Proyecto final andres de jesus


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Proyecto final andres de jesus

  1. 1. RESEARCH PROPOSAL PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE REPORT ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAMME Researcher’s name: Andrés De Jesús Carrillo Student’s registration number: 09-10410 Working Title: Teaching Pronunciation to EFL Children General Line of Research: English Language Teaching Nature of Research: Descriptive research Date: 12/12/13
  2. 2. Abstract Having a good pronunciation it is not a trend. This goes beyond having an accent like a native speaker. The globalization has reached our lives and therefore English it is important and it is important to learn the right pronunciation. This is because one can be misunderstood when speaking and saying wrong words. Teaching English to EFL children has become one of the things that are important. In this research we are going over techniques which can be helpful to teachers and they can learn new strategies. Besides, possible problems are going to be expressed in this experience. In addition; activities and the process of how these activities can be developed and how they can help in the language learning process. And how students can improve their listening, production skill can be developed. Finally students can feel free to produce more fluently speech with activities according to the age and grade of students.
  3. 3. Introduction Language is an amazing process where the brain takes different changes and we as human being are made for language according to Noam Chomsky. He says that we are endowed with this gift of developing the language and producing this intelligence of communication. One thing is important, is that despite that the languages are different they have something in common according to the law of UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR by Noam Chomsky, 1957 (all languages share the same features as noun, adj, adv etc...) Teaching English has turned out to be very popular here in Mexico because of the globalization and the new technology, software programs etc. English was meant from high school to university. However as I mention before, English has reached this importance and many countries have chosen it to implement the English language to their children too. Teaching children takes a more deep research and methods for making children learn the language. Piaget talks about the different stages (sensorial, pre-operational and operational) that a baby to a person goes through in the developing of the language. This is important because we can take into account how to teach toddlers, kids depending of what stage they are. In addition, as Noam Chomsky states that all human being are born to learn any language because we have the gift of the language which only human kind has this skill. So, this is that no matter what our first language might be; we can learn another language.
  4. 4. Pronunciation has become a very important factor when teaching because English has a lot of phonemes that in comparison with Spanish which does not have them. Therefore, it is a problem when learning. And besides, if one as a teacher does not work on children pronunciation is like giving up on what one is working. I mean, for example; the words three and tree they might be similar to EFL Spanish speaker learners. However; they are not even close to that. The reason of this is that they are phonological different. The word three has a theta sound/θ/ and the word tree has not; it does have a stop consonant sound which is/t/. Therefore, it is important to teach phonemes in order to avoid students to get confused and have a better understanding of English. The technique bottom-up looks to be suitable because it is useful using this method for the reason that it comes to the learning process of the sound and learners learn and identify by listening. Another point is that teaching teenagers from adults or children is completely dissimilar. When teaching children, one has to be more careful on what you say, how one acts, or even the way you feel (Children can perceive the way you feel and that may affect their learning). Bearing in mind what I said before of taking into account the Piagets theories, we can analyse how a child will act or what he can do in his learning through the language.
  5. 5. Rationale Me as an English Foreign Language Student of ninth semester I think that my experience in teaching pronunciation to EFL children was difficult at the beginning for the simple reason that I had to look for more information of how children are in learning process. In this project, I will point out some problems when teahcing EFL children. When I started teaching was in Octavio Paz which is an Elementary school. I started working in the PNIEB Program. This program is in charge of the English teaching in elementary schools in Quintana Roo. There was when I had to face reality of teaching and put in practice some techniques and strategies I learned in my mayor. Unfortunately, I never took any subject of how to teach children during my mayor. So it was a disadvantage when I had this obstacle standing in my way. Teching English to children is one of the things more rewarding but hard in the same time. On one hand, children are good learners and they learn unconsciously in comparison with adults. Thus, children need to be taught with the correct pronunciation due to children learn by repetion and they can learn wrong words if they are not told the correct sound. On the other hand, teaching English as a forign language is hard becuase unfortunately children are not exposed to the language after class and most of them have no acces to internet, books, videos or what is surprising they are not second learners and they are confused because their L1 is Maya and it becomes a problem in the classroom when learning. Due to these issues, children and teacher may find some troubles on their way. However; having a good pronunciation is not having a native speaker like accent but it is to be understood when speaking, being clearly, consistent and with good fluency.
  6. 6. Objectives To describe my experience in teaching pronunciation to EFL children To analyse the current theoretical and methodological approaches about how to teach pronunciation to EFL/ESL children. To compare my own experience of teaching pronunciation to EFL/ESL children and the current theoretical and methodological approaches about how to teach pronunciation to EFL children. To analyse the benefits that teaching pronunciation to EFL/ESL children has and to provide some recommendations.
  7. 7. Pronunciation is getting more and more importance even for children who are good and quick learners due to their age. On one hand, having good pronunciation is becoming important to other people not only children. People who is leaving form tourism they need to improve their pronunciation because many of this business men/women are offering their product and one mispronounce word will cause their customers leave elsewhere. The conclusion may be relevant for school because they can be prepared and have more information about the sound production development. The materials that can be used for teaching English to EFL children. People who create materials they can use this information and that way they will have a knowledge of how creating materials for teaching pronunciation to EFL children. Pre-service teachers will recieve this benefit too. One of the things that motivated to pick this resaerch was that I wanted to share my expericnces I had during my work as an English teacher in the Octavio Paz Elementary School. Besides, I thought it could be interesting unfolding the stpes I carried out in my practice.
  8. 8. Review of Literature Universal Grammar says that children are born with this ability no matter they have been born; they can develop the ability of comprehension of the rules of the language. The Critical Period Hypothesis proposed by Lenneberg (1967) says that human being has period of time for acquiring a language. This is that if a person goes beyond that critical period is going to be difficult to acquiere or learn a language. However, it is interesibg that the critical period says that if a six year old child that knows Spanish and that is exposed to an English Enviroment. He will be able to acquiere the language in an easier way. For that reason, the critical period is importan when learning a language. This is that, when someone is older it takes more efforts and hardly one can get a native pronunsation. Adquisition is another theory that Noam Chomsky propuses and he explains that children in order to acquire a language they need to deduce the implicit rules of the language. They go throught a proces where they play with the language and think up their own rules.
  9. 9. Bottom up Approach Language learning gives us the basics of language. Then, we can move on to more compound structures, and lastly, to less important structure. Therefore, there is a constrasting comparison with Top-down learning in which pupils attempt to appreciate the common point without perceptiving the entire component parts of a language. “Listening for exact phareses and words would be considered a bottom up approach. Top-down: This method is about the skills like reading and listening selection without worring about the individual components of language.The learners try to get how to use cues such as intonation, tone of voice of the language without focusing on specific words and structures. According to some researchs have shown the importance becuase it can produce autumatic processing. Lidia Usó Viciedo, Escuela Oficial de Idiomas de Barcelona-Drassanes on her researche she says that pronunciation is a proces that takes time an according to her researchs. She made an experiment to Frorign Spanish learners. She devided to groups of 10 students each one. One group was exposed to extra pronunciation classes and the other was not. The 20 students were form England. She found that those who were exposed to the extra calsses improve their pronunciation with the /r/ and the /ñ/ which are sounds difficut for them. However, she states that teachers need to be prapare and have to make their own materials of how to make activities in order to elicit the practice and improvement of the students. Thus making this in a different way studnets feel more comfortable and learn the right pronunciation without being afraid of making mistake and being ashamed.
  10. 10. Contextual Framework PNIEB (Programa Naciona de Ingles en Educacion Basica) is a program that started in Chihuahua 2009. This program had an intention of implementing English as a Second Language in Elementary School and carrying it to collage in order to have a sequence. This is because of a research made by Romero Vega Maria Guadalupe that says that many students in university had problem when learning English and they said that the reason of this was that they could never learn in high school. Therefore, the program came up. However, this program is not given a sequence as the first aim meant to but it is now applied to all elementary school of the country. The PNIEB program uses the Competences teaching in which students can develop abilities and different knowledge. I Started working Octavio Paz do Elementary School and I still that is located in Chetumal Quintana Roo. Octavio Paz Elementary School has computers in the classrooms but unfortunately they do not work. In addition, the school lack of a language lab which that could be another problem because if the Elementary School Had one children could be more exposed to the language and would practice more the language. The classrooms can have room from 29 to 35 students and the students are from a medium class. However; the classrooms are not adorned with English posters. Unfortunately; this does not depend on the English teachers or students willing to do it. It is because school has policies which do not allowed posting any poster. Thus, Teaching English in Octavio Paz was challenging for me. I taught 5 groups in which the average of students was 33 students by each group. On one hand, there were children that had been in an English context (they have been in the USA) and they had plenty knowledge of the language making the teaching easier.
  11. 11. On the other hand; there were children who had Maya as first language, Spanish as a second one and English as a third causing confusion on those students who were unable to understand the instructions for any activity carried out. Theorical Framwork Teaching By competences Teaching by competences is one of the current methods now use for teaching laguages and has been really succesful. Studets are evaluated and taught in a different way, Staudents learn through a process. In addition, in that proccess get in volved Students, teachers. Students learn skills which will be evaluated and according how they performed during the process is how they will be evaluated. The evaluation is a constant process and Teachers need to make their own tools of evaluation which can be rubrics, checklist, etc. Students develop abilities such as to know with the language, to be through the laguage, to do with the language. That way Students are able to do and are acompetitive for life. Most of the activities are meant for context of real life, students develop social skills like workteam, and they master their abilities. Jean peagiet (1890-1980) talks about the stages that children go through when acquiring the language. He explains every stage according to the age of the children. He states 4 stages the sensori-motor sage (from birth to two years), pre-operational stage (from two to seven years of age), Concrete operational stage (from seven to eleven years of age) and formal operational stage (from eleven years onwards) In his book The Language and the Tought of the Child (published in1923) he states that development was a procces of acquiringthe principles of formal logic. This means to the basic logical abilities as “oparations”.
  12. 12. Vogotsky’s thoery (Social Constructivism, 1896-1934) Vogosky states the Zone of Proximal Development. This means that describes the difference between the present knwoledge of the infant and the potential kwnoledge practicable with some help from a more knwoledgable peer and adult. Therefore a child who feels earger to read a story he may stop when he does not know a word. However if there is someone near who helps him, the child will be able to continue with the reading and improve his reading. Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983, Frame of mind) He sugests that intelligence had no unitary feature. It showed itself in countless dissimilar ways in diverse children. The types of intelligences are the following: linguistic, logico- mathematical, musical, spatial, kinaesthetic, and interpersonal, intrapesonal, and naturalist. Depending of the kind of multiple intelligence theory the child might be. He will learn in an easier way if he is taught with activities he feels comfortable and free to express himself.
  13. 13. Method In my experience I worked with five groups of different gardes. The numbers of students varied from 28 to 35 in each group. However, they learn very quickly. I will make examples of similar words that have similar sound in their L1 to the L2. Consequently, I will apply activities where they will have to identify which word I mean. E.g. I will teach the words three and tree. Students will have to repeat several times then I will say the word and they are going to say in Spanish what was the word meaning. I am going to do that for a week but later I will make the activity more interesting. I will read a sentence and they will have to say what the sentence mean. As the time goes by, I will notice that children depending their age will have different needs and the pace of learning will be dissimilar and want of different activities and materials. Thus, I will have to get song for chidlren of sixth grade and more images for students of first and third grade. The images can be really useful cause for things like the example above for first grade children are eager to repeat and relate images with sounds. One of the problems that I may have it is that different ages children that requeired different activities. For example, children form sixth grade need more acivites like songs and games instead of images and fewer movements. Same activities for all groups may get students distracted, and even it will make the class be bored. Other problem would be that there are students who have Maya as firt language and they have Spanish as second language an then English as third language.
  14. 14. The problem is that they may be learning Spanish and barely understand Spanish. Consecuently, I would not able to communicate with them in Maya because I do not know the language. So, must of the activities would be difficult for them and they will not able to do it or they will get bored for not understanding Spanish nor English. When creating material, it would be a problem because it is time consuming and sometimes could be inadequate for the grade, age or even with the children’s personalities. For the first problem one can read about Piagets and know more about the stages he sugests. That way, one can know how a child behaves and what kind of activity and materials are suitbale according to students’ needs. For the second problem, I think is important that teachers learn few words of maya like giving isntruction and that way the child will understand and he/she will relate his/her L1 to the third language and will feel more confident and not frustrated or bored for not understanding the directions of the activies. Finally, creating material is realy hard. Nonetheless, one can ask other teachers to exchange materials and this saves time and one learns from others. Besides, it is crucial to care of the material you create because making the material everlasting means that you can reuse the materials and saves time, money, and frustration when think up an idea for a class depending the age of the students.
  15. 15. Teaching pronunciation to EFL children is a hard task but it could be rewarding. I need to identify what activities are suitable for children depending their age. I will make worksheets where students have to fill in the gabs when listening to a recording. Other activities are that I say a word and students have to draw the word that they listen to. However; this may take from two to three weeks, later on I can make students pass and produce the laguage after they had practiced the words through that time. I will separate those who had been exposed to the laguage before and use them to give examples if their classmates do not feel confident to say the word. In addition, I can use images for students from first to fourth grade which they may feel more familiarized with pictures and find the activity funner. For students of sixth grade, I can make them learn parts of a song then they will have to sing them and that way children would feel confident and find the activity hilarious. There might be moments in which I can give them the lyrics of the song they had learned but the lyric will be written on piece of paper and they will have to sing the song from that part they picked in the piece of paper. This could be really successful because when they see the word in a different text they can predict how to say it and cheer other classmates up to say a word when they cannot say it or they set right other classmates if one say a word that is mispronounced.
  16. 16. 4. References 15/11/2013, 2:35 PM. 15/11/2013 7:22 PM. 22/11/2013, 1:57 PM. 24/11/2013, 5:21 PM Foster Cohen, S.H 1999; An introduction to child language Development. (Page,56-68) Loyed, P. 1997. Children’s Communication in Grieve. Page 34-43 Huges R. 1997. Understanding Children. Page 76-97 Ana Maria Pinter, Oxfford Universit, 2006. Teaching Young learners. Page 5-34, 45-62)
  17. 17. Gibson, P 1995, Learning to learn In a second Language. Page 26-33. Irujo, S 1998 Teaching Bilingual Children; A teacher Resource book. Page 120-145. Dry, P 1999. The Intercultural Dimensions: Foringn Education In the Primary School Berling. Page 14-38. Erika Hoff, 2012. Research methods In child Languge: A Practical Guide. Page 77-101)
  18. 18. Project timetable I can make recordings where students listen and practice the pronunciation. First two weeks. Then, I can make pair of words which have similar sound and make them write them down in order they can identify each word. This could be for two week also. When students are better prepared they are given a role and other students need to identify what they are saying according to the sentences. This could be done for three weeks. I can make images where first they are taught the right pronunciation and they are shown several images and on each image have a similar pronunciation and they are shown the images. Consequently, Students have to say the right word according to the images. This could be carried out for a month and it can be mixed with the other activities in order to reinforce students’ skills.