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DAYOR: Digital Cultural Heritage Research Network

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Presentation for the #DCHRN at the University of Edinburgh | January 31, 2017

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DAYOR: Digital Cultural Heritage Research Network

  1. 1. Andrea Wallace / @AndeeWallace CREATe, University of Glasgow, & the National Library of Scotland Display At Your Own Risk
  2. 2. Digital surrogate Material surrogate T E R M I N O L O G Y
  3. 3. S U R R O G AT E S : I N - C O P Y R I G H T v P U B L I C D O M AI N © David Hockney License this image © Tate, CC-BY-NC-ND License this image
  4. 4. NAME THAT ARTWORK WRONG. RMN-Grand Palais & Michel Urtado x200_84749_11-564761, 2014 Ascends into the public domain in 2090
  5. 5. = originality© new work new author new © term =
  6. 6. ‘Crowd looking at the Mona Lisa at the Louvre,’ by Victor Grigas, CC BY-SA 4.0, available at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=40250423
  7. 7. © Tate, London 2014 © The British Library Board © The National Archives (?) © The National Archives (?) © Glasgow Life © Gemäldegalerie der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin © Kansallisgalleria 2014© RMN-Grand Palais (Musée d'Orsay) / Hervé Lewandowski
  8. 8. Leonardo Da Vinci L E T ’ S G E T M E TA: E XH I B I T I O N O F C U LT U R AL I N S T I T U T I O N S ’ W O R K S Musée du Louvre 1 2 PUBLIC DOMAIN © ‘Crowd looking at the Mona Lisa at the Louvre,’ by Victor Grigas, CC BY-SA 4.0, available at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=40250423
  9. 9. National Library of Scotland, Glasgow Print Studio L E T ’ S G E T M E TA: P R O D U C E D B Y I N S T I T U T I O N S Glasgow University ArchivesServices 3 4
  10. 10. S O M E TA A copy… (DAYOR Photo) Of a copy... (DAYOR Print) Of a copy... (TNA Photo) Of an out-of-© work
  11. 11. Initial sample: 130 institutions 37 countries • Policy (or not) • Title • Location • Translations • Online collections • © • ©-by-contract • Prohibitsall use • Chargesfor commerical use Final sample: 52 institutions 26 countries 100 surrogates
  12. 12. FINDINGS
  13. 13. F I N D I N G S : O N L I N E P O L I C I E S ( T O N AM E JU S T A F E W ) • Impressum • Copyright • Legal Notice • Rightsand Reproduction • Rightsof Use • Imprint • Website Policy • Contact • Conditions • FAQ • Disclaimer Copyrights(which includesno such disclaim of copyright) • Open Access • Copyright and Reproductions • Intellectual Property RightsPolicy • Terms of Use • Terms and Conditions • General termsof use for photo material • Request photograph • User Agreement • Image Reproductionsand Copyright • Copyright, permissionsand photography • Disclaimer • Image Usage Policy • About thissite • Using Images 130 institutions: “Copyright” most common – 16 institutions
  14. 14. TAT E | 2 0 1 6 1. Copyright, permissions and photography 2. Tate gallery rules 3. Website termsofuse 4. Image licensing 5. Copyright ‘orphanworks’ 6. Creative Commonslicensesand Tate 7. Tate ImagesCopyright Policy 8. DigitalImages ReproductionPolicy (Tate Images) 9. Creative Commonscontent 10. A Brief Guide to Copyright.pdf (65 pages)
  15. 15. Tate’smainwebsite digital surrogate (versionaccessed 30 October 2015) Tate-images.com TAT E | 2 0 1 6 Tate Imagescommercial websitedigital surrogate (version accessed 2July 2016) Tate.org.uk More restrictive
  16. 16. U N I T ED STAT ES 2 0 I N S T I T U T I O N S © © ? – T&Cs restrict use No © - T&Csrestrict use No © = PublicDomain • Art Institute ofChicago • Detroit Institute ofArt • FAMSF, San Francisco • Guggenheim • MetropolitanMuseum of Art • Museum of Modern Art • Museum ofFine Arts,Boston • Museum ofFine Arts,Houston • PhiladelphiaMuseum of Art • Seattle Art Museum • HuntingtonLibrary • Minneapolis Institute of Art • Smithsonian Institutes (19) • Davison Art Gallery • Indianapolis Museum ofArt • J. Paul Getty Museum • Library ofCongress • LosAngelesCnty Museum ofArt • National Gallery ofArt • WaltersArt Museum 10 2 1 7 1. © [CulturalInstitution] 2. Copyright-by-contract 3. Both “All imageson Mia’s websites that are not credited to anamed personor organizationare wholly ownedorlicensed by the Minneapolis Institute of Art.” “The phrase ‘no known copyright restriction’means. . . that the Content isunlikely to be protectedby copyright interests and, in all likelihood,isin the publicdomain . . .. [T]he Smithsonian makes itscontent available for personal,non- commercial,and educational uses consistent withthe principlesoffair use.” Expressly disclaimscopyright in reproductionsofpublicdomain materials
  17. 17. E U R O P E AN U N I O N 5 8 I N S T I T U T I O N S – R E MO V E D : 1 5 C O N T E MPO R A R Y A R T MU S E U MS ; 9 H A D N O © PO L I C Y © No © . . . or isthere? No © = PublicDomain • AcropolisMuseum • Belvedere • British Library • British Museum • Finnish National Gallery • Galleriad’Arte Moderna • Uffizi Gallery • Kelvingrove Museum(Glasgow Life) • Kunsthistorisches Museum • Musée d'Orsay • Musée du Louvre • Musée du quaiBranly • Musées royaux desBeaux-Arts • Museo delPrado • Museo Reina Sofia • Rijksmuseum • British Library • MKG Hamburg • SMK Denmark • National Library ofWales • Rijksmuseum (?) 30 1 5 (more like 3) 1. © [CulturalInstitution] 2. Copyright-by-contract 3. Both • No (real)online policy • Encouragesreuse in practice (Rijksstudio) • © in metadataofall digitalsurrogates Expressly disclaimscopyright in reproductionsofpublicdomain materials(3) • Museu Nacional Catalunya • MKG Hamburg • Museum ofLiverpool • The National Archives(?) • National Galleries,Scotland • National Gallery,London • National Library ofScotland • National Museum Scotland • National Portrait Gallery • RoyalAcademy ofArts • Staatliche Museen zu Berlin • StedelijkMuseum Amsterdam • Tate • Van GoghMuseum • Victoria&Albert Museum
  18. 18. E M B E D D E D M E TAD ATA 100 digital surrogates • 65 lacked rightsinformation • 37 lacked any metadata at risk of becoming de facto orphan works
  19. 19. E M B E D D E D M E TAD ATA v P O L I C I E S 100 digital surrogates • 72 digital surrogates© protected according to policies • 53 lacked rightsinformation only 19 included rightsinformation
  20. 20. M E TAW H AT ?
  21. 21. B E TAD ATA Painting 1. Photographed (1997) 2. Made into transparency 3. Scanned/digitized to create digital image
  22. 22. B E TAD ATA
  23. 23. F I N D I N G S : O N L I N E P O L I C I E S
  24. 24. DAYOR is a research-led exhibition experiment concerned with the use and reuse of digital surrogates of public do- main works of art produced by cultural heritage institutions of international repute. Please join us at The Lighthouse in Glasgow for the Display At Your Own Risk exhibition opening. The exhibition opens on 8 June 2016 for one night only. A number of exhibition prints will be given away by raffle at the close of the evening. Refreshments will be provided. 8 June 2016 6:00 ‒ 8:30 pm The Lighthouse Glasgow
  25. 25. Four-tier risk organization: • Open/No Risk (14): use allowed for any purpose; (28 works) • Low (20): use allowed for personal, non-commercial and educational purposesonly; (39 works) • Medium (13): use prohibited, although legal exceptionsmay apply; (19 works) • High (9): use prohibited, and no legal exception appearsto apply; (14 works)
  26. 26. D AY O R : T H E M E TAD ATA B O O K
  27. 27. D AY O R R E S P O N S E S
  28. 28. D AY O R R E S P O N S E S
  29. 29. BEYOND OPEN ACCESS: DO IT FOR THE USERS
  30. 30. USERS DON’T CARE
  31. 31. “If you're putting it out on the internet to tens of thousands of people, you can't expect people not to save it and redistribute it. It's not how it works. The internet is just like that.The only way to get around it is to make sure you keep on top of yours and make sure it keeps getting bigger."
  32. 32. USERS DON’T CARE AND MAYBE THERE’S NOTHING WE CAN DO TO MAKE THEM CARE
  33. 33. USERS DO CARE
  34. 34. USERS DO CARE BUT WE’RE NOT MAKING IT EASY ENOUGH FOR THEM TO NAVIGATE AND RESPECT POLICIES
  35. 35. BE CLEAR LEGALESE IS NOT A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE
  36. 36. The British Library: “Copyright and Your use of the British Library Websites The audio, video, text, images or other material made available on this website "the Site" by the British Library to you (collectively, the "Content") is either: protected by third- party rights such as copyright or trademarks (for which the British Library is permitted to make available to you), is copyright to The British Library Board, or are materials which are in the public domain or made available under a Creative Commons licence.”
  37. 37. BE ACCESSIBLE IF THE PUBLIC CAN’T FIND IT, HOW CAN THEY FOLLOW IT?
  38. 38. M U S E E D ’ O R S AY
  39. 39. 1. Copyright, permissions and photography 2. Tate gallery rules 3. Website termsofuse 4. Image licensing 5. Copyright ‘orphanworks’ 6. Creative Commonslicensesand Tate 7. Tate ImagesCopyright Policy 8. DigitalImages ReproductionPolicy (Tate Images) 9. Creative Commonscontent 10. A Brief Guide to Copyright.pdf (65 pages) TAT E
  40. 40. BE STRAIGHTFORWARD USERS OFTEN JUST DON’T KNOW
  41. 41. BE HELPFUL HELPING USERS WILL HELP YOU
  42. 42. BE GENEROUS YOU KNOW, AS MUCH AS YOU CAN BE
  43. 43. USERS DO CARE BUT THEY DON’T AGREE (AND NOW THEY’RE REALLY MAD ABOUT IT)
  44. 44. USERS DO CARE AND IF WE DON’T PROVIDE ACCESS THEY’RE GOING TO BEAT US TO IT
  45. 45. #NEWPALMYRA CCO CyArk.org NC, educational uses; CC-BY-NC
  46. 46. SHARING IS CARING: LEAD BY EXAMPLE
  47. 47. “If they want to have a Vermeer on their toilet paper, I’d rather have a very high-quality image of Vermeer on toilet paper than a very bad reproduction.” Taco Dibbits Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  48. 48. Reiss Engelhorn Museum v. Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia Deutschland Rudolf Stricker, Wikimedia Commons
  49. 49. “. . . the question for us is who should decide whether and especially how our holdings should be made available. Even if one supports the free public accessibility of cultural items on Wikipedia, it is difficult for us to comprehendthat a single Wikipedia author claims the right to decide on their own to release to everybody the results of work created with public funds on Wikipedia for free and thus also for commercial use.” Prof. Dr. Alfried Wieczorek General-Director of the Reiss Engelhorn Museum
  50. 50. “IMAGES IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN ARE LIKE TOOLS IN A TOOLBOX – YOU CAN USE THEM FOR ALL MANNERS OF PURPOSES. FEEL FREE TO LET YOUR IMAGINATION RUN WILD.”
  51. 51. 👊🎤💨
  52. 52. Andrea Wallace @andeewallace

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