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E100 manual

  1. 1. ECLIPSE 100 USER COURSE
  2. 2. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 2 of 499 08/04/99 CONTENTS Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................13 Purpose .............................................................................................................................................................14 What is Reservoir Simulation...........................................................................................................................16 How Does the Model Relate to the Reservoir ..................................................................................................18 Why Reservoir Simulation?..............................................................................................................................22 Why ECLIPSE?................................................................................................................................................24 ECLIPSE Features............................................................................................................................................26 How ECLIPSE Works......................................................................................................................................28 Static Reservoir Description.............................................................................................................................32 PVT and Rock Data..........................................................................................................................................36 Initialisation Data..............................................................................................................................................38 Equilibration.................................................................................................................................................39 Enumeration .................................................................................................................................................39 Restart Runs .................................................................................................................................................39 Well Data..........................................................................................................................................................42 Reservoir Simulation with ECLIPSE ...............................................................................................................44 How to Use the Manuals...................................................................................................................................46 File Organisation and Structure ............................................................................................................................49 ECLIPSE Input / Output Structure ...................................................................................................................50 ECLIPSE Output Files......................................................................................................................................52 ECLIPSE Output Styles....................................................................................................................................56 Output File Names............................................................................................................................................60 File Extensions and Case..............................................................................................................................61 How to Alter Personal Default File Extensions and Case ............................................................................62 Output Styles................................................................................................................................................63 File Locations ...................................................................................................................................................64 Utility Macros...................................................................................................................................................66 @convert ......................................................................................................................................................67 @copyconfig ................................................................................................................................................67 @ecl2avs ......................................................................................................................................................67 @expand.......................................................................................................................................................67 @extract .......................................................................................................................................................67 @flexstart.....................................................................................................................................................67 @frame.........................................................................................................................................................67 @lmdown.....................................................................................................................................................68 @lmhostid ....................................................................................................................................................68 @lmstat ........................................................................................................................................................68 Input Data File Structure ..................................................................................................................................70 Data File Syntax ...............................................................................................................................................74 Keyword Syntax ...............................................................................................................................................76 Any Section Keywords.....................................................................................................................................80 INCLUDE ....................................................................................................................................................81 COLUMNS ..................................................................................................................................................81 DEBUG........................................................................................................................................................81 NOECHO .....................................................................................................................................................81 ECHO...........................................................................................................................................................81 EXTRAPMS.................................................................................................................................................81 OPTIONS.....................................................................................................................................................81 MESSAGES.................................................................................................................................................81 NOWARN....................................................................................................................................................82 FORMFEED.................................................................................................................................................82 LOAD...........................................................................................................................................................82 The RUNSPEC Section ........................................................................................................................................83 Purpose of the RUNSPEC Section ...................................................................................................................84 How to Convert Fixed Format RUNPSEC to Free Format ..........................................................................86 RUNSPEC Keywords and Switches.................................................................................................................88 Commonly used RUNSPEC keywords and switches...................................................................................89
  3. 3. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 3 of 499 08/04/99 Data Files with No RUNSPEC.........................................................................................................................92 How to Create a Fast Restart........................................................................................................................93 System Usage........................................................................................................................................................95 Basic Unix Commands .....................................................................................................................................96 The vi Editor...................................................................................................................................................100 The GRID Section...............................................................................................................................................105 Purpose of the GRID Section..........................................................................................................................106 Data Reading Convention...............................................................................................................................110 Cartesian Grids...........................................................................................................................................110 Radial Grids................................................................................................................................................110 Geometrical Representations..........................................................................................................................114 Block Centred Geometry............................................................................................................................115 Corner Point Geometry ..............................................................................................................................116 Corner Point versus Block Centred Geometry ...........................................................................................117 Block-Centred Geometry Example.................................................................................................................118 Corner Point Geometry Example....................................................................................................................122 Grid Cell Properties........................................................................................................................................124 How to Assign Grid Cell Properties ...............................................................................................................126 How to Set One Property Value per Grid Cell ...........................................................................................127 How to Set Grid Cell Property Values Using Boxes..................................................................................128 How to Set Grid Cell Property Values Using EQUALS ............................................................................128 How to Copy Grid Cell Property Data .......................................................................................................130 How to Add, Subtract, Multiply and Divide Grid Cell Property Data .......................................................131 How to Multiply Cell Pore Volume Using MULTPV................................................................................132 How to Copy Data From one Portion of the Grid to Another using COPYBOX.......................................132 How to Read Data from Another File Using INCLUDE............................................................................133 How to Deactivate Cells Using ACTNUM ................................................................................................133 Transmissibility Conventions .........................................................................................................................136 Cartesian Grid Transmissibility......................................................................................................................138 OLDTRAN Transmissibility Calculation...................................................................................................139 OLDTRANR Transmissibility Calculation................................................................................................142 NEWTRAN Transmissibility Calculation..................................................................................................144 Radial Grid Transmissibility...........................................................................................................................146 Shale Modelling..............................................................................................................................................150 Modelling shales explicitly as grid layers ..................................................................................................151 Modelling shales by incorporation into larger sand cells ...........................................................................151 Modelling shales as gaps between sand layers...........................................................................................152 Transmissibility Modification.........................................................................................................................154 Non-Neighbour Connections..........................................................................................................................160 NNC Generation across Faults .......................................................................................................................162 NNC Generation across Pinchouts .................................................................................................................164 NNC Generation at Local Grid Refinements..................................................................................................166 NNCs in Dual Porosity Models ......................................................................................................................168 NNC Generation in Aquifers..........................................................................................................................170 NNC Generation in Radial Models.................................................................................................................172 Radial Models.................................................................................................................................................174 Output Control................................................................................................................................................178 GRIDFILE..................................................................................................................................................179 NOGGF......................................................................................................................................................179 INIT............................................................................................................................................................179 RPTGRID...................................................................................................................................................179 BOUNDARY .............................................................................................................................................180 Grid Section Keyword Summary....................................................................................................................182 Cartesian Geometry....................................................................................................................................183 Radial Geometry.........................................................................................................................................183 Cell Properties............................................................................................................................................183 Pinchouts & Deactivation...........................................................................................................................184 Transmissibility..........................................................................................................................................184 Transmissibility modification.....................................................................................................................184 Faults..........................................................................................................................................................184 Diffusivity ..................................................................................................................................................185
  4. 4. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 4 of 499 08/04/99 Numerical Aquifers....................................................................................................................................185 Operators....................................................................................................................................................185 Dual Porosity / Permeability ......................................................................................................................185 Flux Boundary Option................................................................................................................................186 Independent Reservoir Regions..................................................................................................................186 Thermal Option ..........................................................................................................................................186 Vertical Equilibrium Option.......................................................................................................................186 Miscellaneous and Output..........................................................................................................................186 The EDIT Section ...............................................................................................................................................189 Purpose of the EDIT Section ..........................................................................................................................190 Edit Section Keyword Summary ....................................................................................................................192 The PROPS Section – Fluid Properties...............................................................................................................195 Purpose of Fluid Properties.............................................................................................................................196 Black Oil Overview........................................................................................................................................198 Black oil versus compositional simulation .....................................................................................................202 The Oil Equation of State ...............................................................................................................................204 Dead Oil PVT Data Entry Using PVDO.........................................................................................................208 Dead Oil PVT Data Entry Using PVCDO......................................................................................................210 Live Oil PVT Data Entry Using PVTO..........................................................................................................212 Live Oil PVT Data Entry Using PVCO..........................................................................................................214 The Gas Equation of State ..............................................................................................................................216 Dry Gas Data entry Using PVZG ...................................................................................................................220 Dry Gas PVT Data Entry Using PVDG..........................................................................................................222 Wet Gas PVT Data Entry Using PVTG..........................................................................................................224 The Water Equation of State...........................................................................................................................226 Reference Densities ........................................................................................................................................228 Black Oil Model Phase Options......................................................................................................................230 Three-phase simulations.............................................................................................................................231 Two-phase simulations...............................................................................................................................231 Single phase simulations ............................................................................................................................232 Defining Multiple PVT Types using PVT Regions........................................................................................234 How to define multiple PVT types using PVT regions ..............................................................................235 Defining Multiple PVT Types using API Tracking........................................................................................238 How to Implement API Tracking...............................................................................................................239 Example API Tracking Data ......................................................................................................................240 Rock Compressibility .....................................................................................................................................244 Saturation Functions and Endpoint Scaling ........................................................................................................247 Purpose of Saturation Functions.....................................................................................................................248 Saturation Functions.......................................................................................................................................250 Saturation Function Definition...................................................................................................................251 Saturation Function Keyword Family 1 .....................................................................................................252 Saturation Function Keyword Family 2 .....................................................................................................253 Three-Phase Relative Permeability.................................................................................................................256 Eclipse Default ...........................................................................................................................................257 Modified STONE1 .....................................................................................................................................257 Modified STONE2 .....................................................................................................................................257 Saturation Function Scaling............................................................................................................................258 Endpoint Scaling.............................................................................................................................................260 How to Implement Endpoint Scaling .........................................................................................................261 2-Point and 3-Point Endpoint Scaling ........................................................................................................263 Limiting three-Point Endpoint Scaling.......................................................................................................264 Vertical scaling...............................................................................................................................................266 Capillary Pressure Scaling..............................................................................................................................270 Vertical Capillary Pressure Scaling............................................................................................................271 Horizontal Capillary Pressure Scaling........................................................................................................271 The Leverett J Function..............................................................................................................................271 Pressure Dependent Interfacial Tension.....................................................................................................272 Output Control................................................................................................................................................274 The REGIONS Section .......................................................................................................................................277 Purpose of the REGIONS Section..................................................................................................................278 Regions Keyword Types.................................................................................................................................280
  5. 5. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 5 of 499 08/04/99 Region definition keywords .......................................................................................................................281 Fluid in Place Regions................................................................................................................................282 Directional Keywords.................................................................................................................................283 Operators....................................................................................................................................................283 Output Controls..........................................................................................................................................283 The SOLUTION Section ....................................................................................................................................285 Purpose of the SOLUTION Section ...............................................................................................................286 Equilibration...................................................................................................................................................288 Initial Phase Saturation...............................................................................................................................289 Initial Phase Saturation in the Transition Zone ..........................................................................................290 EQUIL Keyword Usage..................................................................................................................................292 Block Centre Equilibration.............................................................................................................................294 Level and Tilted Block Fine Grid Equilibration.............................................................................................296 Quiescence .................................................................................................................................................297 Mobile Fluid Correction .................................................................................................................................300 Transition Zone Endpoint Variation...............................................................................................................304 Matching Initial Water Distribution ...............................................................................................................306 Enumeration....................................................................................................................................................308 Initial Solution Ratios.....................................................................................................................................310 Restarts ...........................................................................................................................................................312 How to Create a Full Restart Run...............................................................................................................315 How to Create a Fast Restart Run ..............................................................................................................316 Flexible vs. Fast Restarts............................................................................................................................317 Output Control................................................................................................................................................320 Aquifer Modelling...............................................................................................................................................323 Aquifer Modelling Facilities...........................................................................................................................324 Grid Cell Aquifers ..........................................................................................................................................326 Numerical Aquifers ........................................................................................................................................328 Fetkovich Aquifers .........................................................................................................................................332 Carter-Tracy Aquifers.....................................................................................................................................336 Flux Aquifers..................................................................................................................................................340 Output Control................................................................................................................................................342 The SUMMARY Section....................................................................................................................................345 Purpose of the SUMMARY Section...............................................................................................................346 Additional Parameters ....................................................................................................................................350 Field quantities...........................................................................................................................................351 Region quantities........................................................................................................................................351 Group quantities .........................................................................................................................................351 Well quantities............................................................................................................................................351 Block quantities..........................................................................................................................................351 Connection quantities.................................................................................................................................352 Output Controls and Additional Keywords ....................................................................................................354 Anisotropic relative permeability keywords...............................................................................................355 Reservoir Volumes.....................................................................................................................................355 Oil Recovery Efficiencies...........................................................................................................................355 Oil Recovery Mechanisms .........................................................................................................................355 Analytic Aquifer Quantities .......................................................................................................................355 Brine Option Keywords..............................................................................................................................355 Simulator Performance Keywords .............................................................................................................356 Output Control Keywords ..........................................................................................................................356 The SCHEDULE Section – History Matching....................................................................................................357 Purpose of the SCHEDULE Section ..............................................................................................................358 History Matching Versus Prediction...............................................................................................................360 History Matching........................................................................................................................................361 Prediction ...................................................................................................................................................361 History Match SCHEDULE Section Structure...............................................................................................364 VFP Curve Specification ................................................................................................................................368 VFP Table Generation................................................................................................................................369 Production Well VFP Table Structure........................................................................................................370 Injection Well VFP Table Structure...........................................................................................................370 Pipeline Segment VFP Table Structure......................................................................................................371
  6. 6. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 6 of 499 08/04/99 VFP Table Usage in ECLIPSE...................................................................................................................371 How to Set up VFP Tables in Eclipse ........................................................................................................372 Drilling a Well: WELSPECS..........................................................................................................................374 Gas Flow in Wells ..........................................................................................................................................380 Low Pressure gas wells ..............................................................................................................................381 The Russel Goodrich Equation...................................................................................................................381 The Gas Pseudopressure.............................................................................................................................382 Standard Inflow Equation...........................................................................................................................383 Connection Specification: COMPDAT ..........................................................................................................384 Partial Completion: COMPRP........................................................................................................................392 Partial Completion with VE: COMPVE.........................................................................................................396 Measured Well Production Rates: WCONHIST ............................................................................................402 Well Injection Rates: WCONINJE.................................................................................................................406 Simulator Control: TUNING, TUNINGL and NEXTSTEP...........................................................................410 Output Control : RPTSCHED and RPTRST ..................................................................................................414 Re-Solution and Re-Evaporation Rates: DRSDT & DRVDT ........................................................................418 Simulation Advance and Termination: DATES, TSTEP & END ..................................................................420 Well Performance Matching...........................................................................................................................422 Productivity Index Adjustment...................................................................................................................423 Drawdown Adjustment...............................................................................................................................424 Manual Workovers, Rate and PI Modifications..............................................................................................426 Manually Opening and Shutting Wells or Connections: WELOPEN ........................................................427 Completion Workovers: COMPDAT.........................................................................................................427 Partially Penetrated Completion Workovers: COMPRP, COMPVE .........................................................427 Modifying Well Targets: WELTARG........................................................................................................427 Well Pi Modification: WELPI and WPIMULT..........................................................................................428 Modelling Well Stimulation by means other than Skin Factor Change .....................................................428 The SCHEDULE Section – Prediction ...............................................................................................................431 Prediction SCHEDULE Section Structure......................................................................................................432 Setting Well Target Rates: WCONPROD ......................................................................................................436 Economic Limit Definition.............................................................................................................................440 Well Economic Limits, Automatic Workovers and Cutbacks........................................................................442 Well Economic Limits................................................................................................................................443 Connection Economic Limits: CECON .....................................................................................................444 Plugging Wells Back: WPLUG..................................................................................................................445 Workovers using WLIFT ...........................................................................................................................446 Well Testing: WTEST................................................................................................................................447 Cutting Wells Back: WCUTBACK............................................................................................................448 Group Control.................................................................................................................................................450 Creating a Group Hierarchy: GRUPTREE.................................................................................................452 Group / Field Production Control: GCONPROD ...........................................................................................454 Production Target Infringements................................................................................................................455 Solution Method.........................................................................................................................................456 Group Injection Control: GCONINJE ............................................................................................................458 Surface Injection Rate ................................................................................................................................459 Reservoir Volume Injection Rate ...............................................................................................................459 Re-injection................................................................................................................................................459 Voidage Replacement.................................................................................................................................459 Priority Control...............................................................................................................................................462 Group Economic Limits: GECON..................................................................................................................464 Convergence .......................................................................................................................................................467 Typical Convergence Problems......................................................................................................................468 Data Error...................................................................................................................................................469 PVT Table Errors .......................................................................................................................................469 VFP Table Errors .......................................................................................................................................470 Saturation Table Errors ..............................................................................................................................470 Typographic Errors ....................................................................................................................................471 Missing values............................................................................................................................................471 Special Characters......................................................................................................................................471 Model Design.............................................................................................................................................472 Grid Geometry............................................................................................................................................472
  7. 7. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 7 of 499 08/04/99 LGR Design................................................................................................................................................472 Program defects..........................................................................................................................................472 Eclipse 100 User Course Exercises.....................................................................................................................474 Exercise 1: Single Well Coning Model ..........................................................................................................475 Exercise 2: Sector Model RUNSPEC Section................................................................................................479 Exercise 3: Sector Model GRID Section ........................................................................................................481 Exercise 4: Sector Model PROPS and REGIONS Sections ...........................................................................485 Exercise 5: Sector Model Initialisation...........................................................................................................487 Exercise 6: Sector Model History Match........................................................................................................491 Exercise 7: Sector Model Recovery Optimisation..........................................................................................495 References...........................................................................................................................................................498
  8. 8. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 8 of 499 08/04/99 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: ECLIPSE User Course Structure...........................................................................................................14 Figure 2: Material Balance Applied to Reservoir Simulation...............................................................................16 Figure 3: Reservoir Description versus Simulation Model ...................................................................................18 Figure 4: Role of Simulation.................................................................................................................................22 Figure 5: Role of ECLIPSE...................................................................................................................................24 Figure 6: ECLIPSE 100 and 200 Features ............................................................................................................26 Figure 7: Principal Simulator Activities................................................................................................................28 Figure 8: Simulation Grid Data Requirements......................................................................................................32 Figure 9: PVT and Rock Data Requirements........................................................................................................36 Figure 10: Initialisation Data Requirements .........................................................................................................38 Figure 11: Well flow rates and monthly averages as viewed using Schedule.......................................................42 Figure 12: Simplified Stages of a Full Field Simulation Study.............................................................................44 Figure 13: How to use the ECLIPSE documentation............................................................................................46 Figure 14: Relationship of Eclipse and pre-and post-processors ..........................................................................50 Figure 15: Eclipse outputs.....................................................................................................................................52 Figure 16: Available Eclipse output types ............................................................................................................56 Figure 17: Eclipse filenames for each output style part 1 .....................................................................................60 Figure 18: Eclipse filenames for each output style part 2 .....................................................................................62 Figure 19: Setting Personal File Extensions and Cases.........................................................................................63 Figure 20: Eclipse and related software file locations...........................................................................................64 Figure 21: Eclipse suite utility macros..................................................................................................................66 Figure 22: Major sections of the Eclipse input data file........................................................................................70 Figure 23: Summary of data file syntax................................................................................................................74 Figure 24: Syntax of Eclipse keywords.................................................................................................................76 Figure 25: Keywords for any section....................................................................................................................80 Figure 26: Minimum RUNSPEC options..............................................................................................................84 Figure 27: Eclipse 100 RUNSPEC keywords in alphabetical order .....................................................................88 Figure 28: Fast Restart File Structure ...................................................................................................................92 Figure 29: The console..........................................................................................................................................96 Figure 30: The vi device-independent editor ......................................................................................................100 Figure 31: Minimum GRID section contents......................................................................................................106 Figure 32: Grid data reading convention.............................................................................................................110 Figure 33: Radial data reading convention .........................................................................................................112 Figure 34: Block-centred and corner-point geometries.......................................................................................114 Figure 35: Sloping structure with fault represented in block centred geometry..................................................115 Figure 36: Sloping structure with fault represented in corner point geometry....................................................116 Figure 37: Example block-centred geometrical representation...........................................................................118 Figure 38: Example corner-point geometrical representation.............................................................................122 Figure 39: Grid cell property definition ..............................................................................................................124 Figure 40: Inputting grid data .............................................................................................................................126 Figure 41: Copying, Adding and Multiplying Data ............................................................................................130 Figure 42: Transmissibility conventions.............................................................................................................136 Figure 43: Cartesian grid transmissibility as viewed using GRAF .....................................................................138 Figure 44: OLDTRAN transmissibility definition ..............................................................................................139 Figure 45: Effect of uneven block sizes in BC geometry....................................................................................141 Figure 46: OLDTRANR transmissibility definition ...........................................................................................142 Figure 47: NEWTRAN transmissibility definition .............................................................................................144 Figure 48: Radial transmissibility .......................................................................................................................146 Figure 49: Shale representation...........................................................................................................................150 Figure 50: Modifying transmissibility using MULTX, FAULTS and MULTFLT.............................................154 Figure 51: Sources of non-neighbour connections..............................................................................................160 Figure 52: Fault non-neighbour connections.......................................................................................................162 Figure 53: Pinchout NNC generation..................................................................................................................164 Figure 54: LGR NNC generation........................................................................................................................166 Figure 55: NNC generation in dual porosity models...........................................................................................168 Figure 56: Aquifer non-neighbour connections ..................................................................................................170 Figure 57: Completing the circle in a radial model.............................................................................................172
  9. 9. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 9 of 499 08/04/99 Figure 58: Radial model geometry......................................................................................................................174 Figure 59: Grid Section Output Control..............................................................................................................178 Figure 60: Grid section keyword summary.........................................................................................................182 Figure 61: Purpose of the EDIT section..............................................................................................................190 Figure 62: EDIT section keyword summary.......................................................................................................192 Figure 63: Purpose of fluid property data ...........................................................................................................196 Figure 64: Generalised two-phase PVT envelope...............................................................................................198 Figure 65: Steps taken in black oil and compositional simulations ....................................................................202 Figure 66: Oil equation of state for the black oil model......................................................................................204 Figure 67: Dead oil PVT data entry using PVDO...............................................................................................208 Figure 68: Dead oil PVT data entry using PVCDO ............................................................................................210 Figure 69: Live oil PVT data entry with PVTO..................................................................................................212 Figure 70: Live oil PVT data entry with PVCO..................................................................................................214 Figure 71: Gas equation of state for the black oil model ....................................................................................216 Figure 72: Dry Gas Data Entry Using PVZG......................................................................................................220 Figure 73: Dry gas PVT using PVDG.................................................................................................................222 Figure 74: Wet gas PVT data using PVTG.........................................................................................................224 Figure 75: The water equation of state................................................................................................................226 Figure 76: Reference densities............................................................................................................................228 Figure 77: Black oil phase options......................................................................................................................230 Figure 78: Two oil types modelled using distinct PVT regions..........................................................................234 Figure 79: API tracking keywords and initial oil API.........................................................................................238 Figure 80: Rock compressibility.........................................................................................................................244 Figure 81: Required saturation function data for the PROPS section .................................................................248 Figure 82: Saturation function keyword families................................................................................................250 Figure 83: Default three-phase oil relative permeability calculation ..................................................................256 Figure 84: Significant saturation endpoints ........................................................................................................258 Figure 85: Effect of saturation scaling................................................................................................................260 Figure 86: Two-Point and Three-Point Endpoint Scaling...................................................................................263 Figure 87: SCALELIM keyword effect ..............................................................................................................264 Figure 88: Vertical saturation function scaling...................................................................................................266 Figure 89: Capillary pressure scaling..................................................................................................................270 Figure 90: PROPS section output control ...........................................................................................................274 Figure 91: Example REGIONS section data.......................................................................................................278 Figure 92: REGIONS Section Keywords............................................................................................................280 Figure 93: Function of the SOLUTION section..................................................................................................286 Figure 94: Block centre equilibration..................................................................................................................288 Figure 95: EQUIL keyword parameters..............................................................................................................292 Figure 96: Block Centre Equilibration................................................................................................................294 Figure 97: Level and Tilted Block Equilibration ................................................................................................296 Figure 98: Mobile Fluid Correction ....................................................................................................................300 Figure 99: Transition Zone Endpoint Variation..................................................................................................304 Figure 100: Matching Initial Water Distribution ................................................................................................306 Figure 101: Initial conditions defined by enumeration .......................................................................................308 Figure 102: Initial solution ratios........................................................................................................................310 Figure 103: History matching restart runs...........................................................................................................312 Figure 104: Multiple restarts during prediction ..................................................................................................314 Figure 105: Steps in creating a full restart run....................................................................................................315 Figure 106: Steps in creating a fast restart ..........................................................................................................316 Figure 107: SOLUTION section output control..................................................................................................320 Figure 108: Aquifer definition ............................................................................................................................324 Figure 109: Grid cell aquifer definition ..............................................................................................................326 Figure 110: Numerical aquifer definition............................................................................................................328 Figure 111: Model instability from poor aquifer design .....................................................................................330 Figure 112: Fetkovich aquifer definition ............................................................................................................332 Figure 113: Carter-Tracy aquifer definition........................................................................................................336 Figure 114: Flux aquifer definition.....................................................................................................................340 Figure 115: Output control..................................................................................................................................342 Figure 116: SUMMARY Section Purpose..........................................................................................................346 Figure 117: Additional SUMMARY mnemonic parameters ..............................................................................350 Figure 118: SUMMARY section output control keywords ................................................................................354
  10. 10. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 10 of 499 08/04/99 Figure 119: SCHEDULE section contents..........................................................................................................358 Figure 120: History matching and prediction regimes........................................................................................360 Figure 121: History match dataset structure........................................................................................................364 Figure 122: VFP curve specification...................................................................................................................368 Figure 123: VFP table usage in Eclipse ..............................................................................................................371 Figure 124: General well specification ...............................................................................................................374 Figure 125: Flow in gas wells .............................................................................................................................380 Figure 126: Specifying connections using COMPDAT......................................................................................384 Figure 127: Rescaling saturation tables at well connections: COMPRP.............................................................392 Figure 128: Partial completions in VE and diffuse flow models: COMPVE......................................................396 Figure 129: Historical rate specification using WCONHIST..............................................................................402 Figure 130: Setting injection rate using WCONINJE .........................................................................................406 Figure 131: Setting convergence criteria using TUNING and TUNINGL .........................................................410 Figure 132: Output control using RPTSCHED...................................................................................................414 Figure 133: Effect of zero gas re-solution rate DRSDT......................................................................................418 Figure 134: Simulation advance and termination................................................................................................420 Figure 135: Physical and Eclipse Models of Production Wells ..........................................................................422 Figure 136: Measures of Pressure in the Vicinity of a Well ...............................................................................425 Figure 137:A selection of manual workover keywords ......................................................................................426 Figure 138: Structure of the SCHEDULE section in prediction mode ...............................................................432 Figure 139: The WCONPROD keyword ............................................................................................................436 Figure 140: Example of the effect of WCONPROD...........................................................................................438 Figure 141: Application of economic limits........................................................................................................440 Figure 142: Actions taken on violating economic limits.....................................................................................441 Figure 143: A selection of automatic workover keywords..................................................................................442 Figure 144: The WECON keyword ....................................................................................................................443 Figure 145: The CECON keyword......................................................................................................................444 Figure 146: Plugback using WPLUG..................................................................................................................445 Figure 147: The WLIFT keyword for retubing wells..........................................................................................446 Figure 148: The WTEST keyword for well testing.............................................................................................447 Figure 149: The WCUTBACK keyword ............................................................................................................448 Figure 150: Controlling production for a group of wells ....................................................................................450 Figure 151: The GRUPTREE keyword ..............................................................................................................452 Figure 152: The GCONPROD keyword .............................................................................................................454 Figure 153: The GCONINJE keyword................................................................................................................458 Figure 154: Priority control keywords ................................................................................................................462 Figure 155: The GECON keyword .....................................................................................................................464 Figure 156: A typical convergence problem report.............................................................................................468 Figure 157: Typical causes of convergence problems ........................................................................................469 Figure 158: Single Well Coning Model..............................................................................................................475 Figure 159: Model dimensions............................................................................................................................479 Figure 160: Basic model layer data.....................................................................................................................481 Figure 161: XZ model section at Y=0.................................................................................................................483 Figure 162: YZ model section at X=0.................................................................................................................484 Figure 163: Sector Model PROPS Section Construction....................................................................................485 Figure 164: Sector Model Initialisation ..............................................................................................................487 Figure 165: Sector Model History Matching ......................................................................................................491 Figure 166: Sector Model Recovery Optimisation..............................................................................................495
  11. 11. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 11 of 499 08/04/99 LIST OF EXERCISES Exercise 1: Single Well Coning Model...............................................................................................................475 Exercise 2: Sector Model RUNSPEC Section ....................................................................................................479 Exercise 3: Sector Model GRID Section.............................................................................................................481 Exercise 4: Sector Model PROPS and REGIONS Sections................................................................................485 Exercise 5: Sector Model Initialisation...............................................................................................................487 Exercise 6: Sector Model History Match ............................................................................................................491 Exercise 7: Sector Model Recovery Optimisation ..............................................................................................495
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  13. 13. INTRODUCTION
  14. 14. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 14 of 499 08/04/99 Purpose Figure 1: ECLIPSE User Course Structure The ECLIPSE 100 USER COURSE is intended to acquaint delegates with the construction of simulation models using the features that are common to all installations of ECLIPSE. As such it takes the structure of a guided tour of the input data and incorporates discussion of the most common ECLIPSE keywords and facilities. ECLIPSE contains a number of additional features that are discussed in advanced user courses, which supplement this course. Also, this course does not specifically address the methodology of reservoir simulation, engineering data preparation and analysis or conduct of simulation studies. For information on GEOQUEST courses on these and other aspects of reservoir simulation and engineering, please approach your course trainer or contact your local Training Administrator. Build and execute simulation models using basic Eclipse facilities Introduction to simulation and the Eclipse software family File naming conventions and structure Data file syntax Principal Eclipse keywords History matching Prediction Discuss one section of the data file at a time Build a model from scratch Eclipse 100 User Course
  15. 15. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 15 of 499 08/04/99 Purpose During this course you will become acquainted with the basic features and keywords of the ECLIPSE black oil simulator. An overview of the input data and file handling characteristics is followed by lectures on each section of the input data. Each is followed by a practical exercise. Taken together the exercises consist of construction of a simulation model from scratch followed by matching the simulated past production to the measured production, and future recovery optimisation by simulation of a number of production scenarios. The course incorporates tuition in the use of the GRAF post- processor as an integral part and the relationship between ECLIPSE and the other pre- and post-processors in the GEOQUEST Simulation Software suite is also explained.
  16. 16. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 16 of 499 08/04/99 What is Reservoir Simulation Figure 2: Material Balance Applied to Reservoir Simulation • The simplest simulation is a material balance model • Material balance models use averaged quantities and ignore spatial variation and anisotropy • The reservoir simulator is discrete, finite difference, representation of a continuous system • It takes into account the variation of fluid and rock properties in space i.e. space discretisation. • The simulator advances temporally in discrete steps and can be interrogated at any time i.e. time discretisation. • It is a good reservoir engineering tool, but requires good engineering judgement • It can be used to solve problems that cannot be solved in any other way because it is numerical, not analytical. Mass in - Mass out = Accumulation or Flow in - Flow out = Rate of accumulation Material Balance Model Reservoir Simulation Model
  17. 17. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 17 of 499 08/04/99 What is Reservoir Simulation Reservoir Simulation, like material balance calculation, is a form of numerical modelling which is used to quantify and interpret physical phenomena with the ability to extend these to project future performance. Material balance has the limiting characteristics of: • No account of spatial variation (so-called “zero-dimensional”) • Reservoir and fluid properties as well as fluid flows are averaged over the entire reservoir • To examine the system at a number of discrete points in time requires a material balance calculation over each time interval. Reservoir simulation, on the other hand, divides the reservoir into a number of discrete units in three dimensions and models the progression of reservoir and fluid properties through space and time in a series of discrete steps. As in material balance, the total mass of the system is conserved. It can be thought of as equivalent to a coupled system of material balance models. This can provide the engineer with far more insight into recovery mechanisms. History matching may even make the engineer aware of missing information. Ultimately, a simulator is only a tool and needs good engineering judgement in order to obtain useful results.
  18. 18. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 18 of 499 08/04/99 How Does the Model Relate to the Reservoir Figure 3: Reservoir Description versus Simulation Model • The model is not identical to the reservoir • Model performance depends on data quality and quantity • The model reflects the reservoir behaviour if the reservoir is accurately represented • Some phenomena may be unknown or have to be approximated • Data must be validated, i.e. history matched. • Data modifications must be physically viable and justified • The model contains artefacts which are functions of the model construction
  19. 19. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 19 of 499 08/04/99 How Does the Model Relate to the Reservoir The reservoir and its simulation differ because of the following factors: • Input data is uncertain. A measurement of any kind has an associated uncertainty. For instance, permeability estimates based on core flooding will yield a range of values centred on an average. Deciding whether the available measurements are adequate to calculate an average permeability, and which of the measurements really do represent the permeability the engineer requires is an essential task. One of the largest parts of a simulation study consists of gathering the available data and judging the reliability and relevance of every part of it. This is often much more time consuming than constructing a simulation model. If the model is to behave in the same way as the reservoir, then the input data must accurately represent the reservoir characteristics it is intended to describe although the simulation model does not necessarily bear a superficial resemblance to the reservoir, as in Figure 3. • Reservoir processes and characteristics may be unknown. Well data provides information within the well drainage region plus some general information on the reservoir characteristics beyond that region. Seismic data provides additional structural detail. Beyond this geological information is either inferred or extrapolated. The left hand diagram of Figure 3, for instance, is a highly detailed interpretation but the presence and locations of the various channel sands could only be confirmed by drilling. • The simulation software may be unsuited to modelling certain processes. Simulation models are all discrete numerical approximations to continuous systems. The diffusivity equation on which simulation is based is a non-linear partial differential equation which simulators can only solve directly for the very simplest of models. Instead, approximations in the form of linear difference equations are solved. For instance, the difference equations do not apply to highly compressible fluids and so are unsuited to modelling the detailed dynamics of free gas flow at intermediate to high pressures, typically from approximately 3500 psia. This is usually only relevant for flow into wells from the grid cells they are connected to, in which case a choice of inflow equations is provided. • The simulation model introduces artefacts that alter the model performance. All simulators model the reservoir and wells as a collection of points acting as sources, sinks and receptacles of fluids. These points represent large and complex objects, so
  20. 20. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 20 of 499 08/04/99 the way in which reservoir properties are averaged to create the properties at discrete points is bound to alter the model performance. For instance, a single simulation grid cell may be at a depth of 3Km, 100m * 100m * 10m, have a single value of porosity, three permeabilities in X, Y and Z, a net-to-gross plus a set of relative permeability and capillary pressure curves. This cell is treated as a single point by the simulator. Fluid will only flow through that cell in the simulation in the same way as in the reservoir rock if all the above properties have been averaged and/or scaled up such that the flow characteristics are preserved. The procedure for doing this is known as upscaling and is essentially a means of countering errors introduced by discretising the reservoir.
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  22. 22. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 22 of 499 08/04/99 Why Reservoir Simulation? Figure 4: Role of Simulation • It can be used to quickly and cheaply assess various production scenarios • It can accurately model real geological structure and petrophysics • It can model a wide range of recovery techniques • Recognised by banks and funding organisations as supporting evidence for investment decisions • In many parts of the world, it is a statutory requirement Reservoir Simulation Quick and cheap assessment of production scenarios Wide range of recovery techniques Required by law in many countries Recognised by banks and funding bodies Accurate geology and petrophysics
  23. 23. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 23 of 499 08/04/99 Why Reservoir Simulation? Typical uses of Reservoir simulation include • Accurate determination of recoverable reserves • Prediction of production profiles • Determination of the number of wells needed • Determination of the best perforation policy • Determination of the best well pattern • Assessment of the effects of early gas or water breakthrough and investigation of how to minimise them • Estimation of the size of separation facilities and when they may be needed • Determination of optimum injection rates and the best time for injection • Confirm understanding of reservoir flow barriers to assess whether undrained regions exist • Estimate storage capacities and production rates from underground gas storage facilities • Estimation of optimal means of meeting gas deliverability contracts • Estimation of financial risk by economic analysis of best, worst and most likely scenarios.
  24. 24. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 24 of 499 08/04/99 Why ECLIPSE? Figure 5: Role of ECLIPSE • Used by almost all oil companies and many government agencies. In certain parts of the world, it has to be ECLIPSE. Over 300 installations worldwide. • Tested and proven to be robust and reliable since it was launch at SPE San Francisco 1983. Supported on many platforms • Extensive features modelling almost every development scenario plus specialised add-on features (ECLIPSE 200). • Nany ancillary packages to facilitate data preparation and processing of results: VFPI, PSEUDO, and GRAF. Additionally, there are GRID, SCAL, SCHEDULE, PVTI, and RTVIEW. There are support teams in many parts of the world to provide user help. • There is a dedicated team of developers working on ECLIPSE. Development continues on the basis of industrial need. Eclipse The "standard" black oil simulator Can model almost any reservoir situation Reliable, accurate, easy to use Integrated with geological and mapping packages Extensive support services Strong product development
  25. 25. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 25 of 499 08/04/99 Why ECLIPSE? ECLIPSE originated from ECL in the late 1970’s. At the time ECL specialised in seismic data acquisition and quality control, and it became apparent that diversification into dynamic flow modelling would be advantageous. Although a number of reservoir simulators were available at the time, the most popular commercial simulators were not fully implicit and did not use fully implicit well models. The team of reservoir engineers and software developers chosen by ECL was particularly well placed to create a new product having these features, since most of them were very well versed with the PORES simulator. The first commercial release of the new simulator, ECLIPSE, was announced in 1983 SPE. ECLIPSE rapidly became the simulator of choice in Europe and still is today, although the ownership of the technology has changed a number of times since the first release. At present there are in excess of 300 installations worldwide.
  26. 26. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 26 of 499 08/04/99 ECLIPSE Features Figure 6: ECLIPSE 100 and 200 Features • The basic features are known as ECLIPSE 100 • ECLIPSE 100 features are available on all ECLIPSE installations • Additional features are collectively known as ECLIPSE 200 • ECLIPSE 200 features are part of the ECLIPSE program • ECLIPSE 200 features are activated by special passwords. No re-installation is needed to acquire extra ECLIPSE 200 features. • ECLIPSE 100 and ECLIPSE 200 are usually referred to collectively as ECLIPSE. Basic Features ("Eclipse 100") Free format input 1, 2 or 3-phase simulation Directional Kr Endpoint Scaling CP / BC Geometry Non-Neighbour Connections Analytical and Numeric Aquifers Dual Porosity, Dual Permeability Pc & Kr Hysteresis Vertical Equilibrium Mobile Fluid Correction Fine Grid Equilibration Molecular Diffusion API & Tracer Tracking Vertical, Horizontal & Deviated Wells Crossflow & Commingling in Wells Extensive Surface Facility Modelling Automatic Drill Queue & Workover IMPES & Implicit Formulations Extensions ("Eclipse 200") Local Grid Refinement & Coarsening Wellbore Friction Multi-Segment Wells Flux Boundary Option Surface Networks Gas Lift Optimisation Gas Field Operations Polymer Flood Environmental Tracers Solvent Model Polymer Injection Foam Injection Reservoir Coupling Coal Bed Methane Option Parallel LGRs Shared Memory Parallel Option GI Pseudo-Compositional Model
  27. 27. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 27 of 499 08/04/99 ECLIPSE Features The basic ECLIPSE options available in all installations are often known as ECLIPSE 100 Additional features purchased separately are known as ECLIPSE 200 ECLIPSE 100 is a fully implicit, three-phase, three-dimensional, general-purpose black oil simulator. Included in the ECLIPSE 100 package are a number of pre- and post-processing and help utilities: • GRAF 2D graphics display package • EDIT syntax sensitive editor specially designed for ECLIPSE data preparation • PSEUDO 3D pseudo function generator • VFPI well bore hydraulics pre-processor • FILL corner point geometry pre-processor • Online help in FrameMaker® format There are also a large number of optional extensions to ECLIPSE 100 to model special reservoir situations. These are collectively known as ECLIPSE 200. All and more of the features listed in Figure 6 are contained in one program but only the basic features are available to all users. The additional features are purchased separately and activated together with the basic facilities by special passwords issued by GEOQUEST. No reinstallation of ECLIPSE is necessary to activate additional features. The software is supported on most computers with an ANSI standard FORTRAN77 compiler and a minimum of 8MB memory, including UNIX workstations (e.g. IBM RS6000, Sun SPARC station and Silicon Graphics), mainframes (e.g. Convex and Cray) and PCs (386 and Pentium).
  28. 28. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 28 of 499 08/04/99 How ECLIPSE Works Figure 7: Principal Simulator Activities Static Reservoir Description • Construct a geometrical model of the reservoir in discrete grid blocks or cells • For each grid block, supply dimensions, elevation, porosity, permeability PVT and Rock data • Supply fluid formation volume factors, viscosities, densities, gas-oil/oil-gas ratios, rock and water compressibilities • Supply phase relative permeabilities, interface capillary pressures. Initialisation data • Provide fluid contacts, reference depth and pressure and capillary pressures Well data • Provide well and completion locations, Production/injection rates of wells and groups and other data such as skin factors, well radius, well controls, etc. GRID, EDIT Sections Calculate Pore Volumes, Transmissibilities, Depths and NNCs. PROPS, REGIONS, SOLUTION Sections Initialise, calculate initial saturations, pressures and fluids in place Kr Sw FVF,µ P SCHEDULE Section Define wells and surface facilities. Advance through time by material balance for each cell with wells as sinks or sources FlowRate Time OWC GOC
  29. 29. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 29 of 499 08/04/99 How ECLIPSE Works • ECLIPSE is a batch program. The engineer creates a single input data file for ECLIPSE. This data file contains a complete description of the model. The model consists of reservoir description, fluid and rock property description, initial conditions, wells and their phase flow rates and surface facilities. The input file is a text file containing a collection of keywords and comments. Each keyword has a specific syntax although many keywords have similar or identical syntax. The data file is divided into sections by a few specific keywords. Each section has a particular purpose. In general, ECLIPSE keywords are usable only in certain sections of the data file. ECLIPSE is invoked and the simulation is performed with minimal interaction from the user. • ECLIPSE reads the input data file section by section and processes each section in turn once that section has been read. Various data and consistency checks are made before proceeding to the next section. The last section is exceptional because it specifies time-dependent data and is not read and processed as a whole; the keywords are processed in the order they are read from the data file. • The first task performed by ECLIPSE is to allocate memory for the input data. Although ECLIPSE is dynamically dimensioned and reserves as much memory as required for the simulation as a whole, different kinds of information in the simulation require varying amounts of memory. • The simulation grid geometry and properties are processed into a form more convenient for calculation of flows. For each cell, ECLIPSE calculates the pore volume, transmissibility in three dimensions and cell centre depth and creates connections to other cells to/from which fluids may flow. These quantities may be modified either by the user or by ECLIPSE. • The rock and fluid properties are specified next. The term fluid properties refers to a set of input tables that effectively define the phase behaviour of for each flowing phase. The term rock properties refers to sets of input tables of relative permeability and capillary pressure versus saturation. Effectively, this defines the connate (or irreducible) , critical and maximum saturation of each phase, supplies information for defining the transition zone and defines the conditions of flow of phases relative to one another. This strongly affects the ratios of produced phases, i.e. water cuts and GORs.
  30. 30. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 30 of 499 08/04/99 • Next, the initial conditions are defined, often by specifying the OWC and/or GOC depths and the pressure at a known depth. ECLIPSE uses this information in conjunction with much of the information from previous stages to calculate the initial hydrostatic pressure gradients in each zone of the reservoir and allocate the initial saturation of each phase in every grid cell prior to production and injection. This is called initialisation. • The final section of the data file is where simulation actually begins. Wells are drilled, perforated and completed, production and injection targets are set up, wells are opened and fluids flow through the reservoir, driven by the wells. • ECLIPSE outputs various information on the simulation results and its progress at dates during the simulation, defined by the user. Once the run has finished, the output is examined using text editors and post-processors of various degrees of sophistication.
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  32. 32. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 32 of 499 08/04/99 Static Reservoir Description Figure 8: Simulation Grid Data Requirements • Select model geometry • Design areal grid • Design layering structure • Define cell properties • Define region properties
  33. 33. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 33 of 499 08/04/99 Static Reservoir Description The type of model geometry depends on a number of factors including: • Extent of the area to be modelled • Level of detail required in the study • Level of detail of available data • Complexity of faulting structure • Formation contiguity across faults • Presence of sloping and/or listric (slump) faults • Time available for model construction Available geometrical options are block-centred and corner point. Each may be radial or Cartesian. The essential features are: • Block-centred geometry uses cells with vertical sides, horizontal upper and lower surfaces. The cells are parallelepipeds i.e. each cell has a single height, width, depth and elevation. • Corner point geometry defines cells by the locations of their corners. Corner point cells may be skewed, tilted, wedge-shaped or pinched-out altogether. A model must be either corner point or block-centred. The two cannot be mixed. A model must be either radial or Cartesian but it may contain Local Grid Refinements (LGRs) of different geometry. Having chosen the character of the geometry, the first stage of simulation grid design is usually to create an areal grid. The features of the areal grid are usually • Based on the top structure map • Contains only one layer • Wells are at the centres of grid cells where possible • Faults are at the edges of grid cells where possible • No-flow boundaries are observed • Size and shape of cells varies:- • Cells are often distorted to honour fault traces • Cells are often smaller in the vicinity of wells • Cells may be larger in the aquifer The design of the vertical layering usually follows. This depends on:
  34. 34. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 34 of 499 08/04/99 • Available horizon data • How members and/or formations are combined into simulation grid layers • The permeability variation with depth • The extent and effectiveness of barriers to vertical communication such as shales Once the geometry is in place the cell properties have to be defined. This includes, but is not restricted to, porosity, permeability in three dimensions and net to gross. This may originate from various sources such as: • Measured values at wells extrapolated over the entire field • Correlations to known quantities • Analogy with neighbouring fields • Geostatistical property modelling After that stage the reservoir is usually subdivided into distinct regions for various purposes such as: • Reporting flows and fluids in place e.g. for formations separated by shales • Specifying regions of distinct fluid contacts e.g. in isolated fault blocks • Specifying regions in which fluids have different PVT properties e.g. oils of different API. • Specifying regions in which rock properties are distinct e.g. connate or irreducible water saturation.
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  36. 36. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 36 of 499 08/04/99 PVT and Rock Data Figure 9: PVT and Rock Data Requirements PVT Data • Derived from PVT analyses and supplied as tables of properties versus pressure • Phase Formation volume factors Bo, Bg, Bw as appropriate • Phase viscosities µo, µg, µw as appropriate • Gas-oil Ratio Rs and / or Oil-Gas Ratio Rv • The PVT data can vary across the reservoir • Needed to set initial pressure gradients and component distributions Rock Data • Derived from SCAL analysis, supplied as tables of properties versus saturation. • There can be several different curves for various sections of the reservoir • Needed to set maximum, minimum and critical phase saturation in each zone • Required to define and define transition zone saturations
  37. 37. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 37 of 499 08/04/99 PVT and Rock Data PVT data are the results of laboratory analysis of reservoir fluids. This data is required to: - • Describe the phase behaviour of reservoir fluids at all times • Calculate the density of each phase, which is in turn used • to set up the initial conditions of the simulation • calculate the mass of each phase in each grid block for material balance purposes The fluid PVT properties can vary with depth and/or areally as well as being different in distinct regions of the reservoir. Rock data are the results of special core analysis experiments. This data is required to: - • Set the maximum and minimum saturations of each flowing phase, which in turn is used to define equilibrium phase saturations • Define the transition zone extent and properties • Describe the flow behaviour of distinct fluids in order that phase flows between grid blocks can be calculated.
  38. 38. 6FKOXPEHUJHU Eclipse 100 User Course Page 38 of 499 08/04/99 Initialisation Data Figure 10: Initialisation Data Requirements • Where equilibration is used the initial saturation distribution and pressure at a datum depth are derived from well testing, well logs, RFT and PLT measurements • Where enumeration is used the initial conditions are derived from maps or other distributions of pressure and saturation. • There may be several different equilibration regions Pressure Depth GOC OWC Free Water Level Datum

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