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Blue  Ocean  Strategy Verity Discussion December 6, 2010
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Content Sources:  Blue Ocean Strategy  W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne Frameworks –  http://slidesha.re/fN2z8R   Case studies –  http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com
In the red ocean, differentiation costs because firms compete with the same best-practice principle.  Here, the strategic choices for firms are to pursue either differentiation or low cost.  In the reconstructionist world, however, the strategic aim is to create new best-practice rules by breaking the existing value-cost trade-off and thereby creating blue ocean. Red Ocean Strategy Compete in existing market space. Beat the competition. Exploit existing demand. Make the value-cost trade-off. Align the whole system of a firm’s activities with its choice of differentiation  or  low cost. Red Ocean versus Blue Ocean  Blue Ocean Strategy Create uncontested market space. Make the competition irrelevant. Create and capture new demand. Break the value-cost trade-off. Align the whole system of a firm’s activities in pursuit of differentiation  and  low cost.
Formulation Principles Reconstruct market boundaries Focus on the big picture, not the numbers Reach beyond existing demand Get the strategic sequence right Evaluation principles Overcome key organizational hurdles Build execution into strategy The Six Principles of Blue Ocean Strategy
Costs Buyer Value Value Innovation Value innovation is created in the region where a company’s actions favorably affect both its cost structure and its value proposition to buyers.  Cost savings are made by eliminating and reducing the factors an industry competes on.  Buyer value is lifted by raising and creating elements the industry has never offered.  Over time, costs are reduced further as scale economies kick in due to the high sales volumes that superior value generates. Value Innovation
Making it Work for You Suggested Tips 1.  Industry or goods and services? 2.  Use your imagination 3.  Don’t take shortcuts
External  Frameworks For  Analysis
The strategy canvas is both a diagnostic and an action framework for building a compelling blue ocean strategy. The horizontal axis captures the range of factors the industry competes on an invests in.  The vertical axis captures the offering level that buyers receive across all these key competing factors.  The resulting picture provides a depiction of a company’s position relative to its competitive industry. High Low Price Use of enological terminology Above-the-line marketing Aging quality Vineyard prestige and legacy Wine complexity Wine range What the Buyer Receives Strategy Canvas
The four actions framework offers a technique that breaks the trade-off between differentiation and low cost and to create a new value curve. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A New Value Curve Reduce Eliminate Create Raise Which factors should be  reduced well below  industry standards? Which should be  created  that the was never offered? Which factors should be  raised well above  the industry’s standard? What does the industry takes for- granted that should be eliminated? Four Actions Framework
A corporate management team pursuing profitable growth can plot the company’s current and planned portfolios on a  pioneer-migrator-settler  map.  This framework can help a company determine which businesses experience the highest and lowest growth and cash flow.  These are classified accordingly with the highest growth potential being pioneers, then to migrators, then to the lowest rung, settlers. Pioneers Migrators Settlers Today Tomorrow Pioneer, Settler, Migrator Map
There are three tiers of noncustomers that can be transformed into customers.  They differ in their relative distance from your market.  The first tier of customers minimally buy an industry’s offering out of necessity.  The second tier of noncustomers refuse to use your industries offerings.  The third tier are noncustomers who have never thought of your market’s offerings as an option. Your Market First Tier Second Tier Third Tier Three Tiers of Noncustomers
The four steps of visualizing strategy builds on the six paths of creating blue oceans and involves a lot of visual stimulation in order to unlock people’s creativity.  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Four Steps of Visualizing Strategy
Development  Frameworks For  ‘ Productization’
An important part of blue ocean strategy is to “get the strategic sequence right.”  This sequence fleshes out and validates blue ocean ideas to ensure their commercial viability.  This can then reduce business model risk.  In this model, potential blue ocean ideas must pass through a sequence of buyer utility, price, cost, and adoption.  At each step there are only two options: a “yes” answer, in which case the idea may pass to the next step, or “no”.  If an idea receives a no at any point, the company can either park the idea or rethink it until you get a yes. A Commercially Viable Blue Ocean Idea No-- Rethink Yes Yes Yes Yes No-- Rethink No-- Rethink No-- Rethink Buyer utility Is there exceptional buyer utility in your business idea? Price Is your price easily accessible to the mass of buyers? Cost Can you attain your cost target to profit at your strategic price? Adoption What are the adoption hurdles in actualizing your business idea?  Are you addressing them up front? Sequence of Blue Ocean Strategy
The buyer utility map helps managers look at this issue from the right perspective.  It outlines all the levers companies can pull to deliver exceptional utility to buyers as well as the various experiences buyers can have with a product or service. 1. Purchase 2. Delivery 3. Use 4. Supplements 5. Maintenance 6. Disposal Customer Productivity Simplicity Convenience Risk Fun and Image Environmental friendliness The Six Stages of the Buyer Experience Cycle The Six Utility Levers Buyer Utility Map
A buyer’s experience can usually be broken into a cycle of six stages, running more or less sequentially from purchase to disposal.  Each stage encompasses a wide variety of specific experiences.  At each stage, managers can ask a set of questions to gauge the quality of buyer’s experience. Purchase Delivery Use Supplements Maintenance Disposal How long does it take to find the product you need? Is the place of purchase attractive and accessible? How secure is the transaction environment? How rapidly can you make a purchase? How long does it take to get the product delivered? How difficult is it to unpack and install the new product? Do buyers have to arrange delivery themselves? If yes, how costly and difficult is this? Does the product require training or expert assistance? Is the product easy to store when not in use? How effective are the product’s features and functions? Does the product or service deliver far more power or options than required by the average user?  Is in overcharged with bells and whistles? Do you need other products and services to make this product work? If so, how costly are they? How much time do they take? How easy are they to obtain? Does the product require external maintenance? How easy is it to maintain and upgrade the product? How costly is maintenance? Does use of the product create waste items? How easy is it to dispose of the product? Are there legal or environmental issues in disposing of the product safely? How costly is disposal? Buyer Experience Cycle
Industry Innovation Services Innovation Goods Innovation Blue Ocean Innovation Examples
Products or services that have different forms but offer the same functionality or core utility are often  substitutes  for each other. Take the example of Intuit’s Quicken. To sort out their personal finances, people can buy and install a financial software package, hire a CPA, or simply use pencil and paper. The software, the CPA, and the pencil are largely substitutes for each other. They have very different forms but serve the same function: helping people manage their financial affairs.  Instead of benchmarking the competition Intuit created a blue ocean by looking to the pencil as the chief alternative to personal financial software to develop Quicken software. Intuit focused on bringing out both the decisive advantages that the computer had over the pencil – speed and accuracy; and the decisive advantages that the pencil had over computers – simplicity of use and low price - and eliminated or reduced everything else.  With Quicken’s user-friendly interface resembling the familiar chequebook, it was faster and more accurate than the pencil, yet almost just as simple to use. The program eliminated the accounting jargon and the sophisticated features traditional financial software offered, offering only the few basic functions that most customers use. Moreover, simplifying the software cut costs. Quicken retailed at about $90, a 70% price drop. Neither the pencil nor other software packages could compete. Quicken – Industry Innovation
In a little more than two decades, Bloomberg became one of the largest and most profitable business information providers in the world. Until Bloomberg’s debut in the early 1980s, Reuters, Dow Jownes and Telerate dominated the online financial information industry, providing news and prices in real time to the brokerage and investment community. The industry focused on purchasers —IT managers—who valued standardized systems, which made their lives easier. Because traders must analyze information before they act, Bloomberg added a built-in analytic capability that works with the press of a button. Before, traders and analysts had to download data and use a pencil and calculator to perform important financial calculations. Now users can quickly run “what if ” scenarios to compute returns on alternative investments, and they can perform longitudinal analyses of historical data.  By shifting its focus upstream from purchasers to users, Bloomberg created a value curve that was radically different from anything the industry had seen before. The traders and analysts wielded their power within their firms to force IT managers to purchase Bloomberg terminals. Bloomberg – Industry Innovation
At the heart of QB House’s blue ocean strategy is a shift in the Asian barbershop industry from an emotional industry to a highly functional one. In Japan the time it takes to get a man’s haircut hovers around one hour. Why? Numerous hot towels are applied, shoulders are rubbed and massaged, customers are served tea and coffee, and the barber follows a ritual in cutting hair, including special hair and skin treatments such as blow drying and shaving. The result is that the actual time spent cutting hair is a fraction of the total time. The price of this haircutting process is $27 to $45. So QB House stripped away the emotional service elements of hot towels, shoulder rubs, and tea and coffee. It also dramatically reduced special hair treatments and focused mainly on basic cuts. QB House then went one step further, eliminating the traditional time-consuming wash-and-dry practice by creating the “air wash” system—an overhead hose that is pulled down to “vacuum” every cut-off hair. These changes reduced the haircutting time from one hour to ten minutes.  QB House was able to reduce the price of a haircut to $9 while raising the hourly revenue earned per barber nearly 50 percent, with lower staff costs and less required retail space per barber. QB House created this “no-nonsense” haircutting service with improved hygiene.  QB Hair Cutting – Service Innovation
Barnes & Noble and Borders superstores in the U.S. redefined the scope of the services they offer. Instead of focusing solely on the moment a customer purchases a book – as the hundreds of bookstores were doing – they asked, what do customers do before, during, and after purchasing a book?  They found that often before purchasing books, buyers want to sit and browse through several selections before making a choice, yet traditional bookstores did not offer a place to do so – in fact they discouraged the practice. Then they observed that often after purchasing books or magazines, customers went to a coffee shop to spend some time alone reading.   With these insights they transformed the product they sell from the book itself into the pleasure of reading and intellectual exploration, adding lounges, knowledgeable staff, and coffee bars to create an environment that celebrates reading and learning. In less than six years, B&N and Borders emerged as the two largest bookstore chains in the United States, with more than one thousand three hundred superstores between them.  Barnes & Noble – Service Innovation
Many industries afford similar opportunities to create blue oceans. By questioning conventional definitions of who can and should be the target buyer, companies can often see fundamentally new ways to unlock value.  Consider how traditional copy machine manufacturers targeted office purchasing managers. The purchasing manager wanted machines that were large, durable, fast, and required minimal maintenance. Defying the industry logic, Canon, the Japanese company, created the small desktop copier industry by shifting the target customer of the copier industry from corporate purchasers to users.  With their small, easy-to-use desktop printers Canon created new market space by focusing on the key competitive factors that the mass of noncustomers, the secretaries that used copiers wanted.  Canon Copier – Goods Innovation
Consider the British teakettle industry, which, despite its importance to British culture, had flat sales and shrinking profit margins until Philips Electronics, the Dutch consumer electronics company, came along with a teakettle that turned the red ocean blue. By thinking in terms of complementary products and services, Philips saw that the biggest issue the British had in brewing tea was not in the kettle itself but in the complementary product of water, which had to be boiled in the kettle.  The issue was the lime scale found in tap water. The lime scale accumulated in kettles as the water was boiled, and later found its way into the freshly brewed tea. The phlegmatic British typically took a teaspoon and went fishing to capture the off-putting lime scale before drinking home-brewed tea. To the kettle industry, the water issue was not its problem. It was the problem of another industry—the public water supply. By thinking in terms of solving the major pain points in customers’ total solution, Philips saw the water problem as its opportunity. The result: Philips created a kettle having a mouth filter that effectively captured the lime scale as the water was poured. Lime scale would never again be found swimming in British homebrewed tea. The industry was again kick-started on a strong growth trajectory as people began replacing their old kettles with the new filtered kettles. Philips – Goods Innovation
What is  Your Blue Ocean?

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Blue Ocean Strategy Document Summary

  • 1. Blue Ocean Strategy Verity Discussion December 6, 2010
  • 2.
  • 3. In the red ocean, differentiation costs because firms compete with the same best-practice principle. Here, the strategic choices for firms are to pursue either differentiation or low cost. In the reconstructionist world, however, the strategic aim is to create new best-practice rules by breaking the existing value-cost trade-off and thereby creating blue ocean. Red Ocean Strategy Compete in existing market space. Beat the competition. Exploit existing demand. Make the value-cost trade-off. Align the whole system of a firm’s activities with its choice of differentiation or low cost. Red Ocean versus Blue Ocean Blue Ocean Strategy Create uncontested market space. Make the competition irrelevant. Create and capture new demand. Break the value-cost trade-off. Align the whole system of a firm’s activities in pursuit of differentiation and low cost.
  • 4. Formulation Principles Reconstruct market boundaries Focus on the big picture, not the numbers Reach beyond existing demand Get the strategic sequence right Evaluation principles Overcome key organizational hurdles Build execution into strategy The Six Principles of Blue Ocean Strategy
  • 5. Costs Buyer Value Value Innovation Value innovation is created in the region where a company’s actions favorably affect both its cost structure and its value proposition to buyers. Cost savings are made by eliminating and reducing the factors an industry competes on. Buyer value is lifted by raising and creating elements the industry has never offered. Over time, costs are reduced further as scale economies kick in due to the high sales volumes that superior value generates. Value Innovation
  • 6. Making it Work for You Suggested Tips 1. Industry or goods and services? 2. Use your imagination 3. Don’t take shortcuts
  • 7. External Frameworks For Analysis
  • 8. The strategy canvas is both a diagnostic and an action framework for building a compelling blue ocean strategy. The horizontal axis captures the range of factors the industry competes on an invests in. The vertical axis captures the offering level that buyers receive across all these key competing factors. The resulting picture provides a depiction of a company’s position relative to its competitive industry. High Low Price Use of enological terminology Above-the-line marketing Aging quality Vineyard prestige and legacy Wine complexity Wine range What the Buyer Receives Strategy Canvas
  • 9.
  • 10. A corporate management team pursuing profitable growth can plot the company’s current and planned portfolios on a pioneer-migrator-settler map. This framework can help a company determine which businesses experience the highest and lowest growth and cash flow. These are classified accordingly with the highest growth potential being pioneers, then to migrators, then to the lowest rung, settlers. Pioneers Migrators Settlers Today Tomorrow Pioneer, Settler, Migrator Map
  • 11. There are three tiers of noncustomers that can be transformed into customers. They differ in their relative distance from your market. The first tier of customers minimally buy an industry’s offering out of necessity. The second tier of noncustomers refuse to use your industries offerings. The third tier are noncustomers who have never thought of your market’s offerings as an option. Your Market First Tier Second Tier Third Tier Three Tiers of Noncustomers
  • 12.
  • 13. Development Frameworks For ‘ Productization’
  • 14. An important part of blue ocean strategy is to “get the strategic sequence right.” This sequence fleshes out and validates blue ocean ideas to ensure their commercial viability. This can then reduce business model risk. In this model, potential blue ocean ideas must pass through a sequence of buyer utility, price, cost, and adoption. At each step there are only two options: a “yes” answer, in which case the idea may pass to the next step, or “no”. If an idea receives a no at any point, the company can either park the idea or rethink it until you get a yes. A Commercially Viable Blue Ocean Idea No-- Rethink Yes Yes Yes Yes No-- Rethink No-- Rethink No-- Rethink Buyer utility Is there exceptional buyer utility in your business idea? Price Is your price easily accessible to the mass of buyers? Cost Can you attain your cost target to profit at your strategic price? Adoption What are the adoption hurdles in actualizing your business idea? Are you addressing them up front? Sequence of Blue Ocean Strategy
  • 15. The buyer utility map helps managers look at this issue from the right perspective. It outlines all the levers companies can pull to deliver exceptional utility to buyers as well as the various experiences buyers can have with a product or service. 1. Purchase 2. Delivery 3. Use 4. Supplements 5. Maintenance 6. Disposal Customer Productivity Simplicity Convenience Risk Fun and Image Environmental friendliness The Six Stages of the Buyer Experience Cycle The Six Utility Levers Buyer Utility Map
  • 16. A buyer’s experience can usually be broken into a cycle of six stages, running more or less sequentially from purchase to disposal. Each stage encompasses a wide variety of specific experiences. At each stage, managers can ask a set of questions to gauge the quality of buyer’s experience. Purchase Delivery Use Supplements Maintenance Disposal How long does it take to find the product you need? Is the place of purchase attractive and accessible? How secure is the transaction environment? How rapidly can you make a purchase? How long does it take to get the product delivered? How difficult is it to unpack and install the new product? Do buyers have to arrange delivery themselves? If yes, how costly and difficult is this? Does the product require training or expert assistance? Is the product easy to store when not in use? How effective are the product’s features and functions? Does the product or service deliver far more power or options than required by the average user? Is in overcharged with bells and whistles? Do you need other products and services to make this product work? If so, how costly are they? How much time do they take? How easy are they to obtain? Does the product require external maintenance? How easy is it to maintain and upgrade the product? How costly is maintenance? Does use of the product create waste items? How easy is it to dispose of the product? Are there legal or environmental issues in disposing of the product safely? How costly is disposal? Buyer Experience Cycle
  • 17. Industry Innovation Services Innovation Goods Innovation Blue Ocean Innovation Examples
  • 18. Products or services that have different forms but offer the same functionality or core utility are often substitutes for each other. Take the example of Intuit’s Quicken. To sort out their personal finances, people can buy and install a financial software package, hire a CPA, or simply use pencil and paper. The software, the CPA, and the pencil are largely substitutes for each other. They have very different forms but serve the same function: helping people manage their financial affairs. Instead of benchmarking the competition Intuit created a blue ocean by looking to the pencil as the chief alternative to personal financial software to develop Quicken software. Intuit focused on bringing out both the decisive advantages that the computer had over the pencil – speed and accuracy; and the decisive advantages that the pencil had over computers – simplicity of use and low price - and eliminated or reduced everything else. With Quicken’s user-friendly interface resembling the familiar chequebook, it was faster and more accurate than the pencil, yet almost just as simple to use. The program eliminated the accounting jargon and the sophisticated features traditional financial software offered, offering only the few basic functions that most customers use. Moreover, simplifying the software cut costs. Quicken retailed at about $90, a 70% price drop. Neither the pencil nor other software packages could compete. Quicken – Industry Innovation
  • 19. In a little more than two decades, Bloomberg became one of the largest and most profitable business information providers in the world. Until Bloomberg’s debut in the early 1980s, Reuters, Dow Jownes and Telerate dominated the online financial information industry, providing news and prices in real time to the brokerage and investment community. The industry focused on purchasers —IT managers—who valued standardized systems, which made their lives easier. Because traders must analyze information before they act, Bloomberg added a built-in analytic capability that works with the press of a button. Before, traders and analysts had to download data and use a pencil and calculator to perform important financial calculations. Now users can quickly run “what if ” scenarios to compute returns on alternative investments, and they can perform longitudinal analyses of historical data. By shifting its focus upstream from purchasers to users, Bloomberg created a value curve that was radically different from anything the industry had seen before. The traders and analysts wielded their power within their firms to force IT managers to purchase Bloomberg terminals. Bloomberg – Industry Innovation
  • 20. At the heart of QB House’s blue ocean strategy is a shift in the Asian barbershop industry from an emotional industry to a highly functional one. In Japan the time it takes to get a man’s haircut hovers around one hour. Why? Numerous hot towels are applied, shoulders are rubbed and massaged, customers are served tea and coffee, and the barber follows a ritual in cutting hair, including special hair and skin treatments such as blow drying and shaving. The result is that the actual time spent cutting hair is a fraction of the total time. The price of this haircutting process is $27 to $45. So QB House stripped away the emotional service elements of hot towels, shoulder rubs, and tea and coffee. It also dramatically reduced special hair treatments and focused mainly on basic cuts. QB House then went one step further, eliminating the traditional time-consuming wash-and-dry practice by creating the “air wash” system—an overhead hose that is pulled down to “vacuum” every cut-off hair. These changes reduced the haircutting time from one hour to ten minutes. QB House was able to reduce the price of a haircut to $9 while raising the hourly revenue earned per barber nearly 50 percent, with lower staff costs and less required retail space per barber. QB House created this “no-nonsense” haircutting service with improved hygiene. QB Hair Cutting – Service Innovation
  • 21. Barnes & Noble and Borders superstores in the U.S. redefined the scope of the services they offer. Instead of focusing solely on the moment a customer purchases a book – as the hundreds of bookstores were doing – they asked, what do customers do before, during, and after purchasing a book? They found that often before purchasing books, buyers want to sit and browse through several selections before making a choice, yet traditional bookstores did not offer a place to do so – in fact they discouraged the practice. Then they observed that often after purchasing books or magazines, customers went to a coffee shop to spend some time alone reading.  With these insights they transformed the product they sell from the book itself into the pleasure of reading and intellectual exploration, adding lounges, knowledgeable staff, and coffee bars to create an environment that celebrates reading and learning. In less than six years, B&N and Borders emerged as the two largest bookstore chains in the United States, with more than one thousand three hundred superstores between them. Barnes & Noble – Service Innovation
  • 22. Many industries afford similar opportunities to create blue oceans. By questioning conventional definitions of who can and should be the target buyer, companies can often see fundamentally new ways to unlock value. Consider how traditional copy machine manufacturers targeted office purchasing managers. The purchasing manager wanted machines that were large, durable, fast, and required minimal maintenance. Defying the industry logic, Canon, the Japanese company, created the small desktop copier industry by shifting the target customer of the copier industry from corporate purchasers to users. With their small, easy-to-use desktop printers Canon created new market space by focusing on the key competitive factors that the mass of noncustomers, the secretaries that used copiers wanted. Canon Copier – Goods Innovation
  • 23. Consider the British teakettle industry, which, despite its importance to British culture, had flat sales and shrinking profit margins until Philips Electronics, the Dutch consumer electronics company, came along with a teakettle that turned the red ocean blue. By thinking in terms of complementary products and services, Philips saw that the biggest issue the British had in brewing tea was not in the kettle itself but in the complementary product of water, which had to be boiled in the kettle. The issue was the lime scale found in tap water. The lime scale accumulated in kettles as the water was boiled, and later found its way into the freshly brewed tea. The phlegmatic British typically took a teaspoon and went fishing to capture the off-putting lime scale before drinking home-brewed tea. To the kettle industry, the water issue was not its problem. It was the problem of another industry—the public water supply. By thinking in terms of solving the major pain points in customers’ total solution, Philips saw the water problem as its opportunity. The result: Philips created a kettle having a mouth filter that effectively captured the lime scale as the water was poured. Lime scale would never again be found swimming in British homebrewed tea. The industry was again kick-started on a strong growth trajectory as people began replacing their old kettles with the new filtered kettles. Philips – Goods Innovation
  • 24. What is Your Blue Ocean?