____________________________________________________
Origins
Publishing
Educational Theorists
Fun & Frivolity
* John Newberry (1744) – “A little Pretty Pocket Book”
Believed to be the 1st published book!
BUT children’s literature di...
Popular tales sprang from oral culture from as early as the 13th
century Pic. 3
Examples:
a) George on Horseback;
b) Bevis...
Changes:
- Some writers attempted to provide lighter material
for children. The most significant was John Amos
Comenius’s ...
Significant Books:
James Janeway’s “A Token for Children” – specifically designed
for children, continued in publication u...
Thomas Boreman: published a set of ten miniature books:
“The Gigantic Histories” (1740- 1743)
Translation of Charles Perra...
John Newberry:
* Began as a provincial book seller and newspaper
proprietor;
* Also dealt in patient medicines;
* Moved fr...
Educational Theorists
The education of the young was becoming of increasing significance as social expectations developed,...
Others:
* Anna Barbauld, whose Lessons for Children from Two to
Three Years Old (1778) and Hymns in Prose for Children (17...
Newberry’s successors carried out his tradition:
* Books containing moral material in a light-hearted guise were becoming ...
 Axtell, J.L. (1968) The Educational Writings of John Locke, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 Cressy, D. (1980) L...
Early texts used by children and young adults
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Early texts used by children and young adults

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Early texts used by children
picture books, illustrated texts, 18th century, 19th century, early 20th century

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Early texts used by children and young adults

  1. 1. ____________________________________________________ Origins Publishing Educational Theorists Fun & Frivolity
  2. 2. * John Newberry (1744) – “A little Pretty Pocket Book” Believed to be the 1st published book! BUT children’s literature did not only include books for the reader’s pleasure, some being far from light-hearted, therefore literature read by children started much earlier Courtesy Books School Books Pic. 1 Religious Texts & Paper Pamphlets : * Chapbooks ( Pic. 1 - 17 th Century) - Political and Religious Ideas After the Star Chamber (1) was abolished * “Small Merry Books” (Pic. 2 - collected by Samuel Pepys) * Sermons and Tracts Pic. 2 (1) English Court of Law that sat at the Royal Palace of Westminster from the late 15th century until 1641. (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Chamber)
  3. 3. Popular tales sprang from oral culture from as early as the 13th century Pic. 3 Examples: a) George on Horseback; b) Bevis of SouthHampton (Pic 3 - woodcut version done in 1565) c) The Seven Champions of Christendom (1596) d) Tom Hickathrift; Old Mother Shipton; The King and the Cobbler.... Superstitious Tales shifted and provided the basis for a specifically Children’s Literature. Despite widespread availability, Literacy Levels were low ( in the 17th century only 30% of men could read and even fewer women). Still, more and more children were learning to read, which can be concluded from the increasing number of schools in towns and larger villages. Social Class – determined the type of reader a child would become! Horn Books and Primers (for low income children) Books of Courtesy (for well-to-do children) (Notes: More boys than girls attended school during this period; no distinction between readership ages )
  4. 4. Changes: - Some writers attempted to provide lighter material for children. The most significant was John Amos Comenius’s “Orbis Sensualium Pictus” (1659) * Not a children’s book by modern standards * 1st lavishly illustrated picture encyclopedia for children Old Fables used in schools: *Aesop’s Fables (1st printed in English by Caxton in 1484) Printings of Aesop’s Fables through time: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesop's_Fables) “...the history of children’s literature has always been characterised by continuity mixed with far- reaching change”.
  5. 5. Significant Books: James Janeway’s “A Token for Children” – specifically designed for children, continued in publication until the 19th century Others: * John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress” (1678) – best loved classic of the Puritan Period * Abraham Chear (one of the most popular of the Puritan writers) had his verse published in “A Looking Glass for the Mind” (1672) * Benjamin Keach’s “War with the Devil” (1673) * Nathaniel Crouch, published under his pseudonym ‘R.B.’ – Richard Burton: “The Young Man’s Calling” (1678); “Youth’s Divine Pastime” (3rd edn, 1691); “Winter Evening Entertainments” (1687) Writers more concerned with the Child as a Reader: * William Ronksley’s work: - “The Child’s Weeks-Work Or, a little book, so nicely suited to the genius and capacity of a little child, ... that it will infallibly Allure and Lead him on into a way of reading” (1712) * Isaac Watts’s “Divine Songs attempted in Easie Language for the Use of Children” (1715) Publishing for Children (early 18th century ) By the beginning of the 18th century books for children were becoming more child oriented: in the tone, language and its subject matters. Two of the most interesting books specifically published for children: * Mary Cooper’s “The Child’s New Plaything” (1742); and Tommy Thumb’s “Pretty Song Book Voll 2” (1744)
  6. 6. Thomas Boreman: published a set of ten miniature books: “The Gigantic Histories” (1740- 1743) Translation of Charles Perrault’s fairy tales: Robert Samer’s “Histories or Tales of Past Times. Told by Mother Goose” (1729) Madame de Beaumont’s “Le Cabinet des Fées” (1785-1789) was also published in English, and the adaptation of “Beauty and the Beast” became a staple of chapbook literature. Before the mid 18th century, book publishing lacked seriousness of purpose. John Newberry (1744-1767) changed this with his great talent for understanding the new market for children’s books and school books.
  7. 7. John Newberry: * Began as a provincial book seller and newspaper proprietor; * Also dealt in patient medicines; * Moved from Reading to London and soon after produced “A Pretty Little Pocket Book” (1744), which became one of the best known of all the early children’s books; * Newberry’s mixture of light-hearted materials: - Lilliputian Magazine (1751-1752); - “A Pretty Book of Pictures for Little Masters and Misses” (1752); - “Nurse Truelove’s New Year’s Gift” (1753); - “The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes” (1765) – perhaps his most famous book. Newberryalso contributed to the burgeoning schoolbook market with a series of lesson books. He died on the 22nd December 1767.
  8. 8. Educational Theorists The education of the young was becoming of increasing significance as social expectations developed, and the middle classes— including women—had more time for the leisurely pursuit of reading. Good schooling was becoming a necessity. • John Locke […] recommended a carefully judged curriculum designed to meet the needs of pupils on the basis that knowledge should be impressed on young and untouched minds: the tabula rasa or blank sheet principle. His argument was hugely influential. At least fourteen editions of his educational treatise were published between 1693 and 1772 and provided a focus for writers and publishers in their provision of a literature to feed the demand from schools and parents (Pickering 1981: passim); • One of the first books to expound upon schooling for girls: Sarah Fielding’s The Governess: or Little Female Academy (1749);  Ellenor Fenn, in Cobwebs to Catch Flies (c.1783) she appealed to parents as much as to children: ‘if the human mind be a tabula rasa—you to whom it is entrusted should be cautious what is written upon it’.  Sarah Trimmer, specially concerned with the moral impact of writing for children. Her Fabulous Histories. Designed for the Instruction of Children, respecting their Treatment of Animals (1786), later better known as The History of the Robins, aimed to teach children their duty towards brute creation. In Prints of Scripture History (1786), and numerous other pious works, she provided children with a grounding in sound religious teaching. Her Little Spelling Book for Young Children (2nd edn, 1786) and Easy Lessons for Young Children (1787) were also popular and went into several editions.
  9. 9. Others: * Anna Barbauld, whose Lessons for Children from Two to Three Years Old (1778) and Hymns in Prose for Children (1781); Evenings at Home (1792–1796); * Mary Pilkington Biography for Girls and Biography for Boys, both published in 1799; New Tales of the Castle (1800), modelled on Madame de Genlis’s Tales of the Castle (1785); * Mary Wollstonecraft Original Stories from Real Life (1788); * Dorothy Kilner’s, Anecdotes of a Boarding School; or an Antidote to the Vices of those Useful Seminaries (c.1783); The Village School (c.1795); Short Conversations (c.1785); The Life and Perambulation of a Mouse (c.1783–1784); Lockewas nottheonlyinfluential theorist * Maria Edgeworth ( one of Rosseau’s most faithful disciples) “The purple jar” * English Rousseauist, Thomas Day’s Sandford and Merton (1783—1789)” (one of the most popular sets of tales for boys during this period and was widely adapted and reissued well into the nineteenth century); Little Jack (1788), firm in its Rousseauism and allusions to the Crusoe tale of survival through ingenuity and tenacity.
  10. 10. Newberry’s successors carried out his tradition: * Books containing moral material in a light-hearted guise were becoming commonplace; * Children’s publishers also dealt in the production of maps and games; books were not the only educational materials to provide amusement; * By the late eighteenth century publishing for children had become a sufficiently profitable undertaking for several major London publishers and many provincial chapbook publishers to be issuing a range of children’s items: for instruction and amusement; The quality and variety of production had also improved immeasurably. Despite the prevalence of moral tales and didacticism, there were, therefore, items to amuse and divert children towards the end of the century in addition to the chapbook literature of the period. […] Mother Goose’s Melody, a 96-page Newbery book in two parts—with fifty-one songs and lullabies in Part One— is particularly important because of the number of times it was to be reprinted in Britain and America. (Opie and Opie, 1951/1980:33). In conclusion: By 1800, the children’s book trade was well established and children had a wide ranging literature at their disposal. Not all of it was just for entertainment, but increasingly it was being written with their developmental needs in mind. From their origins in the formal writing of the early schoolbooks, Puritan texts, popular literature and fables, children’s books had emerged as a class of literature. The book trade was poised to develop this even further and to exploit the technical innovations of the next century.
  11. 11.  Axtell, J.L. (1968) The Educational Writings of John Locke, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Cressy, D. (1980) Literacy and the Social Order, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Darton, F.J.H. (1982) Children’s Books in England: Five Centuries of Social Life, 3rd edn, ed. B.Alderson, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Opie, I. and Opie P. (1951/1980) The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes, Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Pickering, S.F. (1981) John Locke and Children’s Books in Eighteenth Century England, Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.  Roscoe, S. (1973) John Newbery and his Successors 1740–1814: A Bibliography, Wormley: Five Owls Press.  Spufford, M. (1981) Small Books and Pleasant Histories: Popular Fiction and its Readership in Seventeenth Century England, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Whalley, J.I. and Chester, T.R. (1988) A History of Children’s Book Illustration, London: John Murray/The Victoria and Albert Museum. FurtherReading  Jackson, M.V. (1989) Engines of Instruction, Mischief and Magic: Children’s Literature in England  from its Beginnings to 1839, Aldershot: Scolar Press.  Opie, I. and Opie P. (1974) The Classic Fairy Tales, Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Plumb, J.H. (1975) ‘The new world of children in eighteenth century England’, Past and Present  67:64–95.

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