ECOU Ramboll Whitbybird Edward Cullinan Architects Royal Botanical Gardens Edinburgh McAlister Elliott and Partners AA International Tourism consultant tbc (Locum or Ramboll Management, Brussels) Paul Bennett – Canterbury Archaeological Trust and Socirty for Libyan Studies (he is now ‘Council Member’ rather than ‘Chairman’) Linda Hulin – Oxford University Dr Stephen Jury – Reading University University of Nottingham – regional links to Omar Mukhtar University and others
Robin Nicholson Evening Lecture for the MEGS-KT project
Do we need visions for a lowenergy future? What role for the universities?Centre for Engineering and Design Education,Loughborough University17 October 2012Robin Nicholson CBE RIBA Hon FIStructESenior Partner, Edward Cullinan ArchitectsChair, Cambridgeshire Quality PanelDesign Council CABE BEEConvener of EdgeDirector, NHBC
Hillside Hub,Stonebridge,NW London • COMMUNITY CENTRE • CAFÉ • HEALTH CENTRE • TESCO EXPRESS • 25 SHARED OWNERSHIP FLATS • 34 OPEN MARKET SALE FLATS • CIVIC SPACE, COMMUNAL GARDEN, PARKING
Do we need visions for a lowenergy future? What role for the universities?• What’s the problem/opportunity (incl. politics)?• Demand reduction and the existing stock• Our work with universities/research• DIY (as in Green Deal) &/or collective?• Reduce…reuse…recycle• keep it simple and do it well and then measure it!
What will you be doing in 2050?What was I doing in 1974?Some of the images in these presentations may be subject to copyrightbut are used in the public interest and not for profit
NUM work-to-rule and 1973 Oil Crisis led tothe 3-day week: 1 Jan – 7 March 1974 to conserve electricity
Newcastle 26th Sept 2012• we hear a lot about new zero carbon homes by 2016 but the existing stock ….• our homes have put up with a lot but very low energy is seriously difficult• we can do so much on our own but don’t we need to act collectively?
We have always made houses suitable for Willis Carrier invented air-the particular climate until …. conditioning in 1902 But 71% of all energy delivered to air- conditioned buildings is used to power the air- conditioning
“To meet the challenges of the 21st century, buildingsneed to perform much better: as sustainable assets,for their occupiers and for the environment. Forexample, UK Government policy is for new buildingsto be zero carbon within a decade; and for the energyand carbon efficiency of the existing stock to improvedramatically.To respond to these targets, the construction industrywill need to provide a very different service…."Bill Bordass paper on Soft Landings Sept 2010
Climate Change Act became law 11/08 (34% reduction by 2020 and 80% by 2050) Morrell appointed 11/09; Interim ‘Low Carbon Construction’ Report (3/2010) Change of Government 5/10 Low Carbon Construction Final Report 11/10 Carbon Plan 3/11 Energy Act 10/11 – Green Deal, Privately rented (min ‘E’ EPC by 4/18 and Energy Cos Obligations in place of CERT/CESP) Green Construction Board established (co-chaired by Mark Prisk and Dan Labbad answerable to Francis Maude at Cabinet office) 6/11 Zero carbon new homes by 2016 (announced by Gordon Brown and Ruth Kelly 4 August 2009 Zero carbon for all new non domestic 2019 or????? 80% reduction by 2050 means 1,600 homes per day and….!
The Carbon Planpublished March 2011• at least 34% reduction inemissions by 2030 and 80% by2050 below 1990 base• setting 5 yearly carbon budgetsfor Government DepartmentsKey issues• Generating 2x electricity bynuclear, CCS (carbon capture andstorage) and renewables• Insulating homes + more efficientboilers• electrifying transport incl. cars• Creating export opportunities• Leading international debate
“Low Carbon Construction” will be managed by the Cabinet Office • Government Construction Board • Green Construction Board working with: • UKGBC/ Strategic Forum • ICE on infrastructure • 2050 group on procurementAfter Latham (1994) and Egan (1998)how will be change the industry?
SDC scenarios: 50% cut by 2020“There is a general and growing awareness of the challenge but fewbusinesses have an accurate understanding of the sheer scale of theundertaking ahead…” Paul Morrell Interim Report
What cost zero carbon? Renewables, wind energy, solar thermal energy, photovoltaics, biomass, ground source heat pumps. Building services, air conditionin avoidance, heat recovery, site wide energy systems (CHP), lighting controls (daylight and presence) zoning, smart MeteringCopyright Faithful and Gould Building form and orientation, thermal performance, shading, daylight penetration
Michael Gove (Education) + Vince Cable (Business) + George Osborne (Chancellor) + David Cameron(PM)Where is the Coalition going now? Guardian 13 Nov.2010
“Every hour the sun beams onto Earth more than enoughenergy to satisfy global energy needs for an entire year.Solar energy is the technology used to harness the sunsenergy and make it usable. Today, the technologyproduces less than one tenth of one percent of globalenergy demand” National Geographic
Michael Pawlyn Exploration Architecture – bio-mimicry used in Sahara Forest Projectand World Water HQ inspired by the Namibian fog-basking beetle and ancient Persianice-making technology to make a self-sufficient building
Conclusions from • Government to use itsEdge Debate no 50 procurement power to force8th Oct 2012 the industry to changeat BIS with TSB • Performance based specification (cf Olympics) • Public access to local data (incl all energy bills) • it’s the SME’s that innovate with some push and some pull • In construction, clients benefit from innovation not the innovators • Energy companies already won the means to produce an increase of more than 6 ºC
“Technology does have a vital “There must be a shift in focusrole to play but, although from rhetoric to results-drivennecessary, it is not sufficient… action….A strong driver for thereduce demand as well as transition to a sustainablefocus on efficiency and develop economy is a green tax shift,renewable strategies to meet reducing taxes on income andour needs.” increasing taxes on pollution..”2010 2011
Home and energy 22%, Transport 14%, Food 21%, goods 13%,Services 7%, Government 8%, Capital Assets 15%
90% of non-energy In UK and USA we throw away:minerals in UK are used • 50% saladsfor construction. • 53% bread400m tonnes consumed • 25% fruitby UK constructionevery year • 20% vegetables70m tonnes ofconstruction anddemolition waste go tolandfill ….wasteEach year 13m tonnesgo straight to landfill…pure waste
We consume 240,000 plastics bags every 10seconds globally (Botticelli’s Birth of Venus)Source: ‘Running the numbers II’by Chris Jordan Photography
Halve the demand,double the efficiency,halve the carbon in the supply…… The Children’s Plan Dec 2007
Ashley C of E Primary School, Walton-on-ThamesInspired leadership (Head then Governors)…2 eco-monitors per classreport week’s performance every Friday to Assembly (target<100kWh/day rewarded by £10 for special projects)…spread to parentswho can win membership of 100 Club (target < 100kWh/week)…300wattcomputers replaced by 15watt laptops …. occasional carbon freeFridays…eco-driver display unit in lobby…51% reduction in electricityuse in year 1 …91% in year 3… Ashley won a 2009 Ashden Award
St Luke’s C of E Primary School,Wolverhampton - opened 6/09 Architype ArchitectsInspired leadership; 2 eco-monitors per class in School Council - ‘eco- driver’; orientation excellent; BREEAM Excellent; biomass boiler; ‘A’ EPC; but it would need £300k PVs to be Zero Carbon: won Sorrell School Award
Whole System Design Power Generation Building Services electricity Building heat Amory B. LovinsRocky Mountain Institute Starting downstream multiplies savings by about tenfold upstream—yet this design principle is almost never taught Rocky Mountain Intitute Factor Ten Engineering
How to achieve an 80% cut in the carbon impact of the built environment The multiplier effect Power GenerationHalve the Carbon Intensity Building Services Double the efficiency Building Halve the demand
Edward Cullinan Architects – founded 1965 as a cooperative2010 Building Magazine Architectural Practice of the Year2010 Building Design Public Building Architect of the Year
Founded in 1956.• When Jose Maria Arizmendiarrieta arrived in 1941 there were 7,000inhabitants• Currently the 7th largest Spanish company• at end of 2011 it employed 83,869 people in 256 companies• The cooperatives are owned by their worker members
International Manufacturing Centre, 1992-2002University of Warwick has >22,000 students
International Manufacturing Centre,University of Warwick – value• 1992-2002, built in 3 phases• 10,700m²• Phase 3 value management• Movement for Innovation case study• key support for West Midlands future manufacturing strategy
DQI mid-design review ofInternationalInstitute for Services andProduct Innovation 15.06.11
Cullinans’ research engagementincludes:• 2000- Design Quality Indicator with CIC + David Gann - ODPM• 2002 – Probe study on Cambridge CMS with UBT• 2004- Soft Landings Project with EMBS, Cambridge >BSRIA• 2005 - ‘Spreading the word’ with David Bartholomew DTI• 2006 - Visual Representations as ‘Artifacts of Knowing’ with Boris Ewenstein and Jennifer Whyte (Imperial) - ESRC• 2007-11 - ISSUES with Guthrie + Jowitt - EPSRC• 2008- ‘Stickyworld’ with Michael Kohn - TSB• 2008– CALEBRE led by Loughborough – RCUK + E.ON• 2010 - POE with Hoare Lea• 2010- ‘User participation in healthcare design’ with Warwick - EPSRC•2012 – funding confirmed for TSB’s ‘Rethinking the BuildProcess’ with Hyde HA and Warwick
Photo: Bill Bordass• last PROBE study of Cambridge Centre for Mathematical Sciences 2002 showed it intop 10 percentile: http://www.usablebuildings.co.uk/• Retested and published by BSRIA 12/2006
The Edge is the only interdisciplinaryconstruction industry think-tank• www.edgedebate.com• Founded 1996• ICE + RIBA, CIBSE, RICS, IStructE….• Supported by Arup Foundation, Carbon Trust, CIC, CABE, Canada House, Italian + Danish Embassies• Holds debates by invitation only• Promotes carbon measurement through the edge pledge http://www.edgedebate.com/?page_id=474• Published Edge Futures• Lobbies Government
Edge current programme includes:• influencing Green Construction Board• engaging research community with practice• the role of women in construction (ref. Davies Report)• procurement: lessons from the recent past with DC CABE• education for inter-disciplinary practice• smart cities conference with Italian, Danish and Dutch embassies
BASF house with rehau – CSH 4Tarmac Zedfactory semis – CSH4 + CSH6E.ON ’30s semi – original>CERT>CSH3>CSH6eq. wrap up
If we build newhouses at the ratewe are buildingthem it would take236 years toreplace the existingstock. The USAdeclaredIndependence 236years ago (thanksto David Birkbeck)• 80% of the homes we will be living in in 2050 already exist• Climate Change Act 2011 – 34% reduction by 2020 + 80% by 2050• Our homes are responsible for 40% carbon (and other) emissions• How will we reduce our footprint by 80%?
Technology Strategy Board Retrofit for the Future Programme Phase 1 – 194 Design and feasibility studies↑ Croydon – 94% reduction in energy↓ North Devon Homes – first passivhaus retrofit Phase 2 - £17m for 86 social housing projects aiming at 80% reduction in emissions • 17 kg/m2 (SAP) • 20 kg/m2 (Passivhaus) See http://www.retrofitforthefuture.org Low Energy Building Database
TSB exemplar in Bertram Street, N. Camden by United House+ Parity Projects (Russell Smith) monitoring
Mayville Community Centre N16 by Bere Architects is the first certifiedPassivhaus non-domestic retrofit in the UK and uses 90% less energy
Some issues:• Planning – conservation of buildings rather than energy• Building physics and our general ignorance• Lack of appropriate design and building skills• Absence of controls designed for people to use• Financial incentives – Green Deal RIP?• Us – ie the hassle• Us – our values and behaviour – re-bound and pre-bound• where is the collective energy?
May 09 Transition Highbury workshop at Drayton Park Ecology Centre
Outside the Police Station at the Incredible Edible Todmorden
Low Carbon Communities - DECC• £10m for• 22 test-bed communities• Phase 1 projects > 3/10• Phase 2 projects > 3/11• Evaluation by OPM 7/12 White Architects at Whitehill Bordon 11 Jan 12
OPM Review of Low Carbon Communities for DECC 7/12:• demonstrated the huge potential of community groups• included a range of organisations from well established tonew who needed a model to follow• Sharing knowledge is good but trips to London and DECC’se-portal poor (cf CABE shared learning programmes)• schools are key to spreading the word especially intominority ethnic communities
CABE (1999-2010) killed ‘by accident’ by Jeremy Hunt.http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095356/http://www.cabe.org.uk/archive Merged with Design Council 2011 http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095356/http:/www.cabe.org.uk/
Daily Mail writes on 27 June 2008: Meanwhile… Swaffham has two 1.5MW“Under £100billion plans unveiled turbines (66m diam), theby Gordon Brown, at least 4,000 second by popularwind turbines will go up in some demand despite objectionsof the UKs most beautiful scenery, from RAF; now there are 8 while another 3,000 will be built at sea.” more on the south sideStirling Castle (through a telephoto lens) Swaffham in Norfolk
It has been estimated that Cambridge University needs: 23 x 2MW turbines (70m diam. blades) and another (say) 8 for the colleges So why not plant them along the M11? or put them in the pylons? 40k pylons with 8 turbines each would power 640,000 homes with a 4 year pay-back
The Danish island Samso has 4500 Westmill Wind Farm Coop ininhabitants and is 100% powered by South Oxfordshire built fivewind with 21 turbines owned by the 1.3 MW turbines in 2008islanders
Letchworth established 1903 by Ebenezer Howard – pop. 33,600
• 180 km of Mediterranean coastline in eastern Libya• Covers some 5,500 square kilometres• Home to some 250,000 people
• Buildings are 40% of the problem• New buildings are easy but the existing are more important• Focus on measurement and inter-disciplinary working• Its behaviour change and design (‘Halve the demand….’)• it’s challenging but really exciting?