Inside The Brain The brain uses what it knows to figure out what it doesn’t know The brain puts things in a line/list (by type, abc, number, sequential, meaning, etc.) The brain takes things which have a similarity to other things and puts them together Connect Order Group
The brain does not like this. When you have this you have to try to fix it. Sometimes it is easy to fix this, and sometimes it’s not. This is CHAOS
As you can see, these shapes are grouped in color and ordered from biggest to smallest. Grouping and Ordering As you can see, these shapes are grouped in color and ordered from biggest to smallest.
what I know… what I don’t know… <ul><li>a square </li></ul><ul><li>a rectangle </li></ul><ul><li>a triangle </li></ul><ul><li>a circle </li></ul><ul><li>a cube </li></ul><ul><li>a rectangular prism </li></ul>to… <ul><li>a pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>a sphere </li></ul>Connecting
The 3 parts of reading are... Fluency Decoding Comphrehension How to say a word using syllabication, sounds, and letters. Read using accuracy, expression, pace, smoothness, and phrasing. To understand an author’s message.
Decoding Fluency Comprehension Making music. Saying words. Having a conversation with the author.
Decoding Măd Ĕd ĭs nŏt ŭp Blue = long vowels Boxed = pirate vowels Red = silent vowels Green = short vowels syl/l ă b/ ĭ c/ ā t e ur or ir er ar Pirate vowels ĭ
Fluency Decoding Comprehension Fluency Accuracy Phrasing Smoothness Pace Expression
Decoding Tips 2. Good readers know that vowels can be confusing when trying to sound out a word. They know how to be flexible and try different sounds and pull up a word that makes sense. 3. If good readers are not sure what a word says, one way they help themselves is to break it into smaller parts called syllables. Breaking a word into its parts is called syllabication or segmenting. 1. Good readers know that vowels make more than one sound and are flexible with vowels in both reading and spelling.
Fluency Tips (accuracy) 1. Good readers glue their eyes to print as they read the letters, word parts, and words on the page. (phrasing) 2. Good readers string their words together in phrases. A phrase is 3 or more words sewn together without pauses. (expression) 3. Good readers pay attention to punctuation marks to help them read with expression. (pace) 4. Good readers read in a conversational voice, not too fast and not to slow.
Comprehension tips Good readers use a “flight plan” to figure out what is important to pay attention to. Good readers use their knowledge of non-fiction structure to make predictions and know what to expect in the text. Good readers stop at the bottom of the page and retell the story to check for understanding. Authors use space, lines, font, color, and graphics to show the reader what is important. Fiction Non-fiction
Context Clues Chest (sentence) Key (to figure out the secret word) Magnifying glass (figuring out the secret word) Footsteps (context clues)
(story structure) Abirami Ben By and Flight Plan
<ul><li>Main character </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 Events </li></ul><ul><li>Climax </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>End </li></ul>Parts of a Story
Airport 1 (start of story) ↓ ↑ Flight Plan (story ) Pilot (main character) -> Passengers (other characters) Tall Mountain (climax) -> ↑ Sky Diver (problem) Gas Flow (goal) ↑ Airport 2 (outcome & end) The Flight Plan in Action
Story Elements in Pictures <ul><li>Main Character </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 Events </li></ul><ul><li>Climax </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>End </li></ul>I want... I need... I want... I need... Then, Next, Lastly,
Tree Diagram of Story Parts Story parts Beginning Middle End Main character Goal Problem 3-4 events Climax Outcome End
Dialogue and Narration Dialogue is when a character is talking in a fiction book. Anything in quotations (“hello”) is dialogue. Narration tells how the character says something, and tells what they are doing when they say it. Here is an example of dialogue and narration. Key red=narration blue=dialogue Catching the rays of the hot desert sun, it had burned like a circle of fire in Hussein’s grimy fingers. “Go and get some lunch, boy,” he said. “you’ve earned it.” But he himself kept on digging in the hope of finding yet more buried artifacts. “ Yes father.” Baksheesh went to the back of the land rover followed closely by Effendi, who hoped he might get something to eat.
<ul><li>made to entertain you </li></ul><ul><li>has a flight plan </li></ul><ul><li>not real </li></ul><ul><li>builds background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>has hamburgers </li></ul><ul><li>real </li></ul><ul><li>words </li></ul><ul><li>has paragraphs </li></ul>Fiction and Non-Fiction Venn Diagram Fiction Non-Fiction
Pre-Writing Web Starting with a main subject, details keep branching off. Brainstorm Writing down whatever idea that comes to your mind about the subject. Venn Diagram Two circles overlapping each other to show differences and similarities. Check List A list of things with open spaces next to each item to be checked off when done. Topic Box with Bullets A box telling the subject and details shown by bullets. T-chart A chart divided into two or more parts to show the characteristics of certain things.
Brainstorming Stages of the Tornado Tube Stage 1. Kind of still, not really moving (no ideas) Stage 2. Starting to move (getting an idea) Stage 3. Things interfere (doubting the idea) Stage 4. Recovering from interferences (re-creating the idea) Stage 5. Ending smoothly (establishing the idea)
Drafting Connecting Putting items that are similar together. Ordering Sequencing events, for example: If you were building a snowman you would first write about rolling the bottom then rolling the middle and so on. Grouping Putting “like” ideas from pre-writing together.
Editing Capitals Capitals at the beginning of each sentence, Proper nouns are capitalized (names of people, places, and things), Spelling Syllabicating, saying words, clapping each segment, draw lines for each syllable, spelling the word. Punctuation Putting in question marks, apostrophes, quotation marks, periods, exclamation points, and commas. Correcting incorrect punctuation.
. question mark exclamation point comma period A question mark signals the end of a question. A question begins with who, what, when, where, why, or how. A period signals the end of a complete thought. An exclamation point signals excitement or anger. A comma separates things in a list, can join two sentences, and can signal a natural pause. It can also show a break between cause and effect in some sentences.
Revision A C B Put a letter or number in a circle, then put the same thing some where else and write. Circle/Move Circle a part/sentence, draw an arrow to where you want it to go.
Final Draft A final draft is just a draft that has been revised and edited many times until it is at its best.
Writing Tips 2. Good writers use apostrophes (‘) to show possession, NOT plurals. 1. Good spellers pay attention to sounds and syllables to help them spell. 3. Good spellers know that ALL syllables MUST have at least one vowel.