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Simulation-Based Training: The Next
Revolution in Radiology Education?
Terry S. Desser, MD
Simulation-based training metho...
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
The modern history of medical simulation began in the
late 1950s with the pioneering work in cardio...
having trained for the set period of time. And although
the system has historically worked well, there is much
room for im...
tasks. The difference between a useful simulation and a
mere computer game based on a medical scenario is the
degree to wh...
become available and computer technology has im-
proved, simulators that enable physicians to interact with
high-fidelity r...
ing interventionalists averaging 12.4 years of endovascu-
lar experience. Specialties represented included 71 inter-
venti...
and to guide the evolution of simulation methodologies.
They note that at present, simulators have not been
shown to be ad...
both training and assessment and are poised to meet
the needs of residency and fellowship program direc-
tors and accredit...
41. Gould DA. Interventional radiology simulation: prepare for a virtual
revolution in training. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2007...
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Simulation-based training: The next Revolution in radiology education?

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Simulation

  1. 1. Simulation-Based Training: The Next Revolution in Radiology Education? Terry S. Desser, MD Simulation-based training methods have been widely adopted in hazardous professions such as aviation, nuclear power, and the military. Their use in medicine has been accelerating lately, fueled by the public’s concerns over medical errors as well as new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for out- come-based and proficiency-based assessment methods. This article reviews the rationale for simulator-based training, types of simulators, their historical development and validity testing, and some results to date in laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic procedures. A number of companies have developed endovascular simu- lators for interventional radiologic procedures; although they cannot as yet replicate the experience of perform- ing cases in real patients, they promise to play an increasingly important role in procedural training in the future. Key Words: Simulation, education, endovascular simulation J Am Coll Radiol 2007;4:816-824. Copyright © 2007 American College of Radiology INTRODUCTION In surgery, as in anything else, skill, judgment, and confidence are learned through experience, haltingly and humiliatingly. Like the tennis player and the oboist and the guy who fixes hard drives, we need practice to get good at what we do. There is one difference in medicine, though: we practice on people. [1] The intrinsic ethical tension between patients’ best interests and trainees’ need for experience came into pub- lic focus with the publication of the Institute of Medicine report To Err Is Human [2]. The staggering number of supposedly preventable medical errors cited in that publication—more than the number of annual vehic- ular fatalities—garnered headlines nationwide and led to demands for increased scrutiny of medical educa- tion practices from both politicians and the general pub- lic. And although much has been learned in recent de- cades about what constitutes effective adult education, current medical training paradigms remain virtually identical to those originally outlined by Flexner and Hal- sted a century ago [3]. Simulation, as defined by anesthesiologist and simula- tion pioneer David Gaba [4], “is a technique—not a technology—to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive manner.” Simulation-based education methods have been widely used in industries such as commercial aviation, nuclear power, and the military, in which training in real-life situations would be hazardous and mistakes disastrous. As is often the case, however, real-life catastrophes oc- curred before simulation methods gained acceptance and a critical mass of support. In the case of commercial aviation, for example, a flight simulator had been devel- oped in 1929, but it took high pilot death rates during World War II before flight simulation was embraced by the Air Force as a training tool [3]. Medical education may now be at a similar tipping point. Simulation-based training methods are being used with increasing frequency in medical school and resi- dency training programs [5]. The 2007 International Meeting for Simulation in Healthcare sponsored by the Society for Simulation in Healthcare (http://www.ssih. org) drew more than 1,200 attendees, double the number from the previous year. Radiologists have taken note: the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), the So- ciety of Interventional Radiology, and the Cardiovascu- lar and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe have all established individual task forces and have joined together to set strategy and issue recommendations for simulation training [6]. In this article, I review the his- torical development, types, and evaluation methods of simulation-based training techniques in medicine in gen- eral and radiology in particular. The potential role of simulation in assessment and credentialing is also dis- cussed. Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. Corresponding author and reprints: Terry S. Desser, MD, Stanford Uni- versity School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 300 Pasteur Drive, Mail Code 5621, Stanford, CA 94305; e-mail: desser@stanford.edu. © 2007 American College of Radiology 0091-2182/07/$32.00 ● DOI 10.1016/j.jacr.2007.07.013 816
  2. 2. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT The modern history of medical simulation began in the late 1950s with the pioneering work in cardiopulmonary resuscitation of anesthesiologist Peter Safar [7-9]. Stim- ulated by research showing that expired air ventilation administered to patients by face mask or endotracheal tube was capable of maintaining normal blood gases in patients, Safar began a series of studies that culminated in his paper on mouth-to-mouth ventilation, published in JAMA in 1958 [10]. Safar presented his findings at conferences worldwide, including a Scandinavian Soci- ety of Anesthetists meeting in Norway later that year. In attendance was anesthesiologist Bjorn Lind, who intro- duced Safar to Norwegian toymaker Asmund Laerdal. The 3 collaborated to produce the resuscitation training mannequin known as Resusci Anne in 1960, adding a chest compression component after the discovery by in- vestigators at Johns Hopkins University that external compression of the chest could generate a blood pressure pulse in animals. Laerdal Medical’s Resusci Anne enabled the training of both medical professionals and laypersons in techniques of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and has saved countless lives since its initial development. In the mid-1990s, two anesthesiologist colleagues of Safar’s at the University of Pittsburgh developed a more anatomi- cally correct airway and simulator and contracted with the Medical Plastics Corporation of Texas for its manu- facture. Laerdal then acquired Medical Plastics and mar- keted the simulator under the name SimMan [7,8]. A second simulation effort in the mid-1960s by Uni- versity of Southern California engineer Stephen Abraha- mson and physician Judson Denson introduced com- puter control to mannequin simulators. Their Sim One mannequin was built in collaboration with the aerospace company Aerojet, which needed to develop peacetime applications of its technologies in the military funding lull before the escalation of the Vietnam War [8]. Given the computer technology available at the time, Sim One was remarkably lifelike, with, for example, pupils that dilated and constricted and a chest that moved with respiration. However, the simulator was never commer- cially viable because of the limited availability of com- puter technology and lack of demand for simulation- based training from medical educators steeped in the apprenticeship training paradigm [8,11]. A third simula- tion effort, a cardiology physical examination training mannequin called Harvey, was developed at the Univer- sity of Miami in 1968. Harvey could reproduce a variety of physical findings, including blood pressure, respira- tory rate, pulses, heart sounds, and murmurs. Students who trained with Harvey were shown to perform better in their cardiology electives than peers who trained only with patients [8,12]. The development of sophisticated mathematical mod- els of physiology and pharmacology together with inno- vations in computer technology permitted more realistic mannequin simulators to be developed, beginning in the 1980s. Stanford anesthesiologist David Gaba and col- leagues created the Comprehensive Anesthesia Simulation Environment, which combined a simulated “patient” (a mannequinwhosevitalsignscouldbemanipulatedbycom- puter) and a real operating room equipped with actual an- esthesia machines. This “high-fidelity simulation” used a realistic simulated environment and focused on team- based training, following models of crew training devel- oped in the aviation industry. Using the Comprehensive Anesthesia Simulation Environment system, Gaba and his colleagues could train residents and entire medical teams to manage rare but dire critical care events. The system was also used to test the importance of human factors such as fatigue on trainee performance, and their results were used as evidence in development of the Ac- creditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s duty hours limitations for residents. At approximately the same time, a group at the University of Florida de- veloped the Gainesville Anesthesia Simulator, which re- created physiologic changes in response to the adminis- tration of drugs and anesthetic gases. Both systems were later commercialized, the Comprehensive Anesthesia Simulation Environment as MedSim Advanced Med- ical Simulations, Ltd., and the Gainesville Anesthesia Simulator system as Medical Education Technologies, Inc. [8]. As computer technologies became cheaper and more powerful, virtual environments with visual, auditory, and tactile (haptic) components were created that sim- ulated a number of surgical and interventional proce- dures. These “procedural simulators” were developed for a wide range of clinical domains, including bron- choscopy, endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholan- giopancreatography, colonoscopy, ophthalmic sur- gery, surgical suturing, and endovascular procedures described in more detail below [13-20]. WHY SIMULATORS? LIMITATIONS OF CURRENT TRAINING METHODS The current medical education framework dates to the early 20th century and is based on the premise that train- ees will obtain the necessary expertise by observing and working closely with expert practitioners [6,21,22]. After an initial period of close oversight by attending physi- cians, trainees are given progressively more independence in working with patients until the requisite training pe- riod has elapsed. This “master-apprentice” model is thus a time-based system: trainees are assumed to have ac- quired the necessary skills and knowledge by virtue of Desser/Simulation-Based Training 817
  3. 3. having trained for the set period of time. And although the system has historically worked well, there is much room for improvement. First, it is obvious that young physicians have different intrinsic aptitudes and acquire skills at different rates. A system to measure true proficiency would be preferable to establishing a fixed time period for training. Because the length of time physicians train is one of the main factors in training cost, residents who become proficient quickly could see the ultimate cost of their training reduced. Second, attending physicians’ evaluations of trainees’ performance is subjective, and they invariably exhibit the common biases prevalent in performance assessment, such as the “halo effect” (the tendency to rate all perfor- mance categories high or low on the basis of a single trait), leniency bias, recency bias, and so on [6,23]. Sim- ulators, which capture and record performance metrics such as time to complete a task and the accuracy of the result, can provide objective assessment of proficiency. Third, studies of learning have shown that adults learn best when they participate actively in the learning process and are provided with timely and appropriate feedback [24]. Simulation-based training is “hands on” and capa- ble of providing immediate cues to trainees. Fourth, as duty hours are limited and procedures mi- grate to the outpatient setting, trainees’ exposure to a wide variety of cases diminishes. Simulators can poten- tially fill this gap. Finally, it is clear that the public’s tolerance for being the “guinea pigs” while trainees gain clinical experience is rapidly disappearing. Simulation- based training methods potentially provide ample oppor- tunities for trainees to practice complex procedures and crisis management without putting patients at risk. In- deed, some educators argue that simulation-based medi- cal education is now an ethical imperative [25]. TYPES OF SIMULATORS: TERMINOLOGY Simulation devices that reproduce only a limited portion of reality, such as a model of a body part, are often called “part-task trainers.” These are most often used for tech- nical or psychomotor skills training, such as venipunc- ture. Part-task trainers range in sophistication from home-grown devices fabricated from familiar household objects (think of the “olive in a turkey breast” phantom used to train radiologists in ultrasound-guided breast biopsies), to high-tech systems such as the Harvey man- nequin, described above, which trains students in cardiac findings on auscultation. Another way to classify simulators is by the technology they use. “Simulated or standardized patients” are actors trained to act as patients to train medical students in interviewing techniques, physical examinations, and more general communication skills. Standardized pa- tients have become a common part of the curriculum in medical schools and of objective-structured clinical ex- aminations. Mannequins with purely mechanical com- ponents are termed “physical model simulators.” One example is the CPR mannequin Resusci Anne, described above. “Computer-based” systems may be designed like computer games in which the user interacts with a virtual environment via devices that control the scene. ER-sim, an online simulation game (Legacy Interactive, Holly- wood, California; http://www.ersim.com) is one such example. Tactile (haptic) feedback is now technologi- cally feasible and is an essential component of surgical, endoscopic, and endovascular simulators. “Hybrid simulators” combine a physical model or mannequin with a computer that modifies simulated physiologic parameters. “Immersive simulators” create a complete 3-D world in which users are made to feel as if they are operating entirely within the simulated environment. Users move their bodies in space and are able to interact with computer-created scenes. One often cited example is the US Marine Corps combat simulator [26], in which a virtual locomotion control enables the user to move through the scene by walking in place. This technology has recently been incorporated into the latest generation video games, though as yet it has not been developed into a medical simulation tool. VALIDATION AND ASSESSMENT OF SIMULATORS The simulation literature has adopted specific terminol- ogy from the domain of educational testing to evaluate simulation systems [3,27,28]. Face validity describes whether the system looks like what it is designed to represent, in other words, if it is sufficiently realistic for the user to suspend disbelief while performing the simu- lated task. Assessment should also include a subjective evaluation of the ease of use of the interface and whether subjects enjoy using the simulator (usability testing). Content validity, a psychometric concept, describes the extent to which a simulation exercise reproduces all as- pects of the real-world experience. Content validity de- scribes whether a simulator accurately reproduces the process it is supposed to model and must be tested by expert practitioners. Concurrent validity describes how closely subjects’ performance on a simulator correlates with their performance on a gold standard measure of proficiency. So for example, surgeons with recognized expertise should perform significantly better on a simu- lator than novices. Predictive validity describes the extent to which good performance on the simulator predicts good performance on real patients. With current software, it is possible to design any number of virtual environments to simulate a variety of 818 Journal of the American College of Radiology/Vol. 4 No. 11 November 2007
  4. 4. tasks. The difference between a useful simulation and a mere computer game based on a medical scenario is the degree to which the exercise meets the validity criteria above. Evaluations of simulator technology should have professional educators or psychologists as coauthors to define the tasks to be modeled and to prove rigorously that learning has taken place [29]. In addition, there should be a set of performance metrics integrated into the simulator to record trainees’ correct and incorrect ac- tions. And these metrics should be meaningful, not sim- ply easy or convenient to measure. For example, current endovascular simulators track metrics such as the overall time required to perform a procedure, the volume of contrast used, C-arm handling, and so on. But as yet, they cannot capture information on detailed catheter manipulation skills or errors in judgment [6]. Finally, actions on a simulator should follow the laws of physics [3]. When a trainee makes an error, its true physiologic consequences should be reflected in the system. There is controversy about whether it is psychologically harmful to allow trainees to “kill” their patients via their actions in simulators. Nevertheless, errors must be allowed to occur in simulators so that trainees can see potential conse- quences and hopefully limit them to the virtual world rather than the real one. Simulators for Laparoscopic Surgery When laparoscopic surgery was introduced in the 1980s, surgeons needed new visuospatial and psychomotor skills that were difficult to acquire on the job in the operating room. Centers specializing in teaching laparoscopic tech- niques used either animal models or inanimate objects inside boxes (“box trainers”) to allow surgeons to gain facility in the method. Ultimately, virtual reality simula- tors with immersive visual environments and tactile feed- back were developed [21]. Although simulator-based training seems intuitively to be useful, to date there have been few randomized, double-blind, controlled trials proving that simulators are effective. One such study, conducted by Seymour et al [30], showed that residents trained to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomies with a simulator used correct dissection technique, made 6 times fewer intraoperative errors, and had shorter oper- ating times than those who did not. Residents not trained using virtual reality were 5 times more likely to injure the gallbladder or burn nontarget tissue. Another study from Seymour’s group [31] showed that virtual reality training in the use of an angled laparoscope significantly im- proved the operative performance of novices. Recogniz- ing the potential of simulation, the American College of Surgeons has established a formal accreditation process for education programs that meet standards and criteria devised for simulation-based training. To date, 7 institu- tions have been designated as level I American College of Surgeons–accredited education institutes [32]. Simulators in Critical Care As described above, a great deal of simulation technology was developed initially by anesthesiologists. A detailed review of simulator training in clinical care is beyond the scope of this article, but many studies have been per- formed to show that high-fidelity simulation improves the performance of anesthesia and emergency medicine teams in managing crises [11,13, 33-37]. Endoscopy Computer-based simulators have been developed for a variety of endoscopic procedures [14]. Unlike the lapa- roscopic simulators, to date, no rigorous prospective studies have been performed on the effectiveness of en- doscopy simulators. One pilot concurrent validation study of an upper endoscopy simulator suggested that experts performed better than trainees and novices [14], but another study found no benefit to simulator training [18]. For flexible sigmoidoscopy, one study found that bedside training resulted in better scope insertion, nego- tiation of the rectosigmoid region, and other endoscopic tasks compared with simulator training. Another study showed an advantage with simulator training for the very early stages of learning colonoscopy that disappeared once 30 procedures had been performed by the non- simulator-trained group [20]. Overall, recent work sug- gests that simulation may be useful during the early stages of endoscopic procedural training, but it cannot replace traditional bedside instruction [14]. SIMULATORS IN RADIOLOGY In a sense, radiology educators have long made use of simulation-based training in the form of “hot seat” con- ferences. Providing residents with examples of unusual cases in an unknown case-discussion format is a critical component of training, because the full scope of clinical entities they will likely see during decades of practice might not be predictably encountered during the train- ing period. In recent years, there have been efforts such as the RSNA’s Medical Imaging Resource Center, the ACR’s Case-in-Point series, AuntMinnie.com’s “Case of the Day,” and others to enable multimedia, case-based learning on a large scale. In addition, radiology educators in certain sub- specialties have begun to create online teaching modules to exploit the ease of disseminating information in digital form. The Cleveland Clinic Pediatric Radiology module (available at https://www.cchs.net/pediatricradiology/) is one particularly successful example. True immersive simulations in the radiology domain, though, are much newer. As volumetric data sets have Desser/Simulation-Based Training 819
  5. 5. become available and computer technology has im- proved, simulators that enable physicians to interact with high-fidelity reproductions of human anatomy have be- come feasible. Monsky et al [38] used a sonographic simulation system (UltraSim; MedSim Advanced Medi- cal Simulations, Ltd., Fort Lauderdale, Florida; http:// www.medsim.com/products/products.html) to teach and evaluate the performance of two consecutive classes of 8 first-year residents in scanning and interpreting 10 test ultrasound cases in the abdomen and pelvis. The UltraSim system consists of a full-size mannequin with realistic body contours and a soft torso surface, an ultra- sound “probe,” and an ultrasound scanner console and monitor. The probe is actually a 3-D position sensor that interacts with the mannequin and stored commercially available 3-D teaching data sets that have been created from sonograms performed on real patients. Study re- sults showed that the simulator improved residents’ ab- dominal and pelvic scanning technique, as well as their self-assessment scores. The investigators concluded that the simulator was useful for both training and the evalu- ation of residents’ performance. At the 2006 annual meeting of the RSNA, preliminary work on a radiographic simulator for training technolo- gists in the positioning of cervical spine radiographs was presented. A high-resolution, computed tomographic data set of the head and spine is used to create a virtual patient, and students manipulate a computer animation of an x-ray tube to project the virtual beam through the spine. The resultant x-ray projection is calculated from ray projection algorithms and displayed on a second monitor. Students can practice positioning the standard views of the cervical spine initially with “fluoroscopic” feedback, and later without feedback, all without expos- ing patients to radiation [39]. Crisis management in radiology is another area suit- able for simulation training. Medina et al [17] developed a computer simulation of pediatric and adult patients undergoing sedation, analgesia, and contrast media com- plications during radiologic procedures, but to date have not published studies of its effectiveness. More recently, Mainiero et al [40] conducted a high-fidelity medical simulation exercise with an interactive anesthesia man- nequin in whom the physiologic scenario of a life-threat- ening contrast reaction was simulated. Six first-year radi- ology residents were tested on their ability to perform 16 critical actions necessary to stabilize the patient. The exercise exposed several areas of weakness, and 5 of the 6 residents agreed that the training was a valuable educa- tional experience. Simulators in Interventional Radiology Interventional radiology promises to be the radiologic subspecialty in which simulators will have the biggest impact on training and credentialing. The spectacular images now achievable with noninvasive imaging modal- ities such as computed tomographic angiography have reduced the number of purely diagnostic angiograms, thereby minimizing the opportunities for trainees to ac- quire the basic catheter manipulation skills necessary for more advanced interventions such as angioplasty and embolization [28,41,42]. In addition, competitor spe- cialties outside radiology have long been interested in acquiring the skills necessary to perform catheter-based interventions. A number of endovascular simulators have been developed that allow practice with the manipula- tion of catheters and guidewires, contrast media injec- tion, and real-time fluoroscopy (Table 1, Figures 1 and 2). The recent US Food and Drug Administration deci- sion to approve one manufacturer’s carotid stent, contin- gent on the company’s devising a training system that did not put patients at risk, set a precedent and provided a major impetus for the development of endovascular sim- ulators [3,43]. A number of validation studies are now ongoing. Nicholson et al [44] conducted a face and con- tent validity study of the Procedicus VIST simulator (Mentice, Göteborg, Sweden; Table 1) with 100 practic- Table 1. Some common commercial endovascular simulators Trade Name Manufacturer Web Site Procedicus VIST endovascular simulator (Figure 1) Mentice, Göteborg, Sweden http://www.mentice.com Angio Mentor (Figure 2) Simbionix USA Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio http://www.simbionix.com/ANGIO_Mentor.html Simsuite Medical Simulation Corporation, Denver, Colorado http://www.medsimulation.com/education_ system/centers.asp CathLabVR system Immersion Medical Corporation, San Jose, California http://www.immersion.com/corporate/products/ 820 Journal of the American College of Radiology/Vol. 4 No. 11 November 2007
  6. 6. ing interventionalists averaging 12.4 years of endovascu- lar experience. Specialties represented included 71 inter- ventional cardiologists, 21 vascular surgeons, and 1 interventional radiologist. The users attended a 1.5-day course in which they received training on the simulator and then were asked to perform 1 right carotid arterio- gram, 1 left carotid arteriogram, and 1 total right and left carotid angiogram on the system. After the 3 cases were completed, the realism of the Procedicus VIST simulator experience was evaluated on a 5-point, Likert-type scale. Subjects were asked about the appearance of the anat- omy, the realism of the physical behavior of the proce- dure tools, and the overall assessment of the technical tasks in the procedure. The results showed good simula- tion of aortic arch and carotid vascular anatomy, excel- lent realism in catheter and guidewire movements, and overall excellent realism in the procedure. Using a different endovascular simulator (Simsuite; MedicalSimulationCorporation,Denver,Colorado;Table 1), Dawson et al [45] offered a series of 2-day endovas- cular skills training workshops for vascular surgery resi- dents in the first year of vascular specialty training. A vascular surgeon familiar with the simulator supervised 9 residents one on one in catheter, sheath, and wire han- dling; angioplasty balloon inflation; and stent deploy- ment in the domains of aortoiliac, renal, and carotid artery disease. Performance metrics recorded automati- cally by the simulator software included total procedure time, fluoroscopy time, the volume of contrast medium used, time to treat complications, and the total number of balloons, stents, and wires used. Faculty members also provided subjective feedback to trainees on their perfor- mance. Results on the index aortoiliac case showed that compared with performance on day 1, simulation train- ing enabled trainees to perform the case 54% faster with a 48% decrease in fluoroscopy time and a 44% decrease in the volume of contrast material administered. Post- training questionnaires indicated that the trainees found the experience sufficiently realistic to be useful in training and felt that there would be benefit from practicing on a simulator during their fellowships. The direct cost of the program was $2,146 per resident, including the cost of the simulator but not including loss of the trainee’s ser- vices during the 2-day period of the course. One randomized controlled study of 20 general surgery residents learning catheter-based interventions showed that the group receiving simulator training performed better than the control group in 2 consecutive lower extremity endovascular cases [46]. A number of other endovascular simulation studies have been performed, but to date, virtually all have involved vascular surgeons or vascular surgery residents [45, 47-50]. Recently, the Society of Interventional Radiology created the Task Force on Medical Simulation, chaired by Aalpen Patel, MD, of the University of Pennsylvania. Together with the Cardio- vascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Eu- rope, they have created a strategic plan in which they note the limitations of the current master-apprentice training models and outline plans for creating, validating, and promoting medical simulation in interventional radiol- ogy training [6,42,51]. Their mission is to identify the proper role of current simulation technologies in training Fig 1. The Procedicus VIST endovascular simulator (Mentice, Göteborg, Sweden). The operator selects wires, catheters, balloons, and so on, on the control screen (left) and manipulates them via an introducer at the “groin” of the plastic model. A fluoroscopic image of the virtual procedure is shown in the right screen. The simulator provides haptic feedback to the user on the basis of the devices chosen and the vessel being studied and simulates contrast flow and resultant hemodynamics. The system also keeps track of the user’s performance for use in assess- ment. (Courtesy of Mentice.) Fig 2. The Simbionix ANGIO Mentor (Simbionix USA Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio). The user operates wires, catheters, syringes, and other devices at the foot of the simulator. A simulated fluoroscopic image is displayed on the right-hand screen. The left-hand screen shows a simulated image of the C-arm fluo- roscopy procedure. The simulator device provides haptic feedback to the user on the basis of the de- vices chosen and the vascular environment. (Cour- tesy of Simbionix USA Corporation.) Desser/Simulation-Based Training 821
  7. 7. and to guide the evolution of simulation methodologies. They note that at present, simulators have not been shown to be adequate for training novices in catheter manipulation skills and cannot substitute for actual pa- tient experience. Furthermore, as in the aviation indus- try, simulators should be used only in the context of an overall curriculum in interventional procedures and with the oversight of professional societies and regulatory au- thorities [6,28,41,42,51]. In the future, they argue, stan- dard measures for testing and validating simulators should be developed. As with the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard, simulator man- ufacturers should work together to ensure cross-platform compatibility among simulator devices so that, for exam- ple, an anesthesia simulator could interface with an en- dovascular procedure simulator to model the physiologic changes expected if a catastrophic event such as vessel rupture occurs. The joint task force envisions that in the near future, there will be numerous interventional radi- ology simulation training modules proven to transfer skills, reduce errors, deliver clinical benefit, integrated into training curricula and validated for certifying and credentialing examinations [6]. SIMULATION: THE FUTURE As noted previously, powerful forces are converging to drive the future of medical simulation. The current mas- ter-apprentice model of resident education is “an expen- sive anachronism” [28] that sorely needs updating. Edu- cation researchers have shown that adults learn best by doing, not by listening and observing [24]. Simulation exercises provide medical trainees with hands-on experi- ence and have the potential to accelerate learning dramat- ically, particularly early in training, without exposing patients to any risk. Second, and in part fueled by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Educa- tion, the medical culture is changing from the passive acceptance of time-based training to a proficiency-based model in which core competencies must be documented. Simulation-based methods have the potential for both training and assessment and could prove hugely benefi- cial in credentialing efforts. Third, societal acceptance of trainees’ need to learn at the potential expense of patient care has vanished, necessitating the development of new training models that do not put patients at risk. In anes- thesiology, a culture change to zero tolerance for operat- ing room errors, rather than the acceptance of extremely low error rates, was needed to catalyze high-fidelity sim- ulator development. A similar systems-based approach to minimizing and ultimately eliminating individual error is beginning to take hold in other subspecialties as well. Nevertheless, the wholesale adoption of computer simulators before validation would be irresponsible. Sim- ulation devices must be designed carefully, with input from psychologists who have analyzed the factors that constitute expert performance and need validation by domain experts to show proof of effectiveness. This will be time consuming and expensive. Some of the expense may ultimately be offset by decreased liability in the form of lower malpractice costs. But with health care dollars limited, it is unclear whether forces mobilizing for uni- versal access to medical care will trump those advocating improving patient safety with simulator training. And with doctors’ motivations increasingly suspect in the lay press, simulator deployment must be integrated into a thoughtfully structured subspecialty curriculum, with approval and oversight of regulatory authorities, or risk being viewed simply as a means to quickly credential competitor specialists to perform lucrative procedures. The Interventional Radiology Joint Simulation Task Force has outlined 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year to 10-year plans for the development of training standards, profes- sional education methods, practice building, and simulator research and the dissemination of information about simu- latortrainingtothepublic[51].Otherradiologysubspecial- ties, such as gastrointestinal fluoroscopy, could also benefit from the development of simulators. Although the number of diagnostic upper and lower gastrointestinal studies has decreased dramatically since endoscopy was developed, practicing radiologists still perform these procedures, and residentsnowencountermanyfeweropportunitiesforprac- tice during training. Unlike interventional radiology, how- ever, there are no device manufacturers with a financial interest in catalyzing development of gastrointestinal proce- dural simulators, so radiology societies, such as the RSNA, the American Roentgen Ray Society, and the Association of University Radiologists, will likely need to play a role. In the future,atieredtrainingparadigmmayemergeinprocedure- based specialties, one in which inexpensive lower fidelity simulation devices substitute for patients during the steep phase of trainees’ learning curve, followed by higher fidelity simulation supplementing procedural experience with pa- tientsasskillsmature.Onceproveneffective,simulatorswill likely find a role alongside conventional oral and written examinationstodocumenttechnicalproficiencyforcreden- tialing and recertification examinations. CONCLUSION Simulation-based training methods, which have saved countless lives in the fields of aviation, nuclear power, and the military, are beginning to gain a foothold in medicine. The old, time-based, “see one, do one, teach one” apprenticeship model for training residents is being supplanted by an outcome-based model in which tech- nical proficiency and a core knowledge base must be documented. Simulation techniques can be used for 822 Journal of the American College of Radiology/Vol. 4 No. 11 November 2007
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Simulation-based training: The next Revolution in radiology education?

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