetrahedrally coordinated by oxygen.
  32. 32. St Andrews - Technology Alternative synthetic routes give single phase: (e.g. hydrothermal) Best reported electrochemistry (50oC and low rate) All require small particles and carbon coating to achieve satisfactory electrochemical performance This structure type adopted by numerous other transition metals including Mn, Co Mn highly attractive: higher potential than Li2FeSiO4 (~ 4V) Remains Inexpensive and safe possibility of removing more than 1 Li (Mn Mn4+ more stable than Fe ) Fe4+) 33 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Intensity 2q / degrees (FeKa1 ) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Capacity / mAhg-1 Cycle number LISICON framework is very flexible – contains interstitial cation sites Offers a wide range of possible substitutions e.g. Li2+2xM1-xSiO4 Axeon Holdings plc 2009 Confidential
  33. 33. Nexeon - Technology Up to 9x Gravimetric, 3 x Volumetric Energy Density Silicon Fibres robust to volume change Axeon Confidential 34 Form pillars on particles without harvesting Pillared Particles Hedgehog particles Lower cost than graphite
  34. 34. Performance Tune Capacity (mAh/g) by varying pillar : core ratio Axeon Confidential 35 Optimised Electrochemical Performance Step change energy storage 300Wh/kg
  35. 35. Conclusions
  36. 36. Summay Axeon has extensive real world experience of EV and HEV batteries including a range of cell chemistries and Battery Management Systems. Axeon is “Cell Agnostic” but well connected to cell vendors and participating in joint research and development programs. Main chemistries and improved derivatives will be around for 37 some time, but new advanced cell chemistries are rapidly emerging making a step change in energy storage a possibility. Nano-Technology - Enabler and playing increasing role. Axeon has a future view of these rapidly developing technologies backed up by real research and development programs and real end customer development projects. Axeon 2010 Confidential
  37. 37. Axeon Nobel Court, Tel: +44 (0)1382 400040 Wester Gourdie, Fax: +44 (0)1382 400044 Dundee, DD2 4UH, Scotland, UK www.axeon.com

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