Grade 6 curriculum


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Grade 6 curriculum

  1. 1. Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Curriculum CurriculumEnglish Language Arts2008 6
  2. 2. English Language Arts 6ISBN 978-1-897211-71-71. Language arts (Middle school) - Saskatchewan - Curricula. 2. Competency-based education -Saskatchewan.Saskatchewan. Ministry of Education. Curriculum and E-Learning. Humanities Unit.All rights are reserved by the original copyright owners.
  3. 3. English Language Arts 6Table of Contents Acknowledgements............................................................................................. iii Introduction........................................................................................................... 1 Core.Curriculum..................................................................................................... 2 Broad.Areas.of.Learning....................................................................................... 2 Building.Lifelong.Learners............................................................................ 2 Building.a.Sense.of.Self.and.Community.................................................... 2 Building.Engaged.Citizens............................................................................. 2 Cross-curricular.Competencies........................................................................... 3 Developing.Thinking...................................................................................... 3 Developing.Identity.and.Interdependence................................................ 3 Developing.Literacies..................................................................................... 3 Developing.Social.Responsibility................................................................. 4 Aim.and.Goals.of.K-12.English.Language.Arts................................................ 4 Questions.Derived.from.the.Aim.and.Goals............................................... 5 An.Effective.English.Language.Arts.Program.................................................. 7 Focuses.on.Grade-specific.Outcomes.......................................................... 9 Provides.Meaningful.Contexts.................................................................... 12 Encourages.Inquiry,.Questioning,.and.Efficacy....................................... 16 Focuses.on.Language................................................................................... 22 Teaches.Critical.and.Powerful.Learning.Strategies................................. 24 Includes.a.Range.of.Texts............................................................................. 32 Outcomes.and.Indicators................................................................................... 33 Assessment.and.Evaluation.of.Student.Learning......................................... 47 Connections.with.Other.Areas.of.Study.......................................................... 52 Glossary................................................................................................................. 53 References............................................................................................................ 56 Feedback.Form. ................................................................................................... 59 . English Language Arts • Grade 6 | i
  4. 4. ii | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  5. 5. English Language Arts 6AcknowledgementsThe Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge the professional contributions and advice givenby the following members of the Middle Level English Language Arts Reference Committee inthe development of English Language Arts: A Curriculum Guide for the Middle Level (Grades 6-9)(Saskatchewan Learning, INTERIM June 2006). This curriculum is based on the interim curriculumguide.Michelle Batiuk Trevor GambellSaskatchewan Teachers’ Federation University of SaskatchewanMelfort and Unit Comprehensive Collegiate Department of Curriculum StudiesMelfort, Saskatchewan Saskatoon, SaskatchewanJennifer Bentz Rhae-Ann HoloienStudent Saskatchewan Teachers’ FederationBedford Road School Davison SchoolSaskatoon, Saskatchewan Melville, SaskatchewanMaureen Braun Patricia JamisonSaskatchewan Teachers’ Federation ConsultantHerbert School Saskatoon Public School DivisionHerbert, Saskatchewan Saskatoon, SaskatchewanBev Brenna Josy RoskeConsultant Saskatchewan Teachers’ FederationSaskatoon Public School Division Churchill High SchoolSaskatoon, Saskatchewan La Ronge, SaskatchewanMeredith Cherland Geoffrey ShumilakUniversity of Regina StudentFaculty of Education North Battleford Comprehensive High SchoolRegina, Saskatchewan North Battleford, SaskatchewanMarion Evans Sharon StollSaskatchewan Teachers’ Federation Saskatchewan Teachers’ FederationWinston Churchill School North Valley High SchoolLloydminster, Saskatchewan Lemberg, SaskatchewanThe Ministry of Education also wishes to thank many others who contributed to the developmentof this curriculum: • First Nations teachers • university faculties • other educators and reviewers.This curriculum is also based on the Western and Northern Canadian Protocol (WNCP) TheCommon Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts (Kindergarten to Grade 12) (1998). English Language Arts • Grade 6 | iii
  6. 6. iv | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  7. 7. English Language Arts 6IntroductionEnglish language arts (ELA) is a Required Area of Study inSaskatchewan’s Core Curriculum. The purpose of this curriculumis to outline the provincial requirements for Grade 6 EnglishLanguage Arts.Time AllotmentThe Saskatchewan Ministry of Education has established aprovincial policy for the amount of time that must be allocatedto language arts instruction at each grade level. The requiredtime allotted to Grade 6 is as follows: Required Minutes for English Language Arts 510 minutes per week or approximately 100 minutes each dayCurriculum ContentThis curriculum provides the intended learning outcomes thatGrade 6 students are expected to achieve in English languagearts by the end of the year. Indicators are included to providethe breadth and depth of what students should know and beable to do in order to achieve the outcomes.The learning experiences planned for students will supportstudent achievement of the provincial Goals of Educationthrough attending to the Broad Areas of Learning forSaskatchewan and the Cross-curricular Competencies describedon the following pages.The English language arts curriculum provides: • direction for supporting student achievement of the Broad Areas of Learning and the Cross-curricular Competencies • the K-12 aim and goals for English language arts in Saskatchewan • characteristics of an effective English language arts program • Grade 6 English Language Arts outcomes and indicators • sample assessment and evaluation criteria for outcomes in English language arts • connections with other areas of study.Additional support resources will appear online. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 1
  8. 8. English Language Arts 6 Core Curriculum Core Curriculum is intended to provide all Saskatchewan students with an education that will serve them well regardless of their choices after leaving school. Through its various components and initiatives, Core Curriculum supports the achievement of the Goals of Education for Saskatchewan. For current information regarding Core Curriculum, please refer to Core Curriculum: Principles, Time Allocations, and Credit Policy (August 2007) found on the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education website. Broad Areas of Learning There are three Broad Areas of Learning that reflect Saskatchewan’s Goals of Education. K-12 English language arts contributes to the Goals of Education through helping students achieve knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to these Broad Areas of Learning. Building Lifelong Learners Related to the following Goals of Students who are engaged in constructing and applying English Education: language arts knowledge naturally build a positive disposition º Basic Skills º Lifelong Learning towards learning. Throughout their study of English language º Self Concept Development arts, students gain understandings, skills, and strategies to º Positive Lifestyle become more competent and confident language users. Building a Sense of Self and Community Related to the following Goals of Education: To learn English language arts, students need to not only use º Understanding and Relating the English language but also to interact with each other. to Others Through the English language arts, students learn about º Self Concept Development themselves, others, and the world around them. They use º Positive Lifestyle language to define who they are and to explore who they might º Spiritual Development become. They use language to interact and respond effectively with others and to build community. Related to the following Goals of Building Engaged Citizens Education: In the English language arts, students learn how language can º Understanding and Relating to Others empower them to make a difference in their personal, peer, º Positive Lifestyle family, and community lives. Language gives them a sense of º Career and Consumer agency and an ability to make a difference in their community Decisions and the world in which they live. º Membership in Society º Growing with Change2 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  9. 9. English Language Arts 6Cross-curricular CompetenciesThe Cross-curricular Competencies are four interrelated areascontaining understandings, values, skills, and processes whichare considered important for learning in all areas of study. Thesecompetencies reflect the Common Essential Learnings and areintended to be addressed in each area of study at each gradelevel.Developing ThinkingLearners construct knowledge to make sense of the worldaround them. They develop understanding by building on what º thinking and learning contextuallyis already known. This key competency concerns the ability to º thinking and learningmake sense of information, experiences, and ideas through creativelythinking contextually, critically, and creatively. English language º thinking and learningarts is inquiry-based, and students use their language and critically.thinking skills to explore a range of topics, issues, and themes.Developing Identity and InterdependenceThe ability to act autonomously in an interdependent worldrequires an awareness of the natural environment, of social º understanding, valuing, and caring for oneselfand cultural expectations, and of the possibilities for individual º understanding, valuing,and group accomplishments. It assumes the possession of a and respecting humanpositive self-concept and the ability to live in harmony with diversity and human rightsothers and with the natural and constructed world. Achieving and responsibilitiesthis competency requires understanding, valuing, and caring for º understanding and valuing social, economic,oneself; understanding, valuing, and respecting human diversity and environmentaland human rights and responsibilities; and understanding interdependence andand valuing social and environmental interdependence and sustainability.sustainability. English language arts requires students to exploreideas and issues of identity, social responsibility, diversity,sustainability, and efficacy. Students study texts and ideasabout personal and philosophical; social, historical, and cultural;imaginative and literary; communicative; and environmentaland technological topics.Developing Literacies º constructing knowledgeLiteracies are multi-faceted and provide a variety of ways, related to various literaciesincluding the use of various language systems and media, to º exploring and interpretinginterpret the world and express understanding of it. Literacies the world through variousinvolve the evolution of interrelated skills, strategies, and literacies º expressing understandingknowledge that facilitate an individual’s ability to participate and communicatingfully and equitably in a variety of roles and contexts – school, meaning using varioushome, and local and global communities. To achieve this literacies. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 3
  10. 10. English Language Arts 6 competency requires developing skills, strategies, and knowledge related to various literacies in order to explore and interpret the world and communicate meaning. English language arts requires students to use different literacies, including language literacy, effectively and contextually to represent ideas and understanding in multiple, flexible ways. Developing Social Responsibility Social responsibility is how people positively contribute to their º using moral reasoning physical, social, and cultural environments. It requires the ability processes to participate with others in accomplishing shared or common º engaging in goals. This competency is achieved through using moral communitarian thinking and dialogue reasoning processes, engaging in communitarian thinking and º contributing to the well- dialogue, and contributing to the well-being of others and the being of self, others, and the natural world. Socially responsible learners contribute to their natural world. physical, social, and cultural environments. In English language arts, students explore their social responsibility and work toward common goals to improve the lives of others and the natural and constructed world. Aim and Goals of K-12 English Language Arts The K-12 aim of the Saskatchewan English language arts curricula is to help students understand and appreciate language, and to use it confidently and competently in a variety of situations for learning, communication, work, life, and personal satisfaction. Goals are broad statements identifying what students are expected to know and be able to do upon completion of study in a particular subject (e.g., English language arts). The K-12 goals of the Saskatchewan English language arts curricula are Students will also develop their to: abilities in using and learning about the appropriate before, 1. Comprehend and Respond (CR). Students will extend their during, and after strategies, and the pragmatic, textual, abilities to view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond syntactical, semantic/lexical/ to a range of contemporary and traditional grade-level texts morphological, graphophonic, in a variety of forms (oral, print, and other texts) from First and other language and Nations/Métis and other cultures for a variety of purposes communication cues and including for learning, interest, and enjoyment. (Refer to conventions. (See Glossary.) sidebar.) 2. Compose and Create (CC). Students will extend their abilities to represent, speak, and write to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences. (Refer to sidebar.)4 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  11. 11. English Language Arts 6 3. Assess and Reflect (AR). Students will assess their own language skills; discuss the skills of effective viewers, representers, listeners, speakers, readers, and writers; and set goals for future improvement.These goals, while reflecting what is important in Englishlanguage arts, also provide “throughlines” to and from theCross-curricular Competencies and the Broad Areas of Learning.Teachers need to ensure that the “throughlines” from eachsubject area are considered when planning and teaching. Social Studies Physical Health Education Identity and Education Thinking Interdependence Comprehend and Respond Self and Community Compose Language Arts Arts Lifelong Engaged and Create Learners Citizens Education Assess and Re ect Social Literacies Responsibility Mathematics Science Career EducationQuestions Derived from the Aim andGoalsThe questions on the following page focus on the long-termabilities associated with the overall purpose and K-12 goals forthe English language arts program. They recur in and give anoverall focus to all instruction, assessment, and evaluation inEnglish language arts. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 5
  12. 12. English Language Arts 6 Comprehend and Respond (CR): • What is this text saying? Explicitly? Implicitly? • How was the text created? • What forms and conventions are used? • In what context and for what purpose was the text created? • How can I interpret the text? • What evidence do I have to support this interpretation? • What does this text have to say about identity, social responsibility, and efficacy (making a difference)? • Whose voices are heard and whose are not? • Why are viewing, listening, and reading important? Compose and Create (CC): • What do I know, and how can I express that? • How can I best express these ideas for this audience and purpose? • What forms can I use? What are the conventions of those forms? • How can I communicate most clearly and effectively? • Do my messages demonstrate a deep understanding of the subject matter? • Are my compositions and presentations well-crafted, fully developed, coherent, and appropriate to my purpose and audience? • To what extent is the voice, pen, or screen mightier than the sword? Assess and Reflect (AR): • Why is effective language usage and effective communication important? • What are the characteristics of effective viewers, listeners, readers, representers, speakers, and writers? What do they do, feel, look like, or sound like? • What are my teacher’s and my personal expectations for viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing? • What are my personal goals for becoming a more effective viewer, listener, reader, representer, speaker, and writer? How will I achieve them?6 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  13. 13. English Language Arts 6An Effective English Language ArtsProgramAn English language arts program is effective when it ispurposeful, dynamic, fulfilling, and authentic. This curriculum Language literacy is theinvites and challenges educators to think about education, foundation to a lifelongschooling, and English language arts as it might be, rather learning process thatthan the way they might know it to be. How can schooling and empowers individuals to drawEnglish language arts be more purposeful, dynamic, fulfilling, on the gifts of mind, body,and authentic? How can it help students become competent, heart, and spirit toward the fulfillment of personal andconfident users of the English language and, at the same time, family life and communitybecome knowledgeable about themselves, their community, responsibility.and the world as a whole in a deep and meaningful way? How Language literacy involves acan it help them find fulfillment, be socially responsible, and continuum of interrelated skills,act in ways that will make their community and world better practices, and learnings thatplaces? How can it help them become effective self-directed, contribute to the development of an individual’s ability toself-regulated, strategic, and collaborative learners to meet the understand, communicate,demands of personal, social, work, and global life in the 21st and participate in a variety ofcentury? roles (e.g., parent, citizen, and worker) and settings (e.g., in the“When a learner makes connections and learning takes place, it home, at work, in education,is because of focused teaching ....” (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006, p. and in the community).34). Focused teaching requires: These include listening and speaking, reading and writing, • a detailed map of what is expected that students will know viewing and representing. and be able to do, clearly stated in outcomes and associated (Saskatchewan Literacy Commission, 2004, p. 1) indicators • a detailed knowledge of how best to teach to these learning outcomes in the classroom, including explicit teaching strategies and methods and classroom routines • a set of powerful and aligned assessment and evaluation tools tied to the outcomes (Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006, pp. 36-37).This curriculum is designed to be the starting point for thedetailed map, knowledge, and assessment and evaluationtools that teachers must know and understand in order to helpstudents learn effectively through the English language arts. It isthe starting point that will allow English language arts teachers“to develop and deepen students’ understanding of importantideas and a process in the discipline[s] equipping them totransfer their learning in meaningful and effective ways, andcultivating lifelong habits of mind” (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007, p.13). English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 7
  14. 14. English Language Arts 6 What ELA Is What ELA Is NotUsing visual, multimedia, oral, and written communication Using only print resources with a fictionalcompetently, appropriately, and effectively for a range of emphasis for a limited range of purposespurposes (usually isolated to a school task)Recognizing the central role of language in Letting “literature” drive the programcommunicating, thinking, and learningSetting meaningful and relevant contexts for teaching and Giving isolated language activities and usinglearning including connections to students’ experiences, unrelated textsknowledge, and personal and cultural identityHelping students know what and why they are learning Having only teacher awareness of theand doing something (i.e., outcomes, indicators, and outcomes and not sharing them with studentsexemplars)Teaching and learning for “deep understanding” (including Asking and answering solely teacher-directedusing compelling questions as a focus) questionsMaking meaning of ideas or information received (when Answering knowledge/comprehensionviewing, listening, and reading) questions, individually, after reading print textsCreating meaning for themselves and others (when Using only limited forms of communicating,representing, speaking, and writing) usually writingUsing critical, creative, and metacognitive processes to Accessing and accepting isolated informationmake sense of ideas, information, and experiences at face valueCreating, critiquing, and applying knowledge, not just Gaining knowledge but not using it“having” itParticipating, contributing, and making connections to theNot considering the implications of issuesworld beyond the classroom within the broader communityQuestioning students’ assumptions about the world and Accepting a Eurocentric and complacent viewtheir place in it of the worldUsing a variety of strategies (e.g., Before, During, and After) Following only teacher-directed skills anddepending upon the task strategies and spending time on isolated skill and drillUnderstanding how language really works (e.g., discourse, Learning “grammar” for “grammar’s” sakeregisters, sociolinguistic features and functions, cuesand conventions) and consciously using “grammatical”conventions for purpose and effectEngaging in inquiry learning Doing a project or, if time permits, a series of activities to bring closureRecognizing and respecting a range of worldviews Not thinking critically about whose worldview is presentedUsing assessment and evaluation to guide and improve Not reflecting on or analyzing own progresslearning and provide opportunities to reflect, monitor,self-assess, and set targets for learningShowing proof of learning Avoiding any accountability for own learningReflecting on own learning and literacy Assuming that the responsibility for learning and literacy lies with the teacherDeveloping the disposition to lifelong learning Setting short-term goals for learning (e.g., “Is it on the test?”)Using contemporary technologies to learn and to Using limited or inappropriate technology fordocument understanding technology’s sake8 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  15. 15. English Language Arts 6Through a “deep” understanding of this curriculum (Fullan, Hill &Crévola, 2006) and knowing when to use effective instructional,assessment, and classroom management strategies based onsound research (Marzano, 2007), English language arts teacherscan help all students become competent and confidentlanguage users.An Effective English Language Arts Program: • focuses on grade-specific outcomes • provides meaningful contexts • encourages inquiry, questioning, and efficacy • focuses on language • teaches critical and powerful learning strategies • includes a range of texts.Focuses on Grade-specific OutcomesAn effective English language arts program focuses on grade-specific curricula outcomes. Student learning outcomesdescribe what students will learn in a particular discipline overa specific time frame (e.g., Grade 6). They specify the skills,knowledge, and attitudes that students are expected to knowand be able to demonstrate.Critical Characteristics of Outcomes and IndicatorsOutcomes: • focus on what students will learn rather than what teachers will teach • specify the skills, strategies, abilities, understandings, and knowledge students are expected to be able to demonstrate • are observable, assessable, and attainable • are grade and subject-specific • are supported by indicators which provide the breadth and depth of expectations • are written using action-based verbs • identify the most important understandings and abilities to be developed in the specific grade level • guide course, unit, and lesson planning.Indicators: • are a representative list of what students need to know and/or be able to do in order to achieve an outcome • represent the breadth and the depth of the outcome.Note: Additional and/or alternative indicators may bedeveloped but they must be reflective of and consistent withthe breadth and depth that is defined by the given indicators. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 9
  16. 16. English Language Arts 6English Language Arts Goals and Outcomes OverviewEach of the three goals for English language arts has a set of outcomes for the specific grade level. Thefollowing are the outcomes for Grade 6 ELA. Comprehend and Respond (CR). Students will extend their abilities to view, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a range of contemporary and traditional grade-level texts from First Nations, Métis, and other cultures in a variety of forms (oral, print, and other texts) for a variety of purposes including for learning, interest, and enjoyment.CR6.1 View, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of texts that address identity (e.g.,Growing Up), social responsibility (e.g., Going the Distance), and efficacy (e.g., Making Our CommunityMore Peaceful).CR6.2 Select and use appropriate strategies to construct meaning before (e.g., considering what theyknow and need to know about the topic), during (e.g., making connections to prior knowledge andexperiences), and after (e.g., drawing conclusions) viewing, listening, and reading.CR6.3 Use pragmatic (e.g., function and purpose of texts), textual (e.g., form/genre, sequence ofideas), syntactic (e.g., word order and emphasis on particular words), semantic/lexical/morphological(e.g., capture particular aspect of intended meaning), graphophonic (e.g., sound-symbol patterns andrelationships), and other cues (e.g., the speaker’s non-verbal cues) to construct and confirm meaning.CR6.4 View, respond, and demonstrate comprehension of visual and multimedia grade-appropriatetexts including traditional and contemporary texts from First Nations, Métis, and other culturescontaining special features (e.g., the visual components of magazines, newspapers, websites, comicbooks, broadcast media, video, and advertising).CR6.5 Listen purposefully to understand, respond, and analyze oral information and ideas from a rangeof texts including narratives, instructions, oral explanations and reports, and opinions.CR6.6 Read and demonstrate comprehension and interpretation of grade-appropriate texts includingtraditional and contemporary prose fiction, poetry, and plays from First Nations, Métis, and othercultures.CR6.7 Read independently and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of information texts withsome specialized language including grade-level instructional materials, non-fiction books, reports andarticles from magazines and journals, reference materials, and written instructions.CR6.8 Read Grade 6 appropriate texts to increase fluency (120-160 wcpm orally; 160-210 silently) andexpression.10 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  17. 17. English Language Arts 6 Compose and Create (CC). Students will extend their abilities to speak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences.CC6.1 Create various visual, multimedia, oral, and written texts that explore identity (e.g., Your Choices),social responsibility (e.g., Looking for Answers), and efficacy (e.g., Systems for Living).CC6.2 Select and use the appropriate strategies to communicate meaning before (e.g., identifyingpurpose and audience), during (e.g., acknowledging sources), and after (e.g., revising to enhanceclarity) speaking, writing, and other representing activities.CC6.3 Use pragmatic (e.g., function and purpose), textual (e.g., paragraphs), syntactic (e.g., completesentences with appropriate subordination and modification), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g.,figurative words), graphophonic (e.g., spelling strategies), and other cues (e.g., appropriate volume andintonation) to construct and to communicate meaning.CC6.4 Create and present a variety of representations that communicate ideas and information toinform or persuade and to entertain an audience, including illustrations, diagrams, posters, displays,and cartoons.CC6.5 Use oral language to interact appropriately with others in pairs, and small and large group situations(e.g., asking questions to explore others’ ideas and viewpoints, discussing and comparing ideas andopinions, completing tasks and contributing to group success).CC6.6 Use oral language appropriately to express a range of information and ideas in formal and informalsituations including presenting an oral report based on research, a demonstration, and a short dramatization.CC6.7 Write to describe a place; to narrate an incident from own experience in a multi-paragraphcomposition and in a friendly letter; to explain and inform in multi-step directions and a short reportexplaining a problem and providing a solution; and, to persuade to support a viewpoint or stand.CC6.8 Experiment with a variety of text forms (e.g., a peer interview, presentation at an assembly, poem,letter to parents, short review, poster, tableau, graphic organizer) and techniques (e.g., surprise ending).CC6.9 Prepare a teacher-guided inquiry report related to a stand on a topic, theme, or issue studied inEnglish language arts. Assess and Reflect on Language Abilities (AR). Students will extend their abilities to assess and reflect on their own language skills, discuss the skills of effective viewers, representers, listeners, speakers, readers, and writers, and set goals for future improvement.AR6.1 Consider which viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing strategies workbest for each task and situation.AR6.2 Appraise own viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing skills andstrategies and set goals for improvment.AR6.3 Appraise own and others’ work for clarity.Each outcome is supported by indicators which provide the breadth and depth of theexpectations for the outcomes. The outcomes and their indicators are listed on pages 33-46.Teachers are encouraged to build upon outcomes in the previous grades and provide scaffoldingto support student achievement of the Grade 6 outcomes. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 11
  18. 18. English Language Arts 6 Provides Meaningful Contexts An effective ELA program provides meaningful contexts for students to learn about language. The English language arts program is designed for students to extend their language skills and strategies and become competent and confident users of all six language arts strands through many opportunities to view and represent, listen and speak, and read and write in meaningful contexts. If students are to become lifelong learners, develop a sense of self and connection to others, and become engaged citizens and achieve the Cross-curricular Competencies and the outcomes for English language arts, students require meaningful, authentic contexts for learning. Students need many opportunities to explore questions and concerns about themselves and about the world. The following contexts provide a focus to language learning and give students an opportunity to explore big ideas (i.e., overarching understandings) that have enduring values beyond the classroom: • A personal and philosophical focus or context gives students opportunities to explore their identity and their self-concept. The development of the learning spirit inside each student comes from the heart and mind connection that is revealed through each student’s reflection on personal feelings, self-image, influential life forces, ideas, belief systems, values, and ways of knowing. Who am I, what is my place, and where am I going? What does the future hold for me? • A social, cultural, and historical focus or context gives students opportunities to explore relationships with others, community, culture, customs, other ways of knowing, national and international events and issues, and the history of humanity. What are my rights and responsibilities in communities, cultures, and economies? How and who am I in relation to communities, cultures, and economies? How am I defined by these relationships? • An imaginative and literary focus or context gives students opportunities to use their intuition and imagination to explore alternative worlds and possibilities; different types of classical and contemporary genres including fantasy, science fiction, and humour; and particular authors. How do I use my imagination and intuition and that of others to understand and relate to people, the community, the world, and society in a positive way? How do I foster imaginative12 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  19. 19. English Language Arts 6 ideas of self and others? How do I use intuitive hunches to support creative problem solving or inquiry approaches? • A communicative focus or context gives students opportunities to explore different methods, forms, and issues related to language, communication, and the mass media. How do I make sense of and communicate with the world? How do I support communication with differing audiences? How do I know if communication is effective? • An environmental and technological focus or context gives students opportunities to explore the natural and constructed world including the land, the sky, animals, the sea, space, technologies, and environmental and technological issues. How do I describe, analyze, and shape the world around me? How does that natural and technological world affect and shape me?Each English language arts unit of study can be related to anddeveloped under one or more of these broader contexts. Eachcontext can be explored at each grade. Each context providesopportunities for integration with topics of study in othersubject areas. How we envision literacy makes a difference. If we seeTeachers in Grade 6 should plan a minimum of five units for the it as meaning making andyear, basing at least one unit on each of the five contexts. The not meaning making pluschart on page 15 gives an overview of possible unit themes and inquiry, we fail to envision alltopics for each context and each grade level. that literacy might be. If we see literacy as language andIn addition to considering the five contexts, Middle Level not language plus other signEnglish language arts teachers need to think about the types systems, we also fail to envision all that literacy might be.of units to plan. Language arts units, designed around the (Harste, 2000, p. 1)themes and topics within each context, can ensure that theobjectives for the language strands and conventions are learnedin meaningful ways. Minimal guidelines are provided for eachtype of unit. Type of Unit Number of Units per Year Multi-genre Thematic 3 (minimum) Multi-genre Inquiry and/or 1 (minimum) Interdisciplinary Author or Genre Study 1 (maximum)A multi-genre thematic unit (e.g., Growing Up unit in Grade6) is built around a theme or topic from one of the contextsand includes a range of prose fiction and non-fiction, poetry,plays, and other texts. This is the most common type of Englishlanguage arts unit because it allows teachers to vary activitieswithin a broad theme or topic to suit the various ability levelsof students while supporting their achievement of outcomes English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 13
  20. 20. English Language Arts 6 for their respective grade. A minimum of three multi-genre thematic units is recommended. A multi-genre inquiry and/or interdisciplinary unit (e.g., Taking Flight unit in Grade 6) is usually built around a theme or topic that is related to an important question(s) for inquiry and research. The emphasis in an inquiry unit is on “finding out” the Through the inquiry or research answers to a question or questions that the students have about process, students satisfy their the theme or topic and then using the inquiry process to guide natural curiosity and develop their activities in the unit. When the unit is interdisciplinary, skills and strategies for lifelong it considers and addresses outcomes from English language learning. arts and other area(s) of study. A minimum of one inquiry/ (Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic interdisciplinary unit per year is recommended. Any multigenre Education, 1998, p. 33) thematic or author/genre study unit can become an inquiry unit. An author or genre study unit focuses on the works of a specific author or illustrator or on a specific genre (e.g., the novel or narrative texts). Because of the limited texts used in an author or genre study, a maximum of one per year is recommended. Planning Units of Study in an Effective English Language Arts Program Units of Study Essential Aspects Units provide meaningful Questions for deeper understanding that address the ideas contexts and foci for students and issues students need to think about throughout the to explore the topics and texts unit (e.g., What is injustice? How are people treated fairly that are important to young and unfairly? What are some of the injustices that need to be people everywhere. Units in addressed in our community?). English language arts allow students not only to learn how Strategies to explore and express their thoughts, ideas, language works in meaningful feelings, and experiences as well as to inquire and to learn to situations but also to develop use the English language and its conventions. Oral, written, the disposition for learning and other texts explore the issues and provide opportunities for life, a sense of self and to apply listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and connection to others, and, as representing knowledge and skills. engaged citizens, a capacity to Individual as well as co-operative projects invite inquiry and make a difference in the larger bring closure and personal agency to their explorations (e.g., community. developing a campaign to make people aware of injustice).14 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  21. 21. English Language Arts 6 English Language Arts 6Contexts and Suggested Themes and Topics for Middle Level English Language Arts UnitsContexts (one unit from each of the Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 following)Personal and Growing Up Participating and Becoming Myself ExploringPhilosophical or Giving Our Personal or Loyalty, Love,Students are looking Into the Spotlight Best (Model Unit) In My Mirror and Relationshipsinward and focusing (Self and or or (Model Unit)on self-image and self- Relationships) Finding the Courage Telling One’s Life (Semester II)esteem. They reflect or or Story oron self and life, and on Your Choices Exploring Thoughts, All that I Am – Thetheir beliefs and values Feelings, and Ideas Search for Selfand those of their (Semester I)society.Social, Cultural, and Peace and Conflict Voices Through Adventure and Conflicts,Historical (Model Unit) the Ages – Adventurers Challenges, Issues,Students look or Reconstructing the (Model Unit) and Choices –outward and examine Going the Distance Past or Doing the Righttheir relationships or or Is it Fair? – In Search Thing (Model Unit)with others, their Looking for Answers Building a Better of Justice (Semester I)community, and that or World or orof the world. They also Canada’s Links to the or Building a Better Taking Risks; Settingconsider the historical World Young People in World Limitscontext. History or or or Heroic Ways Equal Opportunity Heroes GalleryImaginative and Tales – Heroes, Mysteries Uncanny Timeless Narratives Indigenous andLiterary Deeds, and Wonders Incidents, and Unusual of the First Nations Norse NarrativesStudents consider or Happenings (Model and Greek Peoples (Model Unit)imaginary worlds and Suspense Unit) (Model Unit) (Semester 1)possibilities (e.g., What or or or orif…?) as well as a range Marvels Then and Imagined Worlds Other Skies Looking Beyondof genres and authors. Now or or - Imagining New or Actions and Reactions Mystery Maze Worlds and the Fantastic Fiction Future or Laugh Lines or Endless PossibilitiesCommunicative Messages Lighten Up! – On the Burning Questions Our Shared LinguisticStudents consider the or Funny Side or and Cultural Rootsrole of communication Scripts to Act Out or Fast Forward (Model Unit)in their lives and the or Thinking for Oneself or (Semester II)ideas and technologies Off the Page or Popular Culture orthat help people or It’s Showtime! or Listen to the Musicbecome effective Biographies Beneath the Ink orcommunicators. or or Side by Side Science Fiction Buy It, You’ll Like It or Image and InformationEnvironmental and Taking Flight (Model Doing Our Part for An Eye on Our Surviving andTechnological Unit) Planet Earth Natural and Conquering (ModelStudents explore the or or Technological Unit)elements of the natural Space, Stars, and Think Outside the Box Environment (Semester II)and constructed Quasars or or orworld and the role of or Taking Action Survival Building a Bettertechnology and related Systems for Living or Planetdevelopments in their or Creating Turning orsociety. Biodiversity Points In Touch or or Electricity Final Frontier English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 15
  22. 22. English Language Arts 6 Encourages Inquiry, Questioning, and Efficacy An effective English language arts program provides opportunities for inquiry, questioning, and efficacy. Inquiry learning provides students with opportunities to build knowledge, abilities, and inquiring habits of mind that lead to deeper understanding of their world and human experience. The inquiry process focuses on the development of compelling questions, formulated by teachers and students, to motivate and guide inquiries into topics, problems, and issues related to curriculum content and outcomes. Inquiry is more than a simple instructional strategy. It is a philosophical approach to teaching and learning, grounded inInquiry is a philosophical stancerather than a set of strategies, constructivist research and methods, which engages studentsactivities, or a particular in investigations that lead to disciplinary and transdisciplinaryteaching method. As such, understanding. Inquiry builds on students’ inherent sense ofinquiry promotes intentional and curiosity and wonder, drawing on their diverse backgrounds,thoughtful learning for teachers interests, and experiences. The process provides opportunitiesand children. for students to become active participants in a collaborative(Mills & Donnelly, 2001, p. xviii) search for meaning and understanding. Students who are engaged in inquiry: • construct deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving information • are directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge • encounter alternative perspectives and differing ideas that transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings • transfer new knowledge and skills to new circumstances • take ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning and mastery of curriculum content and skills. (Adapted from Kuhlthau & Todd, 2007) Inquiry learning is not a step-by-step process, but rather a cyclical process, with various phases of the process being revisited and rethought as a result of students’ discoveries, insights, and co-construction of new knowledge. The following graphic represents various phases of this cyclical inquiry process.16 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  23. 23. English Language Arts 6 Constructing Understanding Through InquiryCurriculum Outcomes What are the things we wonder about and want to know more about? What questions do we have about the deeper mysteries or aspects of life? Interpret Collaborate Conclude Analyze Plan Investigate Reflect and Reflect and Revise How are we going to get there? Revise Explore Create Observe Synthesize Acknowledge Sources Document Processes Resources What have we discovered and how will we show our deeper understanding? How are we going to use what we have discovered (e.g., apply, act, implement)?Inquiry prompts and motivates students to investigate topicswithin meaningful contexts. The inquiry process is not linear orlock-step, but is flexible and recursive. Experienced inquirers willmove back and forth among various phases as new questionsarise and as they become more comfortable with the process.Well-formulated inquiry questions are broad in scope and richin possibilities. Such questions encourage students to explore,observe, gather information, plan, analyze, interpret, synthesize,problem solve, apply critical and creative thinking, take risks,create, conclude, document, reflect on learning, and developnew questions for further inquiry.Teachers and students can begin their inquiry at one or morecurriculum entry points; however, the process may evolve intotransdisciplinary integrated learning opportunities, as reflectiveof the holistic nature of our lives and interdependent globalenvironment. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 17
  24. 24. English Language Arts 6 An important part of any inquiry process is student reflection on their learning and the documentation needed to assess the learning and make it visible to students. Student documentation of the inquiry process in English language arts may take the form of reflective journals, essays, notes, drafts, three- dimensional models, works of art, photographs, and video footage. Questions for deeper understanding are used to initiate and Effective Questions for Deeper Understanding guide the inquiry and give students direction for developing º Cause genuine and relevant deep understandings about a topic or issue under study. It inquiry into the key ideas is essential to develop questions that are evoked by student and core content interests and have potential for rich and deep learning. º Provide for thoughtful, lively discussion, sustained The process of constructing compelling questions can help inquiry, and new students to grasp the important disciplinary or transdisciplinary understanding as well as ideas that are situated at the core of a particular curricular focus more questions º Require students to or context. These broad questions will lead to more specific consider alternatives, questions that can provide a framework, purpose, and direction weigh evidence, support for the learning activities in a lesson, or series of lessons, their ideas, and justify their and help students connect what they are learning to their answers experiences and life beyond school. º Stimulate vital, ongoing rethinking of ideas, Effective questions in English language arts are the key to assumptions, or prior initiating and guiding students’ investigations and critical lessons º Spark meaningful thinking, problem solving, and reflection on their own learning. connections with prior Questions such as the following are examples of questions that learning, personal will move students’ inquiry towards deeper understanding: experiences, and ways of knowing • How have people been discriminated against because º Naturally recur, creating of their colour, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or opportunities for transfer race? How have discrimination and racism been factors in to other situations and Saskatchewan’s history? subjects. (Adapted from Wiggins & • How fair is it that some people receive less pay than others McTighe, 2005, p. 110) for equal work or do not share in the wealth of the world? How might we empower people to use the world’s wealth appropriately? • How have innocent people suffered so others can gain? • What injustices would you like addressed in your society? How could changes best be made? • What is the difference between fair and equal? • What are our responsibilities to others? Effective questioning is essential for teaching and student learning and should be an integral part of planning in English language arts. Questioning should also be used to encourage students to reflect on the inquiry process and the documentation and assessment of their own learning.18 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  25. 25. English Language Arts 6Efficacy encourages students to extend their learning beyondthe classroom into the local, national, and international Efficacy Can Help Studentscommunity. It invites students to consider how individuals º Become complex thinkers by encouraging them toor groups can shape the future in a positive way or address synthesize their learningan issue, question, challenge, or problem that is important. and apply it to theirEach unit at each grade level in English language arts offers community, country, and/opportunities to challenge students to consider what particular or international world.local, national, or global issues, questions, challenges, or º Become more aware of theproblems are important and to consider what students might interconnectedness of all things and the reciprocaldo to make their community or the world a better place. relationships between themselves and theirEfficacy challenges students to address the important or local and internationalcompelling questions for deeper understanding posed in a unit. community.In any English language arts unit, teachers and students can º Become more independentplan and create a project for efficacy. by using the language skills and strategies that students are learning in ELA beyond the classroom. º Become more motivated by choosing individual or group projects related to each unit. º Become contributors to their community and the world beyond that community. º Become more collaborative and respectful as they work with others to address the questions, issues, and problems considered in the unit. º Become agents of change. º Become socially responsible. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 19
  26. 26. English Language Arts 6 Sample Year Plan with Questions for Grade 6 English Language Arts Unit (and Unit Context Unit Overview and Questions for Deeper Understanding Type) Growing Up Personal and Grade 6 is an important time in your lives. You are leaving childhood Philosophical behind and becoming curious about the challenges ahead. You (multi-genre are beginning to find your place in the world and assuming more thematic) responsibility for your actions. Possible Questions for Deeper Understanding: • What are some of the changes and challenges that you are facing? • How have others dealt with these changes and challenges? • When do you feel most confident about yourself and your place in the world? • What can difficult situations teach you about yourself? • What are the challenges that you will have to deal with in the future? Messages Communicative People communicate in ways other than just writing. Through personal interactions, the mass media, and the arts, they use (multi-genre language to recount and tell their experiences, feelings, thoughts, thematic) and opinions. To get their messages across to others, they use language for many purposes and in many media. Possible Questions for Deeper Undestanding: • What forms of technology are used to communicate with others and to gain information? • What is your most effective way of telling your story or getting your message across? • What role do media such as photographs, the Internet, and person-to-person contact play in your communication? • How do artists communicate their messages through the arts? • What role does advertising play in communicating and persuading? Tales – Heroes, Imaginative and People all over the world have told (and retold) wonderful stories that Deeds, and Literary explain natural events, provide teachings about their culture, give Wonders information, explain their values, and tell about the people they admire most. A well-told tale also causes us to test our values and to reflect on (author/genre what we believe is important. Such tales not only teach us, they also study) entertain us and cause us to imagine another time and place. Possible Questions for Deeper Understanding: • What are the qualities of a good or well-told story? • What do these tales teach us about other people, times, and places? • What do these tales teach us about ourselves? • How do these tales help us see our own gifts and potential, and inspire us to fight for our own causes?20 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  27. 27. English Language Arts 6Unit (and Unit Context Unit Overview and Questions for Deeper UnderstandingType)Taking Flight Environmental People have always wondered about flight and about space. In this and interdisciplinary unit (ELA and science), you have many opportunities(multi-genre Technological to listen to, read, and view different texts related to flight, space, andinquiry and space exploration – some factual and some imaginary. You learninterdisciplinary) how to gather and to organize information and how to report and document factual information in different ways.[Model Unit] Possible Questions for Deeper Understanding: • How can birds, insects, bats, kites, planes, and rockets fly? Can people fly? (How do living things and flying devices achieve lift, movement, and control? Why can we not fly an airplane to the moon?) • How can we explore and learn about space? (What technologies have been developed to find out about space? How do people on Earth gather information about space? What have we learned about space?) • What have we accomplished through space exploration? (What is needed to travel and to live in space? How has the exploration of space changed people’s lives on Earth? How will space be used in the future?)Peace and Social, Cultural, People around the world yearn for peace. Each of us has a role andConflict and Historical responsibility in maintaining peace on a personal, local, and global level – peace begins with us. Developing our communication and(multi-genre Communicative group skills can help maintain respectful relationships and resolvethematic or conflict. If we are to make the world a better place, we have to do ourinquiry) part. We have to be the peacemakers. “I see the world gradually being turned into a wilderness, I hear the ever approaching thunder, which[Model Unit] will destroy us too, I can feel the suffering of millions, and yet, if I look up into the heavens, I think that it will all come right, that this cruelty, too, will end” (Anne Frank). Possible Questions for Deeper Understanding: • What role does peace play in your life? What brings peace and happiness in our lives? • What skills are needed to resolve conflicts and disputes peacefully? • What is the role of the peacemaker? • What are our rights and our responsibilities in supporting peace? • What can people learn by resolving conflicts?Going the Personal and We often face roadblocks that we have to overcome in order toDistance Philosophical achieve success in life. Many people must overcome roadblocks in their personal lives. Some have to deal with poverty or discrimination;(multi-genre Social, Cultural, others have mental or physical challenges. Setting goals and strivingthematic) and Historical to achieve our personal best can help us overcome life’s obstacles.[Optional Unit] Possible Questions for Deeper Understanding: • What are some things that you have achieved so far in your life, and why do you consider them achievements? • What personal goals would you like to attain? How will you share your successes with your family and the larger community? • How have others met personal challenges, set goals, and tried to achieve their “personal best”? • What can you learn about yourself when you try to do your personal best? English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 21
  28. 28. English Language Arts 6 Focuses on Language Language and language study are at the centre of the MiddleGood language and literacy skills Level English language arts program. The study of the Englishlay the foundation for social, language arts (listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, andacademic, economic, personal, representing) and of the elements and conventions associatedand national success.(Jamieson & Tremblay, 2005, with each language cueing system (i.e., pragmatic, textual,p.1) syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other) enables students to understand and appreciate language and to use it in a variety of situations for communication, for learning, and for personal satisfaction. An effective English language arts program that develops students’ facility with language provides students with opportunities to: • learn to use language in a variety of meaningful ways, considering and determining their audience, purpose, and situation • learn about language as a necessary tool for thinking and communicating effectively, considering the resources and conventions of language • learn through language by applying their knowledge of language in their listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing experiences. Language study is an integral part of an English language arts program. Students in each grade are expected to understand the concepts related to the language cues and conventions. As students listen, speak, read, write, view, and represent, they are expected to apply the concepts as they construct and communicate meaning in their English language arts program and in their daily communication.22 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  29. 29. English Language Arts 6Language Cue or When listening, reading, and When speaking, writing, andConvention viewing, student recognizes: representing, student considers:Pragmatic Who created this text? For whom? About what am I speaking, writing, or What is the purpose of this text? representing? Who is my audience (toPragmatics is the study of When was it created? Why was what person or group of people am Ihow people choose what it created? Whose point of view trying to communicate)? What is myand how to communicate is presented? What is the tone purpose (what do I want to achieve)?from the range of of this text? What is the creator’s What register and tone would bepossibilities available in view of the world? What are the appropriate (what level of languagethe language and how the creator’s beliefs or biases? Whose should I use and what“voice”should Ireceiver will be affected by point of view is not presented? assume)?these choices.Textual What form/genre was used? What form should this take? Is this How are the ideas organized the right form to communicateIdeas and information are (e.g., chronological)? What signal my message? Is my text effectivelyorganized in oral, written, words are used? If non-fiction, and logically organized? Does eachand other formats. Textual what are the important ideas or section/paragraph begin and endcues and conventions events? If fiction, where and when effectively? Does my text use ainclude the form or structure does this take place? Who are consistent point of view? Does myand elements of a text. the main characters? What is the text use effective transitions and problem? How is it resolved? What connections? are the special features of this text?Syntactical What is the key idea in this Are all sentences clear, complete, sentence (i.e., who or what/does and with varied beginnings? HaveSyntax is the predictable or is/what/for or to whom)? What I used a variety of sentence typesstructure of a sentence is the verb and how do the other (e.g., exclamations) and sentenceand the ways words are words relate to it? How does the structures (e.g., S-V, SVO, and S-LV-C)?combined to form phrases, word order convey a particular Have I created sentences of varyingclauses, and sentences. meaning or emphasis? To what length? Have I used co-ordination,Syntax includes classes of does each pronoun refer? How subordination, and apposition towords (e.g., verbs) and their does the punctuation clarify the enhance my communication? Arefunctions (e.g., subject). meaning of this sentence? there any sentence fragments or run- ons? Does each verb agree with its subject?Semantic/Lexical/ What does this word mean? Have Are my word choices vivid? HaveMorphological I seen this word before? Can I use frequently confused words been context clues to figure out what used correctly? Have I used qualifiersThe lexicon of a language it probably means? Can I use a effectively and appropriately? Have Iincludes all the words or familiar part (e.g., prefix, suffix, noted the denotative and connotativevocabulary of that language base word) to figure out what it meaning of words and used themthat are used or understood means? Can I look this word up effectively? Are my pronoun referencesby a particular person or or ask someone what it means? Is correct? Have I avoided doublegroup. Words can also be this a creative or figurative use of negatives?studied for their meaningful this word?parts or morphemes. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 23
  30. 30. English Language Arts 6 Language Cue or When listening, reading, and When speaking, writing, and Convention viewing, student recognizes: representing, student considers: Phonemic/Graphophonic How is this word pronounced? How is this word spelled? Graphophonics is the study of the relationship between the symbols and sounds of a language and includes letter or sound relationships and patterns. Other Cues and What additional information is How could I clarify or enhance my Conventions conveyed through these other communication using other elements elements? What impact or effect such as graphics, colour, sound, Other cues and conventions do these elements have? movement, or props? How can I make are also found in this more interesting? More effective? communication acts. These Are my accompanying visuals and include such elements as other media appropriate? Did I use graphics, layout, colour, legible handwriting or appropriate sound, movement, font fonts? choices, and handwriting.Teaches Critical and Powerful Learning StrategiesAn effective ELA program teaches students how to use critical and powerful learning strategies.In order to achieve the English language arts outcomes, students need to learn and use a rangeof language skills and strategies. Effective language arts teachers employ a range of instructionalapproaches to help students move from teacher-supported and guided lessons to independentlearning that requires varied instructional methods and strategies to help students learn theselanguage skills and strategies. Teachers model and discuss key procedural and metacognitivestrategies for language learning and thinking. Students need to learn how to select and to usestrategies before, during, and after listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing.If students are to be successful in English language arts, they need to learn and use thinking andlearning skills and strategies on their own. In order to help students gain control over a repertoireof key skills and strategies, the skills and strategies need to be explicitly taught and practised usinga model such as the following: • Introduce and explain the purpose of the skill or strategy. • Demonstrate and model its use. • Provide guided practice for students to apply the skill or strategy with feedback. • Allow students to apply the skill or strategy independently and in teams. • Reflect regularly on the appropriate uses of the skills or strategies and their effectiveness. • Assess the students’ ability to transfer the repertoire of skills or strategies with less and less teacher prompting over time (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007, pp. 97-98).24 | English Language Arts • Grade 6
  31. 31. English Language Arts 6Important Cognitive Strategies for Comprehending and Responding (CR) GoalLearning Phase: Strategies Learners can use (Before) as They Prepare to Comprehend andRespond to a Visual, Multimedia, Oral, or Print TextStrategy PromptsTap, Activate, and Build Prior I already know that ….Knowledge This reminds me of …. This relates to ….Ask Questions I want to know …. I wonder if …. I want to answer these questions ….Preview Text • Title • Illustrations/Diagrams • Texual Cues and Features • Summaries • Table of Contents • Headings and Subheadings • Graphic OrganizersAnticipate Message and I think that I will learn ….Author’s/Presenter’s Intent I think that the author/presenter will say …. The title of this text makes me think of …. This text will likely present…. The information about the speaker/writer/presenter suggests ….Predict what Text will be Because of the title, I think ….About Because of the picture(s), I think …. Because of the text and features, I think …. I wonder if ….Set Purpose I am listening, reading, viewing this to …. I want to know if …. I think that I will learn …. I want to answer these questions …. English Language Arts • Grade 6 | 25
  32. 32. English Language Arts 6Learning Phase: Strategies Learners can use (During) as They Comprehend and Respond to aVisual, Multimedia, Oral, or Print TextConnect and Construct This reminds me of ….Meaning I experienced this once when …. I can relate to this because ….Note Key Ideas and What The important ideas in what I hear, read, or view are ….Supports Them Here’s why (supporting ideas) …. I think the author/presenter is really trying to make us think ….Construct Mental Images I can picture …. In my mind I see, hear, smell, taste, feel …. If this were a movie ….Make, Confirm, and Adjust I think ….Predictions I suppose …. If …, then ….Make, Confirm, Adjust Based on the clues in this text, I think the author/character felt/thought ….Inferences, and Draw I see why ….Conclusions My thinking changed when I heard, saw, read ….Ask Questions and Self- Does this make sense?monitor Comprehension I need to listen again, re-read, or re-view this part because …. I know that I am on the right track because ….Use Cueing Systems to Construct Meaning:Pragmatic Cues (audience, The purpose of this text is to ….purpose, situation) This text represents … point of view The author’s/presenter’s view of the world is ….Textual Cues (genre and The author/presenter chose to use … genre/formform) The author/presenter organized the ideas in a list, sequence, compare/ contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution, concept/definition, goal/action/ outcome format …. The author/presenter probably chose this genre/form because …. The key idea of this sentence is ….Syntactical (sentence) Cues The author/presenter used this word order to convey this particular meaning or emphasis of …. This pronoun refers to …. An important or key word in this passage is ….Semantic/Lexical (word) Cues Because of its context clues, …probably means …. Because of its prefix, suffix, root, …probably means …. … is pronounced ….Graphophonic (sound- … is spelled ….symbol) Cues The author/presenter used these features (e.g., graphs, charts) to help usOther Cues understand this text ….Adjust Rate and/or Strategy I need to skim this part to learn …. I need to scan this part to find …. I need to read this part carefully to learn ….26 | English Language Arts • Grade 6