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The Cleanup Generation: Youth Participation in A Climate Crisis

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The Cleanup
Generation
The Cleanup
Generation
The Cleanup
Generation
The Cleanup
Generation

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Young people
are demanding
solutions, and
young people
are creating
them

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This report was commissioned in December 2018 to look at
youth engagement. During 2018-2019 we have seen children
and yo...

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The Cleanup Generation: Youth Participation in A Climate Crisis

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The Cleanup Generation: Youth Participation in A Climate Crisis is the global young leadership research produced by Young Sustainable Impact organisation, with the Founder of the Future City Summit and Good City Foundation, Andre Kwok, featured in the case book.

This report was commissioned in December 2018 to look at
youth engagement. During 2018-2019 we have seen children
and young people become engaged in the climate crisis like
never before. It is the greatest engagement for this issue that
has ever been seen in the history of humanity.

When looking internationally at activists and entrepreneurs,
we can see a clear trend of growing engagement. The
report was written in Oslo with a focus on local engagement
towards a global issue. It was written not only with the
intention of being read. It was written to enable more action
by young people engaged in solving the climate crisis.

Looking internationally at activists and entrepreneurs we can see a clear trend of growing engagement. The report was written from Oslo with a focus on local engagement towards a global issue. It was written not only to be read. It was written to enable more action for youth engaged towards solving the climate crisis.

The Cleanup Generation: Youth Participation in A Climate Crisis is the global young leadership research produced by Young Sustainable Impact organisation, with the Founder of the Future City Summit and Good City Foundation, Andre Kwok, featured in the case book.

This report was commissioned in December 2018 to look at
youth engagement. During 2018-2019 we have seen children
and young people become engaged in the climate crisis like
never before. It is the greatest engagement for this issue that
has ever been seen in the history of humanity.

When looking internationally at activists and entrepreneurs,
we can see a clear trend of growing engagement. The
report was written in Oslo with a focus on local engagement
towards a global issue. It was written not only with the
intention of being read. It was written to enable more action
by young people engaged in solving the climate crisis.

Looking internationally at activists and entrepreneurs we can see a clear trend of growing engagement. The report was written from Oslo with a focus on local engagement towards a global issue. It was written not only to be read. It was written to enable more action for youth engaged towards solving the climate crisis.

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The Cleanup Generation: Youth Participation in A Climate Crisis

  1. 1. 1 The Cleanup Generation The Cleanup Generation The Cleanup Generation The Cleanup Generation
  2. 2. Young people are demanding solutions, and young people are creating them
  3. 3. 3 This report was commissioned in December 2018 to look at youth engagement. During 2018-2019 we have seen children and young people become engaged in the climate crisis like never before. It is the greatest engagement for this issue that has ever been seen in the history of humanity. When looking internationally at activists and entrepreneurs, we can see a clear trend of growing engagement. The report was written in Oslo with a focus on local engagement towards a global issue. It was written not only with the intention of being read. It was written to enable more action by young people engaged in solving the climate crisis. Youth Participation in a Climate Crisis Written by Alex Moltzau and Amund Grytting Design and layout by Alex Moltzau Illustrations by Anette Moi Printed by ...
  4. 4. 4 This report was commissioned in December 2018 to look at youth engagement. During the year of 2018-2019 we have seen engagement from children and youth for the climate crisis that has never been seen before. It is the greatest engagement for this issue that has ever been seen in the history of humanity. Youth in this report is defined as the age group 13-28 globally. Sustainability is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Engagement in this report is any action taken towards a more sustainable society. This includes but is not limited to entrepreneurship and activism. Participation is defined different by youth organisation than those seeking to facilitate youth in policy or business. This has to change to enable more action from youth to address the climate crisis. We use the terms participation and engagement in this report interchangeably to refer to taking action towards increased sustainability. Looking internationally at activists and entrepreneurs we can see a clear trend of growing engagement. The report was written from Oslo with a focus on local engagement towards a global issue. It was written not only to be read. It was written to enable more action for youth engaged towards solving the climate crisis. Written by: Alex Moltzau and Amund Grytting Brief Introduction
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 6 Table of Contents p. 6 0.0 Table of Contents p. 8-9 0.1 A process of understanding p. 10-19 0.2 Background and intention p. 20-21 0.3 The New Urban Agenda III p. 22-29 0.4 Criterias for Youth Participation p. 31-35 0.5 Research about young entrepreneurs p. 36-43 0.6 A story of sustainability p. 44-47 0.7 What is Contribution to the SDGs? p. 48 1.0 Youth Demanding p. 50-61 1.1 Climate protests around the world p. 62-71 1.2 Digital Engagement Amongst Youth p. 72-79 1.3 The Youth Climate Top Meeting in Oslo p. 80-81 1.4 Roaring for climate p. 82-83 2.0 Stories from Youth Creating p. 84-87 2.1 Sharing from conflict to peace - Qussai Maklad p. 88-91 2.2 With Magic and Courage - Carmen Young p. 92-95 2.3 Networking Youth Across Cities - Andre Kwok p. 96-99 2.4 The Young Inventor - Himanshu Panday p. 100-103 2.5 Delivering Clean Water - Øyvind Egaas Stenberg p. 104-105 3.0 Bridging Engagement to Action p. 106-113 3.1 Young Sustainable Impact p. 114-117 3.2 Ashoka p. 118-121 3.3 Tøyen Unlimited p. 122-125 3.4 Ungt Entreprenørskap (Junior Achievement) p. 126-133 4. Five key actions for youth participation in a climate crisis with objectives and recommendation for measures
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8 This report is based on a number of semi-structured qualitative interviews, an examination of existing research on participation and young entrepreneurs, a survey to the YSI community, and our own experience from three years ofworkwith YSI. While working with this report we have experienced first hand the uprising of youth globally through the school strike movement called FridaysForFuture. Since the ask from the ministry emphasised especially how to increase the engagement with youth we decided to follow the development of the school strike more closely and make it a greater part of this report. After interviews with the key informants Douglas Ragan, Martin Demant Fredriksen and Thomas Hylland Eriksen we partly widened the scope. It developed from a sole focus on SDG11 to addressing a wider, qualitative question of understanding how youth are engaging with sustainability and how they do it. This included looking at how youth organizations works to bridge engagement today towards solutions; what their challenges are; and finally connect this with quantitative insights about what is important to focus on when trying to help young entrepreneurs to bring it to action. A process of understanding Qualitative and quantitative methodology
  9. 9. 9 The reportwill not provide any magical formula on how to facilitate engagement to action, nor how to measure it, rather present and discuss it as far aswe canwithin the scope of the study.Any one particular solutionwould be a one-size-fits-all,withvery small impact andvalue for money. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (55+2) • 22 interviews of young entrepreneurs and key informants • 12 interviews school strike March 15th 2019 • 21 interviews school strike May 24th 2019 • 2 group interviews (one with YSI team + one mid- way with the ministry of local government and modernization) Norway, Malaysia, India, Syria, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Examined existing research on participation and young entrepreneurs. Survey to YSI community • 277 responses • 21 countries (main group from Pakistan, Nigeria, India, Kenya, Brazil)
  10. 10. 10 We at Young Sustainable Impact (YSI) have been asked by the planning department at the Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation to write a report about how to use the sustainable development goals to strengthen collaboration and partnerships, with a particular emphasis on how to increase youth engagement. “YSI will examine how UN sustainable development goal number 11, sustainable cities and communities, is being pursued by other governments to understand what Norway can learn from others. The principal question is: Which young people in the 18-28 age group use entrepreneurship for sustainability and how do they work? What are their needs and what do they wish for?” While working with this report we experienced first- hand the uprising of youth globally through the school strike movement known as Fridays For Future. Since the request from the ministry especially emphasised how to increase youth engagement with, we decided to follow the development of the school strike more closely and make it a greater part of this report. After interviews with key contributors Douglas Ragan (Leader of Youth and Livelihoods, UN Habitat), Martin Demant Fredriksen (PhD inAnthropology who focuses on disengagement) and Thomas Hylland Eriksen (Professor ofAnthropology with a focus on globalization) we partly widened the scope. It developed from having a sole focus on SDG11 to addressing a wider, qualitative question of understanding how young people are embracing sustainability and how they go about doing this. This led us to look at the following main areas: 1. The basis for good practice in youth participation, helping young entrepreneurs, and the story and status of sustainability. 2. How youth are engaging and demanding change today. 3. Stories of youth that not only engage in change, but are creating change. 4. How youth organizations works to bridge engagement today towards solutions. Background and intention by Amund Grytting
  11. 11. 11 The report will not provide any magical formula on how to facilitate engagement to action, nor how to quantify this, but will rather present and discuss the topics insofar as possible within the scope of the study. A Process of Understanding Qualitative and quantitative methodology Key terms: Youth/Young people in this report are defined as the age group of 13-28 globally. Sustainability is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Engagement in this report is any action taken towards a more sustainable society. This includes but is not limited to entrepreneurship and activism. Participation is defined differently by youth organisations to those seeking to engage young people in policy or business. This has to change to enable more action from young people to address the climate crisis. We use the terms participation and engagement in this report interchangeably to refer to taking action towards increased sustainability.
  12. 12. 12 This report is based on a number of semi-structured qualitative interviews, an examination of existing research on participation and young entrepreneurs, a survey of the YSI community, and our own experience from three years of work with YSI. A total of 57 semi-structured qualitative interviews: 22 interviews of young entrepreneurs and key contributors 12 interviews at school strike on 15 March 2019 21 interviews at school strike on 24 May 2019 2 group interviews (one with YSI team + one mid- way with the Ministry of Local Government and Modernization) Interviewees represented Norway, Malaysia, India, Syria, Hong Kong, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Existing research on participation and young entrepreneurs was examined. Survey to YSI community • 277 responses • 21 countries (main group from Pakistan, Nigeria, India, Kenya, Brazil)
  13. 13. 13 Alex Moltzau Co-founder of YSI Member of the Board Amund Grytting Co-founder of YSI Chief Operating Officer About the authors and Young Sustainable Impact Young Sustainable Impact (YSI), is a non-profit organization started in Norway that aims to find and connect young talented people from around the world together to create impact start-ups to solve the world’s sustainability challenges. This is done both through an online innovation program and by building online communities (Earthpreneurs). We do not conduct large quantitative surveys nor are we a research or policy organisation. However, despite only being a few young people in Oslo we have managed in three years to engage millions of young people globally and attracted 30,000+ applicants to our innovation programs. Therefore, the value of our perspective lies in our focus on using innovation to channel engagement to action, and our network and connection to young entrepreneurs and community builders globally.
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 Introduction and scope About Young Sustainable Impact Who? In December 2015, a group of nine young students and entrepreneurs in their twenties met for a workshop in connection with 17-year-old Maiuran Loganathan’s idea of gathering together the world’s most brilliant young minds to solve the climate challenge. The group had all met through Future Leaders, a leadership program with the aim of creating social, economic and environmental sustainability through developing a diverse group of brave young leaders. Why? The COP21 Paris Conference had just ended and the fact that most countries in the world agreed on working towards the goal of limiting global warming to ”well below 2°C” compared to pre-industrial levels was an amazing thing, but where was the action? For twice as long as most of us had lived, world leaders have acknowledged that climate and sustainability are an issue, yet many of the challenges are bigger than ever before. In today’s world, there is a long list of initiatives that do incredible work towards creating a better future, with everything from teaching youth, to initiating social movements, political movements, or creating a new breed of social entrepreneurs. YSI’s approach differs in that our core focus is to use innovation to make a measurable impact through breakthrough solutions. During the past hundreds and thousands of years, humanity has developed every aspect of the world through constant, small improvements. These incremental innovations and changes have brought us to the level of civilization and society that we now have today. They occur in science, technology, our social structures and in politics. Whenever these smaller, incremental innovations are combined into one solution, that then spreads rapidly worldwide, and we call that a breakthrough solution.
  16. 16. 16 How? YSI positions itself as a catalyst for breakthrough solutions that push the world towards a better and more sustainable future. We believe that when connecting the drive, naivety and curiosity of young people with the experience of established stakeholders in business, academia, politics or other sectors, there is no limit to what we can achieve together. Most entrepreneurship programs focus on taking in established teams or that individuals submit ideas.At YSI, we only look for individuals who are passionate about a sustainability challenge in the world and have proven that they possess great skills and the ability to execute. In addition to our innovation programs, we are building a network of young entrepreneurs called Earthpreneurs, which means making sustainability business as usual, and various methods of influencing already established companies and organizations. Through youth engagement, we initiate new solutions from stage zero, and help the established stakeholders to gain new insight into where to find their next steps towards sustainability. See the section on how organizations are working with bridging engagement today to read more about the innovation program.
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Volunteers from 15+ countries To YSI Global
  19. 19. 19 In 2019 YSI ran another four programs where the global program ended with 6 out of 8 teams having a validated prototype in the end of the program. YSI also is starting to see the impact of earlier startups like Aquasolis Global providing clean water to 7000 people in Tanzania.
  20. 20. 20 We have looked at the urban agenda to find goals relevant to participation. We found them challenging to understand and to use, which led us to present them in a more easy-to- understand manner. This may be considered reductionist and we recommend reading the paragraphs that we have extracted these from. However, much like the sustainable development goals, these provide visual cues for complex issues, and we would argue that action towards the New UrbanAgenda may benefit from this. 15. (C) Adopt sustainable, people-centred, age- and gender-responsive and integrated approaches to urban and territorial development by implementing policies, strategies, capacity development and actions at all levels, based on fundamental drivers of change, including: (i) Developing and implementing urban policies at the appropriate level, including in localnational and multi-stakeholder partnerships, building integrated systems of cities and human settlements and promoting cooperation among all levels of government to enable the achievement of sustainable integrated urban development; (ii) Strengthening urban governance, with sound institutions and mechanisms that empower and include urban stakeholders, as well as appropriate checks and balances, providing predictability and coherence in urban development plans to enable social inclusion, sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and environmental protection; (iii) Reinvigorating long-term and integrated urban and territorial planning and design in order to optimize the spatial dimension of the urban form and deliver the positive outcomes of urbanization; (iv) Supporting effective, innovative and sustainable financing frameworks and instruments enabling strengthened municipal finance and local fiscal systems in order to create, sustain and share the value generated by sustainable urban development in an inclusive manner 61. We commit ourselves to harnessing the urban demographic dividend, where applicable, and to promoting access for youth to education, skills development and employment to achieve increased productivity and shared prosperity in cities and human settlements. Girls and boys, young women and young men are key agents of change in creating a better future and when empowered they have great potential to advocate on behalf of themselves and their communities. Ensuring more and better opportunities for their meaningful participation will be essential for the implementation of the New UrbanAgenda. 92. We will promote participatory age- and gender-responsive approaches at all stages of the urban and territorial policy and planning processes, from conceptualization to design, budgeting, implementation, evaluation and review, rooted in new forms of direct partnership between Governments at all levels and civil society, including through broad-based and well- resourced permanent mechanisms and platforms for cooperation and consultation open to all, using information and communications technologies and accessible data solutions. 155. Wewill promote capacity-development initiatives to empower and strengthen the skills and abilities ofwomen and girls, children and youth, older persons and persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and local communities, as well as persons in vulnerable situations, for shaping governance processes, engaging in dialogue, and promoting and protecting human rights and antidiscrimination, to ensure their effective participation in urban and territorial development decisionmaking. 156. We will promote the development of national information and communications technology policies and e-government strategies, as well as citizen-centric digital governance tools, tapping into technological innovations, including capacity-development programmes, in order to make information and communications technologies accessible to the public, including women and girls, children and youth, persons with disabilities, older persons and persons in vulnerable situations, to enable them to develop and exercise civic responsibility, broadening participation and fostering responsible governance, as well as increasing efficiency. The use of digital platforms and tools, including geospatial information systems, will be encouraged to improve long-term integrated urban and territorial planning and design, land administration and management, and access to urban and metropolitan services. 15. (C)Adopt sustainable age-responsive and integrated approaches 61+155. Youth need education and capacity-development for meaningful participation 92+156. Using information and communications technologies and accessible data solutions. ≈ The New Urban Agenda III How can we make participatory goals clearer?
  21. 21. 21 Integrate Approaches Education & Capacity Accesible Solutions
  22. 22. 22 Young people have been working to include young people for some time. Youth participation as a conceptual framework was coined in 1975 by the National Commission On Resources For Youth in the United States. However, at that time, the focus was more on needs and opportunity. In more recent times, the Commonwealth Youth Programme and UNICEF described it in 2006 as active self-involvement that is voluntary and informed. Youth participation has been delegated to areas where young people have been thought to be engaged such as sports and schools, however more recently this has become a far too narrow view of where young people can contribute.As can be seen from a few examples of new suggestions for youth participation, young people should be able to more freely choose the area within which they want to engage, and this needs to be facilitated by the state. Planning, and particularly issues concerning the climate crisis, is only one of several examples in this regard. However, we would argue it is the most pressing issue. The Norwegian Children and Youth Council (LNU) LNU, the Norwegian Children and Youth Council, is an umbrella organisation for close to one hundred Norwegian children and youth organisations. Their member organisations are democratic and voluntary, and represent a vast diversity of activities and interests. On behalf of these organisations, LNU conducts work within three main areas: politics, knowledge and funding. In their report, Right to Participate (LNU, 2014), the main argument of the report was to move from viewing young people as a target group to acknowledging young people as critical stakeholders. Further, it argues that there have to be theories and models for participation, for which it outlines five: (1) independence, (2) representation, (3) expertise, (4) sufficient information and (5) continuity. 1. Independence. First and foremost, it is important to establish that youth should independently choose what Criterias for youth participation by Alex Moltzau and Amund Grytting
  23. 23. 23 issues they want to engage in. It is youth’s right to be involved and have their voices heard in decisions that will impact on them as well as decision-making processes for issues youth are concerned about in general. What processes youth are able to participate in should not be decided by the government. 2. Representation. Youth have the right to represent themselves in a similar manner to other groups in society. Youth themselves have a wide range of perspectives and opinions and are best placed to establish dialogue with other youth. Youth should themselves have the opportunity to select who is going to represent them. To represent youth carries with it the responsibility to promote youth’s views and opinions. It involves having knowledge about the specific topic; having an insight into what policies would be in youth’s best interests, and having an overview of youth’s opinions on the topic. Youth representation should be regarded as any other democratic institution. Representatives should be elected by their constituents. 3. Expertise: youth must be acknowledged as a subject- area resource with the necessary expertise that others cannot replace. However, it may still be necessary for bodies that would like to embed youth participation in their work to set aside time and space for initiatives that will increase youth’s expertise. 4. Sufficient information: units working to include youth needs to have access to relevant information so they can update themselves on issues that relate to youth or they care about. The information should be relevant, accessible and shared well in advance to enable youth-led organisations and networks to process it in a timely and detailed manner. 5. Continuity: Most political decisions are reached following a comprehensive process. Often, youth are brought in towards the end of the political process, almost to provide a youth alibi. To ensure that youth participation is real, it is important to refrain from such tokenistic measures, and rather make sure youth are involved in the process from the start. Youth should be part of the development, discussion, decision, implementation and evaluation stages of policy making.
  24. 24. 24 Spire Spire is a youth organization working for the just and sustainable distribution of the world’s resources. They aim to examine the major connections that create injustice. Their focus areas are the environment, food security, international trade and urban development. Spire influences politicians in Norway and internationally to create change. They work with young people in the Southern hemisphere and run information campaigns to inspire Norwegian youth to action. They are the Development Fund’s youth organization. Since 2016, Spire has also created committees working on sustainable cities and communities with political comments. After contributing to a political process, this notably resulted in Resolution 710 in the Norwegian report “Sustainable Cities and Strong Districts” arguing that: “The parliament asks the government to look at how New UrbanAgenda can be appropriately implemented in Norway, and to return to parliament with a suitable policy.” (Stortinget, 2017). With their recent report Young People and Participation (Spire, 2018), Spire suggested that we take a few different steps to increase participation. These are presented in more detail in the report, however are roughly summarised as follows (apologies for any omissions): 1. Regulation regarding participation in planning a. Develop a regulation for participation b. Be very clear what participation is c. Require participation 2. Knowledge and capacity building a. Learn about city and area development in school b.Aim for increased participation in these processes 3. Digital platforms and tools a. Social media is a new infrastructure in society b. There has to be developed digital tools and this must be financed c. This needs a requirement of ease of use for youth
  25. 25. 25 Council of Europe’s Youth Department A study commissioned by the Council of Europe’s Youth Department from 2017 focuses on young people’s participation in decision-making processes at national, regional and local levels. The report includes an overview of the current debates and developments with regard to youth involvement in decision making at European, national, regional and municipal levels, explores the concept of “new and innovative” participation, and analyses the results of a survey of 356 stakeholders (Crowly,A., & Moxon, D. (2017)). The case studies also highlight a number of other key messages: Innovative approaches can come from both young people and adults/professionals; innovation is often linked to a desire to solve a specific issue. Innovative methods evolve as a project is established through experimentation and trial. Demonstrating impact is challenging, but necessary to assess the success of a new method. Successful methods and forms developed through innovation need to be replicated. Many opportunities for the development of new methods of participation are currently provided by the online world which has implications for education curricula and for how we build digital literacy and media competency amongst citizens. The survey explored perceptions, amongst stakeholders, of different forms of participation in decision making. The key findings are that: Co-management, co-production, digital participation, deliberative participation and for some, the concept of ‘participatory spaces’ are seen as the more innovative forms of participation. Youth councils and similar bodies, and youth activism or popular protest are seen as the less innovative forms of participation. In general, the ‘more innovative forms’ are not more or less effective than the ‘less innovative forms’; These more innovative forms are facing similar barriers to those faced by youth councils and forums in terms of young people’s views being taken into account by public bodies. Barriers include: a. lack of funds and resources; b. lack of political support; c. lack of understanding by public authorities
  26. 26. 26 Green Building Council The Green Building Council (TGBC) has, together with Norwegian Property, described how using dialogue and participation during the entire process can be beneficial for costs related to change. This includes everything from the (1) ideas for development and negotiations, through to (2) government studies and risk, (3) transfer of the property, (4) regulation and planning, (5) projection, deal-making and marketing; (6) build, (7) completion of the property, to the (8) transition to operations/stewardship of the property. Their focus in the handbook for sustainable placemaking argues that the concept of sustainability includes social, environmental and economic sustainability. By devoting proper attention to these three topics, sustainable development will be possible. In their handbook for sustainable placemaking they describe in particular how participation should take place early as possible, as well as the rising costs associated with change in a building project. There is of course far more extensive work that has been done and is being done by TGBC.
  27. 27. 27 Arnstein’s Ladder of Participation Arnstein’s ladder of participation often used in discussions of participatory planning. ”It is a democratic goal to achieve as high a level of real participation as possible. Not only partnership with business, and not only token ’partnership’with the users Participation is also deliberate redistribution of power to ensure inclusion of under-represented groups or types of stakeholders. The UN’s Agenda 21 says that participation is a real requisite for sustainable development.” -Chris Butters We should note that a process of including young people is far more than a step by step process or climb. However, this does illustrate that the ideas pertaining to participation are in no way novel despite their necessity today.
  28. 28. 28 Folketråkk - A Citizen Participation Platform Raising citizen’s voices through a knowledge-based citizen participation platform. In order to meet the overarching challenges linked to urbanisation, demography and climate adaptation in society through local planning, an initiative has been taken by Design and Architecture Norway (DOGA) in consultation with the public, private and civil sector, to develop an innovative and digital-based participation platform, the intention of which is to embrace all the hard-to-reach citizens in a universal and democratic manner. The Folketråkk project is inspired by the Norwegian participatory model “Children’s Tracks”, developed by the Norwegian Mapping Authorities, Vestfold Regional County and Design and Architecture Norway (DOGA). In 2018, Trine Nohr from the Royal Norwegian Department for Planning held a presentation at the Universal Design & Higher Education in Transformation Congress in Dublin. At the conference she outlined current perspectives which resulted in a paper entitled: ”Local democratic rule and citizens’ voices as a premise in the planning of accessible and universal society.” The following is a summary of the main points and the current progress in developing a platform for participation in Norway. The basic pillars of the project is 1. Transparency.A national digital platform that allows transparency and full access in the planning process, enabling citizens to be informed, engaged and empowered to provide their input. 2. Innovation. Input is facilitated through an input- mechanism which is innovative and effectively managed. 3. Cooperation. The system will be supported by a planning processing guide targeting the planner that allows for informed and innovative decision-making during the entire period of involvement and management of the plan. Inherent in the system is cooperation and dialogue between citizen and planners in the planning process.
  29. 29. 29 4. Smart database. There is an ambition to develop a smart database that collects information from digital systems for citizen participation that is already in use in the municipalities that will require further development to function properly in modern democratic decision- making. The database will: a) collect and share public data, statistics and facts, making knowledge accessible to all citizens and b) continuously collect and share data from public participation and citizens’ input for decision-making.Adapting such knowledge enables the application of more targeted qualitative methods to supplement quantitative methods, which subsequently support decision-making for communities that is universal, empowered and sustainable. The current stage of development has seen the completion of the second step, with another online guide (in addition to the existing one issued by the government) launched on 23August. This is intended to act as a helpful tool to navigate methods, and is, in practice, another report. More is likely to follow. Combined and translated to English from presentations by Designit and KMD
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31 Youth Business International (YBI) YBI, a global network of 47 not-for-profit organizations in 40 countries which help underserved young entrepreneurs (18–35 years of age) to start and grow sustainable businesses, and EY have compiled a report to consolidate learning, successes and challenges which have emerged when implementing successful youth entrepreneurship support initiatives. They collect data about 15,000 young people who complete their programs annually and, based on research into this data, they have created ten lessons in how to help young entrepreneurs (YBI & EY, 2016). Lesson 1: Don’t underestimate the power of attitude The mind-sets of young entrepreneurs matter. Programs must nurture attitudes: these are vital to business success. Lesson 2: Market intelligence: get it right and from the start. Program design should be underpinned by sound market understanding. This increases the likelihood of beneficiaries’ business success and sustainability. Lesson 3: Training: not “king” but a core ingredient for success. Entrepreneur skills training has a wide-ranging and long-term positive impacts for beneficiaries regardless of business creation. For entrepreneurs, it also helps unlock access to finance. Lesson 4: Collaborate! Vocational skills + entrepreneurship training can enhance success. Vocational and entrepreneurship support complement – rather than compete – with each other. Where possible, different interventions should work together for added value and impact. Lesson 5: Invest in more 1:1 support to create more profitable businesses. Youth entrepreneurship support programs need depth: beneficiaries who receive repeated 1:1 support over a longer period of time create more profitable businesses. What Does Research Tell us About Helping Young Entrepreneurs? by Amund Grytting
  32. 32. 32 Lesson 6: Mentoring: huge impact but it must be thorough. Mentoring programs must be thorough in order to maximize beneficiary impact. They need long term investment, resourcing and very careful planning. Lesson 7: Financial support: time to get creative. Programs should help young entrepreneurs explore alternative funding models, e.g. crowd funding and savings groups. Lesson 8: Local support networks can “make or break” interventions. Programs must carefully engage communities and families from the start. Local support networks can “make or break” youth entrepreneurship interventions. Lesson 9: Gender can make a difference: adapting support for success. One size does not necessarily fit all. Programs should adapt their services so female beneficiaries get the support they need, e.g. dedicated gender targets; promoting role models; undertaking community gender training. Lesson 10: Invest in the right tech to support monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL). Invest in effective technology to support program monitoring, evaluation and learning: it saves time, improves performance, enhances risk management, and aids decision making. European Training Foundation Their mission is to help transitioning and developing countries harness the potential of their human capital through the reform of education, training, and labour market systems, in the context of EU external relations policies. In 2014, they prepared a policy brief that outlines a number of key considerations for governments, the private sector and civic interest groups to move forward with more strategic promotion of youth entrepreneurship (ETF, 2014): 1. Promotion of an education and training environment in which young people are able to develop the appropriate mindset and skills for entrepreneurship. 2. Career guidance on entrepreneurship supporting the
  33. 33. 33 transition from education to start-up and beyond. 3. Establishing quality outreach programmes involving training and mentoring services, specifically through good practice peer learning. 4. Promoting policy dialogue between education, business and banking communities to close the gap between training and access to finance. 5. A joined-up policy framework for youth entrepreneurship involving public, private and civic institutions particularly including young entrepreneurs.
  34. 34. 34 YSI Quantitative Research Survey “If you wish to forget anything on the spot, make a note that this thing is to be remembered.” -Edgar Allan Poe As part of the research, we conducted a survey of the YSI community through our Facebook page and sent the survey by email to the people who reached stage two of the 2019 application process. We received 277 responses and, on the whole, the results were the same. We received various suggestions in response to the question “What could (in your opinion) your state do to help young entrepreneurs?”.Although the suggestions differed, they all related to three principal areas. These were: (1) provide funding, (2) more access to mentorship and knowledge, (3) regulation in favour of those starting up in the first years.A survey with such a small sample size cannot reflect trends in other findings, however it is hard to argue that it is not impactful or meaningful. This secondary research also reflects the thoughts from our key contributors and in particular Douglas Ragan.Although we could have conducted a larger quantitative survey based on this information, we found it neither valuable within our role and the scope of a preliminary report to reaffirm existing research. YSI is not an organisation with numerous researchers, interviewers or the funds to follow up a coordination of international efforts along these lines. What can be said is that after funding (which tends to place first) we have mentorship and regulation. Thus, when reviewing this based on the input, the immediate conclusion is that there needs to be more funding, mentorship and regulation. On the other hand, this tells us little about the specific challenges that are faced within these categories, how they can be solved or how the respondents want these to be solved. If the respondents did propose a specific type of action in the questionnaire, it may be hard to follow this up or collate these opinions, which raises challenging questions in regards to participation in this report, as well as from those who decided to participate. We cannot properly harness the wisdom of the crowd through a standardized form, although this may also be as much a failure on the part of the authors.
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  36. 36. 36 A Story of Sustainability We do not assume everyone is familiar with the term and history of sustainability despite its widespread and increasing usage. Therefore, we have decided to include a summary of the history of sustainability. Human history is characterized by the increased success of some societies followed by crises that were either resolved, producing sustainability, or not resolved, leading to decline (Wright, 2004). We will start our explanation in our current geological age, theAnthropocene, which is viewed as the period during which human activity has been the dominant influence on the climate and environment.As such we no longer talk about the ability to sustain separate communities – rather the focus is on our planet earth and the survival of humanity within our ecosystem here. The 1971 findings of the book Limits To Growth were presented for the first time at conferences in Moscow and Rio De Janeiro (Meadows et al., 1972). The findings proposed that the planet earth is a finite system, which means it has limited or finite resources. The report used a computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with a finite supply of resources. It concluded that with certain growth patterns the system may collapse and proposed we should take immediate steps to avoid this. At the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, there was an expressed need to “maintain the earth as a place suitable for human life not only now but for future generations” (Ward and Dubos 1972, xiii) and the focus was on human activities that contribute to environmental degradation and resource depletion. (Adam, 2001, 55). When the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) published the World Conservation Strategy in 1980, it applied the following concept of sustainability to development: “For development to be sustainable, it must take account of social and ecological factors, as well as economic ones; of the living and non-living resource base; and of the long term as well as short term advantages and disadvantages of alternative actions” (IUCN 1980, 1). The 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development,
  37. 37. 37 now known as the Brundtland Commission, with their report Our Common Future, popularized the use of “Sustainable Development”. “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” – Our Common Future (Brundtland et al, 1987) This report and the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development laid the groundwork for the convening of the 1992 Earth Summit and the adoption ofAgenda 21 that presented the aim of achieving global sustainable development in the 21st century.At the Millennium Summit in 2000, all 191 member states of the United Nations agreed to eight goals with specific targets. Agenda 2030 (also known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)) was decided upon at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in 2015. It took the goals fromAgenda 21, re-asserted these and added a total of 17 agreed goals with 169 targets, each with one to three indicators. The online publication SDG Tracker was released in 2018, which was based on the Our World in Data database to help understand progress towards the 17 goals (SDG Tracker, 2019). The Global SDG Index and Dashboards Report (SDG Index, 2018) is a yearly publication that features trend analysis to show how countries perform on key SDG metrics. as well as analysis of government efforts. Reports and analysis from 2018-2019 from these sources show that the world is far from achieving the sustainable development goals. This is echoed by the latest report from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), which suggests that unprecedented change is needed (IPCC, 2018). There needs to be a drastic reduction in emissions, yet this has not been the case in the last few years and, as such, in addition to not reaching other SDGs, it can be argued we are currently in a climate crisis.
  38. 38. 38 The second wave, a spike of search results on global warming
  39. 39. 39 The Climate Crisis Goes Viral - Three Waves “Viral: quickly andwidely spread or popularized especially by means of social media” There must be a variety of events leading up to the rapid spread of information about the extent of the climate crisis. Again we may be reductionist in attempting to analyse this complex phenomenon in terms of simple elements, but let us nevertheless try to do so, with the implicit understanding that these are not comprehensive. Then allow us, in very broad brushstrokes, to consider a few waves of virality. The First Wave – Environmental Protection It could be said environmentalism has deeper roots, however in more recent times Greenpeace was set up during the late 1960s with its goal to: “ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity”. Their continued actions to create awareness around the world and the actions of a series of other small organisations, both known and unknown, can be said to have led to the first wave of “viral” moments of awareness in regards to the environment through television and increasingly the Internet. The climate issue being a crisis has more recently become more and more apparent with its manifestations in the real world. The Second Wave - Global Warming There may have been several reasons and initiatives resulting from this realization of collapse, yet one film that can be credited with international public awareness isAn Inconvenient Truth by David Guggenheim, featuringAl Gore with his presentations of a changing climate. It was released in 2006 and won twoAcademyAwards and is one of the highest grossing documentaries of all time (Boxofficemojo, 2019). The film attempted to alert the public of the increasing emergency occurring due to the effects of global warming. This was somewhat evidenced by the spike in searches mapped by Google Trends, but it somewhat failed to take hold due to a massive backlash from corporate interest groups and deniers.
  40. 40. 40 The Third Wave - Climate Crisis 18 of the 19 warmest years on record have occurred since 2001 (NASA, 2019). There has been a drastic and noticeable change in the past decades that has grown to the point of being undeniable. The wording “climate crisis” has been adopted instead of climate change by the newspaper The Guardian (The Guardian, 17 May2019). The United Kingdom and Ireland have declared a climate crisis (Time, 2 May 2019, BBC, 7May 2019).A new, comprehensive report by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services shows that 1,000,000 species are threatened with extinction (IPBES, 2019). Furthermore, there are well-founded claims that we have already entered the world’s sixth mass extinction (Barnosky et al., 2011).
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  42. 42. 42 Norway is one of the most polluting countries in the world if we consider exports as part of the impact As we made clear previously in the report, we (the global community in this case), have not managed to reverse the trend of increasing emissions. Norway is also one of the largest contributors to exacerbating this disturbing trend. This was clearly expressed by three of Norway’s foremost climate researchers Øyvind Paasche,Are Olsen and Robbie Andrew in a recent article in Morgenavisen (Morning Paper) entitled Our True Climate Footprint. Their statement was written in Norwegian and the following is my translation: “In 2018,43.9 million tonnes of CO2 was emitted from Norwegian territory. CO2 emissions from the burning of Norwegian oil and gas were more than 10 times greater: 455 million tonnes of CO2! Since the 1970s, when the Norwegian oil adventure began, the combustion of Norwegian oil and gas has led to emissions of 15 thousand million tons of CO2. That is our responsibility as a producer. If all this was restricted to Norwegian territory we would have a CO2-concentration of around 2,500ppm [parts per million] above us. If we consider that seas and forests would help absorb half of these emissions – which influences the numbers that apply globally – then the atmospheric concentration would be 1,250 ppm. In comparison, the current concentration is410 – the highest in at least 2 million years.” If we consider accountability in terms of emissions, a report was written called “Sky’s The Limit Norway: Why Norway should lead the way in a managed decline of oil and gas extraction”. Taking the vantage point of including exported emissions Norway would not meet its target. If we continue to develop oil and gas we will not be able to contribute to reducing global CO2 emissions.
  43. 43. 43 Graphs from Sky’s The Limit Norway: Why Norway should lead the way in a managed decline of oil and gas extraction.
  44. 44. 44 What Is Contribution to Sustainable Development Goals? In 2015, the ParisAgreement was created with the aim of a collective initiative from all member countries. The 2030 Agenda was adopted by the member states for Sustainable Development and its 17 sustainable development goals. The sustainable development goals can be viewed as a recipe or a compass for governments and enterprises on how to solve the global challenges. The UN General Secretary stated: “Global challenges require global solutions. No country can do it alone. We need today multilateralism more than ever.” The need for collaboration across borders cannot be stressed enough from different stakeholders, but what does it really involve? Solving the pattern of global challenges requires collaboration across national borders and collective contributions. This is the key to global solutions. In this section of the report, we want to provide you with various definitions of the concept of “contribution”. What does contribute to the sustainable development goals and when is it declared to be a contribution. Cambridge dictionary defined contribution: as a gift or payment to a common fund or collection. This can be related to what Norwegians are identifying as ”dugnad”. Its definition is: “ a common and unpaid voluntary work of importance to the community or an individual”. In their report entitled “The industry’s contribution to the UN’s sustainable development goals” (Næringslivets bidrag til FNs bærekraftsmål), the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (NHO) stated that the Sustainable Development Goals are a call for a global “dugnad”, and, among other things, its aim is to eradicate all extreme poverty and hunger by 2030. The collective contribution to climate issues involves different key performance indicators, whereas everyone should have access to education and everyone should have access to clean water, health services, and electricity. What does it really mean to contribute to a global “dugnad”? The report shows how major international companies are taking steps towards collective contribution
  45. 45. 45 to Sustainable Development. Goals (SDGs). Figures from the KPMG sustainability survey show that 43 per cent of international companies have established strategies and activities for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (NHO, Lund, 2018, 8). Collaboration between the private sector and civil society is essential for acheiving the collective contribution from different aspects of the Sustainable Development Goals. The White Paper (St.meld.24, 2016-2017) addresses the significant role of the private sector in the contribution to issues relating to the climate. Figures show that nine out of ten jobs in developing countries are within the private sector, which contributes the investments, knowledge, and employment that are needed to create development in those countries (St.meld.24, 2016-2017,34). The UNDP also highlighted the importance of recognizing the private sector as a key partner for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): “It plays an important role as an engine of economic growth and job creation in developing countries. It provides goods and services, generates tax revenues to finance essential social and economic infrastructure, develops new and innovative solutions that help tackle development challenges and it is a central actor in addressing climate change” - UNDP The private sector not only contributes to financing, but it also contributes to information and technology. Numerous enterprises, not least in Norway, increasingly view sustainability as a prerequisite for profitability in the long term (St.meld.24, 2016-2017,62). Telenor, Yara, and DNVGL are just some of these enterprises.Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals has become the new hot topic for most private companies by implementing these into their strategic plan.As the UN General Secretary,António Guterres stated last year during the Private Sector Forum: “(...)we count on the private sector to be a driving force to push governments to assume their responsibilities in this very important aspect of our commitments”.
  46. 46. 46 The need for collaboration from both the private sector and civil society is essential for being able to leave no one behind and finding the best solutions to climate related issues. The role of civil society is the implementation of development policy and its aim of achieving Sustainable Development Goals. This has to be a collective effort – a “dugnad” at local, regional and national levels. The Sustainable Development Goals will not be achieved without good interaction and collaboration with the private sector. This applies not least to finding new solutions and adopting new technology (St. meld.24, 2016-2017, 34).As the Minister of Investment, Trade, and Industry of Botswana said: “We have to find ways in which all the countries can really come together towards delivering this mandate of sustainable development using technology” Multiple reports and speeches from different policymakers around the world stress the importance of collaboration between the private sector and civil society. The fundamental need concerning this cooperation or collective “dugnad” is to include knowledge within the development cooperation in order to achieve innovation, renewal, value creation, and sustainable growth. The World Bank has estimated that there will be a worldwide need to establish 40 million new jobs every year over the next 15 years to keep employment rates stable (St.meld.24, 2016-2017, 35). The private sector can be seen as the driving force within the job creation, economic growth, and sustainable development. To ensure economic growth and sustainable development, it is critical that all stakeholders collaborate together. In this report, we have interviewed some self- employed start-ups working towards the 2030Agenda. Such initiatives are demanded in the climate debate, including our way of contributing to the important issues. When Can You Call It a Contribution? The whole world has agreed to collaborate on the 2030 Agenda and to find ways of contributing towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Nevertheless, the biggest question remains - when can we call it a contribution? The study regarding what constitutes a contribution to the SDGs
  47. 47. 47 and at what stage we can call it a contribution reflects all levels and stages. We are familiar with the statements that we have to take action about our future and matters such as climate change. But what does that really mean? The collective contribution to climate issues does not only mean creating a major impact and engagement, it means that we have to take action. Several international companies and start-ups have moved towards the new green. The need for collective contribution includes each and everyone taking action. Throughout this research, we have interviewed several stakeholders who, by making small collective contributions, are solving the Sustainable Development Goals and the significant climate issues. We can call it a contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals when the whole community at local, regional and national level are collectively taking action. We can identify it as a contribution when the private sector is collaborating with civil society. The definition of contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals is when each and everyone is aiming for action. Through this report you will seef how small scale engagement has developed into something enormous and how the joint battle towards the Sustainable Development Goals has created a global ”dugnad”.
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  49. 49. 49 1. Young People Demanding Change In the past year, millions of young people all around the world have been striking to urge their governments to take action in the fight against global climate change and in slashing greenhouse gas emissions. The collective engagement towards achieving positive change in relation to climate issues has increased awareness among young people, policy-makers, companies, and governments. The high levels of collective engagement have contributed to renewed enthusiastic interest in the Sustainable Development Goals, where the value of producing a collective impact is the new way of taking action. Young people are demanding change in leadership and their demands are developing into engagement, which most certainly converts into action, and not only among young people.Adults, policymakers and businesses are increasingly taking action when their children or friends are out in the street demanding an increased focus on the climate crisis. You know it is time for change when children act like leaders, and leaders act like children.
  50. 50. 51 “We must change almost everything in our current societies. The bigger your carbon footprint, the bigger your moral duty. The bigger your platform, the bigger your responsibility.Adults keep saying: ‘We owe it to the young people to give them hope.’ But I don’t want your hope. I don’t want you to be hopeful. I want you to panic. I want you to feel the fear I feel every day.And then I want you to act. I want you to act as you would in a crisis. I want you to act as if the house is on fire. Because it is.” -Excerpt from Greta Thunberg’s speech at Davos in January 2019. -Excerpt from Greta Thunberg’s speech at Davos, January 2019. A Young Girl From Sweden Waves of climate strikes across the world by children and young people have been widely reported on both in the news and on social media in recent times. Greta Thunberg, who was then 15 years old, played a key role in starting this new wave from Sweden, and was inspired by students from the Parkland school in Florida walking out in protest against US gun laws that led to a massacre on their campus (The Guardian, 11 March 2019). The movement Greta Thunberg founded refers to how she strikes every Friday to protest the lack of effective climate legislation. Recently, students throughout Europe have been regularly striking on Fridays. The initiative began inAugust 2018 when 15 year old Greta sat in front of the Swedish parliament to protest the lack of action on the climate crisis.After posting updates on social media it soon went viral. On 8September she decided to strike every Friday until Sweden’s policies provided a means of better achieving the global climate goals that were set (FridaysForFuture, 2019). Her skolstrejk för klimatet (school strike for the climate) banner has been translated into many different languages with a wide range of iterations and interpretations. There have recently been school strikes around the planet. One can dismiss this as sensationalist, yet if we look at the previously mentioned data and the consensus among scientists, Climate Protests Around The Planet by Alex Moltzau
  51. 51. 52 criticism of this warning is not valid. “If you think we should be in school instead then we suggest that you take our place in the streets striking from your work, or better yet join us so we can speed up the process. We have started to clean up your mess, and we will not stop until we are done.” -Greta Thunberg, Brüssels (FridaysForFuture, 2019, 21st of February) On 14 March 2019, Greta Thunberg was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize (The Guardian, 14 March 2019) and on 15 March 2019 a worldwide protest was organized by FridaysForFuture.According to the campaigners, 1.4 million young people in 2,233 cities and towns in 128 countries took part in these protests (The Guardian, 19 March 2019). While we were writing this report and examining how to increase youth engagement for the sustainable development goals, we decided to attend the Oslo protest that was held on 22 March, and interview some of the young people protesting, and write down some field notes: “It is our future.” Is what I read on a poster from a passer-by. It seems like children and young people have dressed up for this occasion, and there is a sense of pride. There is laughter and smiling people. Is it wrong? That is what I think to myself as I look around. I do not fully know who is here to buy, protest or for tourism except for the clear indicators in the form of cardboard signs. I hear talk of absence from school: “I just left school, that’s what I did.” That is what I hear from a boy on the way down the escalator. I get the impression that this is a cool activity, maybe the same ‘coolness’that the hippie movement may have had, at least that is what goes through my head, what I imagine it to be like. As I walk I hear opinions about the number of people who have met up to protest. Some think it is the maximum, others think it is too few: “There are 600,000 people in Oslo, so there could be more people here.” The shopping mall is clean and I have mud on my shoes from the lawn in front of the government building. I forgot to drink water so my head is starting to hurt. It was beautiful in a way to see all the young children protesting and so confusing to talk to people. There is a clear ambiguousness about knowing how, but not really how. No to oil and no to global warming - there is a divide
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  53. 53. 54 between the accusations and the accused. I saw shapes of people waving down from the government building. It is beginning to get colder outside with the Norwegian weather in March. Towards the middle of the day most disappear and you can hear a song by Frank Ocean: “Super rich kids with nothing but loose ends… Searching for real love.” There is a small half circle of protesters left, and then they play Justin Bieber. Soon there are no people and no posters left, only a few freezing youths. I walk down the main street and see a poster someone has left: “There’s no planet B.” - Field notes from Oslo, 22 March, 2019 Viral Spread And New Demands Both during and after the protest there was a backlash from the Norwegian government and from individuals in newspapers claiming that young people should reconsider their own habits, as well as claiming that the strike should not be supported by adults in schools (ABC Nyheter, 2019). Some politicians in Norway campaigned actively on social media against schools supporting or assisting the strike (VG, 2019). Days before the strike, the Ministry of Education in Norway had issued a statement that those striking would not be granted valid absence from school as “political engagement” (NRK, 2019).On 22 March, approximately 40,000 young people attended the school strike on the streets of Oslo and other locations around Norway (Pienne, 2019). I had taken a picture of a protester on 22 March. As I had walked down Karl Johan (the main street in Oslo), I asked her to stop and I managed to take a picture of the young teenager holding a piece of cardboard. That poster read: “You know it’s time 4 change when children act like leaders and leaders act like children.” Based on what I knew of the events occurring at different locations of Europe, I thought it was a fitting statement, so I later shared it on my social media feed. The next morning as I woke up on Saturday 23 March, I found out that the picture had been shared 2,700 times. This had never happened to me before. Staring at my phone in disbelief I understood that one of my posts had gone “viral” for the first time and was spreading quickly and
  54. 54. 55 widely. During the next few weeks it gained attention and was shared 41,000 times directly from my Facebook feed and was shared by a few Norwegian celebrities. It was also widely shared as a second wave hit before the second strike. It was shared on Instagram by Greenpeace International (1.9 million followers, liked 106,877 times), @Feminist (2.1 million followers, liked 119,403 times), and @doutzen (6.1 million followers, in her story). It seemed to convey the message of strong leadership among children and failing leadership by the establishment during a time of protests. - Fieldnotes from Oslo, 27May, 2019 During March and the subsequent weeks, Extinction Rebellion had taken to the streets to protest around the world. They were demanding three things: (1) for governments to tell the truth; (2) for governments to act now, and (3) the crisis is an issue that goes beyond politics (Extinction Rebellion, 2019). During a similar time span, widespread protests against Brexit in the United Kingdom took place with organizers claiming that there were millions out protesting in the streets of London and with an online petition signed by four million people calling for Brexit to be cancelled (BBC, 23 March 2019).As previously mentioned, this contributed to the United Kingdom declaring a climate crisis. An opinion poll conducted by IPSOS Mori Social Research Institute across 11 European countries ahead of the elections in the European Union showed that large majorities of potential voters wanted parties to prioritize environmental issues (European Climate Foundation, 16April 2019l). The official website of Fridays For Future has categorized their different strikes as follows: • Weekly global strikes - several countries are striking weekly every Friday. • Big strikes - when one or two countries create “fireworks”: - on Feb 15 Sweden went big along with the UK. • Deep is when many countries synchronize together – 24 May was Deep.
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  56. 56. 57 Therefore, the next strike we intended to cover was the “ Deep” strike on 24 May. When approaching this next strike, the massive participation from the previous strike appeared to set more clear demands from different locations, at least as reported: • Australia demanding to end mining and powering the country with renewable energy. • TheUK and Ireland declaring a climate crisis and recommending net-zero emissions by 2050, the same target backed byAngela Merkel in the European Union. • Greta had been on the cover of Time magazine. • A continued push for a Green New Deal in the US (VOX, 2019,24 May). The Philippines is one of the countries that is most vulnerable to climate change and has been hit severely by extreme weather and the survivors of these events were protesting fossil fuel, coal, and land grabbing. In India, they protested climate change that would adversely affect them as one of the most populous countries in the world. Germany hosted more events in large and small cities than anywhere else in the world, and campaigners claimed that 320,000 people were out in the streets (Fridays For Future Germany, 2019). Young people in the UK protested while they heard the news on the morning of 24 May that Prime Minister Theresa May had resigned (Time,2019, 24 May). In Nigeria, Kenya and other countries inAfrica there were protests demanding a fossil fuel freeAfrica that placed justice for citizens ahead of profits.A letter calling for a national ban on fracking was brought forth in SouthAfrica. In Senegal there were thousands calling for an end to a coal plant (#AfricaVuka, 2019). In New Zealand, young people stormed the steps of the parliament. In EastAsia they marched to their government ministries. In Canada, they told the government to invest in climate solutions not pipelines. There was a “die-in” protest in New York’s Times square. In LatinAmerica the sheer numbers of protesters were enough to cause major disruptions (350, 2019). In Norway, the climate protests were focused on saying no to any further oil licenses, increasing the development budget, and decreasing emissions by 65%. We joined the protests in the pouring rain:
  57. 57. 58 I did not expect to see many people here, but I was wrong. The rain is pouring down and there are raincoats in a variety of colours, enough to make a rainbow. There is a cheerful mood again, like a festival, and in a way it is. More party tents have popped up this time, one where you can make your own cardboard protest sign. Umbrellas are dotted around, but most people just stand there in the rain getting drenched, however they don’t seem to care. Last time I took a picture of a girl holding a cardboard sign that read: “You know it’s time 4 change when children act like leaders and leaders act like children.” I had managed to find the girl holding the poster through one of her comments on Instagram. I sent her a message on Instagram and then got the email to her parents. They both gave their consent for me to interview her, so I was ready to talk to her for an interview. It is strange to consider the reach of the message she created and that has engaged so much around the world. As I interview other protesters and after three hours in the rain the cold was starting to creep in. I interviewed some leaders and members from different organizations as well as some bystanders. This protest Erna Solberg, the prime minister of Norway came out to speak, but she was quickly met by shouts of: “What does Erna do? Nothing!” It is being repeated by the crowd, and the speaker at the stage is trying to calm everyone down. Despite the low temperature you could somehow feel the anger and frustration from the crowd in the crying or mad faces of children, youth and adults present. Later I heard talk of ‘protest shaming’over social media, by others not there. Classmates were snapchatting burgers or calling them out on social media in negative tonality, harassing those protesting. On the opposite end as such there seems to be a sense of pride not to be an activist. Something that is felt by those present outside protesting, as well as reflected in the news – calling out children as protesting yet with their unsustainable habits. “There’s almost nobody that says they don’t care... But I don’t feel like my parents do enough. They say they care, but they always choose easier or cheaper.” A teenager said as I passed by. After most of the day in the cold the crowd was thinning out and I found leaders of different organisations or organizers of the strike. People were shivering and jumping to keep warm. At some point a band on stage, catching the
  58. 58. 59 vibe, told them all to jump for the climate. There were a few musicians that played rock and folk. Although the event was planned to five it thinned out and ended towards quarter past four in the afternoon. I remember overhearing several conversations during the day from the young children discussing climate and politics that I wish I had written down. The cold rain was slowly ending, and I felt so cold, checking Instagram to see the protests in Stockholm posted by Greta Thunberg. I kept worrying about the questions I asked that day, whether they were the right ones. Yet questions were leading to new questions, and after the protest I did not feel relieved. Perhaps because I was cold to the bone, or due to the feeling of the crowd – of not being heard. That feeling was contagious, particularly after all the political talks I had heard that day. I had started my day at the morning event at the Urban Future Conference organized by UN-Habitat Norway. There the mayor of Oslo had talked about giving children hope. As much as I respect our mayor it was the narrative of hope that Greta Thunberg was protesting, and she voiced that opinion at Davos. So, how can the leaders of a city show they are listening and taking action? It was as if they had learned little or next to nothing from the last protest, and it was felt by the crowd that they had done nothing. Yes the crowd was filled with joy in the morning, yet that quickly transitioned to sadness, anger and disappointment. We do want our leaders and our elected officials to listen, yet it is hard to tell if they do. Because they ignore or fail to discuss issues that are important to many children and youth protesting – attempting to include, yet somehow ending up eluding or avoiding the issues at hand instead. When you have ignored or misunderstood someone it is harder to win back their trust. - Fieldnotes from Oslo the 24th of May, 2019
  59. 59. 60 The Green Surge According to numbers on the website of Fridays for Future there seemed to be a decline during May the 24th. However the movement can be said to have contributed to the change in the European Union and the ‘Green surge’ leading to 69 out of the 751-seat legislature, yet on the other hand right-wing parties advanced (Financial Times, 2019, 28th of May). The population of Oslo Municipality is 685,080 (Oslo Kommune, 2016). If we estimate 20,000-40,000 of the local population took place in a non-violent strike that is 2,9-5,8% of the population in the municipality. It has been argued heavily for the success of nonviolent campaigns as opposed to violent campaigns, they recruit more participants and tend to be larger (Chenoweth & Stephan, 2011). Sian Lazar who has studied protests for some time says there can be a sense of history being created, as a moment that will become the historical event is an important part of protests or the embodied experience of acting on the urban environment. The political being-in-the-world of what creates them as activists (Lazar, 2017). It is hard to predict the development, yet seeing as the adverse effects of climate will continue to worsen it is hard to to believe it will recede. Activists have set their sights on an even bigger global strike on the 20th of September and will take place during the United Nations GeneralAssembly, where Secretary General António Guterres will be convening an international climate summit. “There are many different plans under way in different parts of the world for adults to join together and step up and out of your comfort zone for our climate… This is about crossing lines — it’s about rebelling wherever one can rebel.” (The Guardian, 2019, 23rd of May).
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  61. 61. 62 What can a small girl holding a piece of cardboard change? Intuitively we could perhaps say “not much”, yet recent events can lead us to re-evaluate this sentiment. Greta Thunberg and her cardboard sign saying ‘skolstrejkför klimatet’ (school strike for climate) is a message that, through its persistence, has managed to reach large parts of the world. Influence works in mysterious ways.As mentioned, by chance we happened to share a picture of another girl in Oslo holding a poster that went on quite a digital journey. Reaching millions It was coincidentally shared and seen by at least a few hundred million people according to perhaps exaggerated social media estimates of average views per share. 41,000 shares on Facebook with 338 friends on average could mean a potential reach of 14,196,000 views. The average user count on Instagram is 150 (Statista, 2015) which, in turn, means: 1,7M followers = 255,000,000 views, 2,1M followers= 350,000,000 views, and 6,100,000 views (due to its inclusion in story). However, numbers are not very important on this scale, and they might not give a correct representation since the extent of how it was shared is unknown. It seems we keep discovering different places where it has been shared Although we did not expect to find the person holding the poster, we did in fact manage to do so. We asked her to do an interview, and she said yes. However, since she is a teenager we asked her parents for permission to do an interview, and thankfully they also said yes. The following are her thoughts about going viral and a few things she wants to change. We felt it was valuable to share these thoughts and this small series of events, because it was fitting to the topic of engagement – reaching the world and then talking about change on a small scale here in Oslo. Digital engagement among young people by Alex Moltzau
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  64. 64. 65 Julie discovers that she went ’viral’
  65. 65. 66 On school striking and going viral Julie Rekstad is 14 years of age and lives in Oslo. This is a conversation we had about her cardboard sign going viral, thoughts she has had between the strikes, and reflections on possible actions that can be taken by the government or herself in response to the events that have taken place. Alex: I took a picture of you at the climate protest on 15 March and now the picture has been shared across the world. What did you think about when you wrote the message, and how did you come upon it? Julie: I knew I wanted to create a poster, and I had seen many special posters around. I did not want any poster which said ‘save the planet’, so I searched for different options. I believe it was the Instagram story of the school strike in Norway that posted suggestions on what you could write. I found a lot of protest posters and sent one to my friend. I asked her which one I should pick and ended up with this one. I did not have a lot of time to decide, I had come back home the day before the strike and thought: “Should I really do it?” Then I woke up early the next morning to make the poster and I am rather happy I did so. Alex: What motivated you to join the School Strike for Climate? Julie: To be honest, our teacher was quite sceptical about the strike, even though he is very concerned about the climate. His opinion was that students were doing it just to skip school. Then I did not think too much about it, but I got to hear about Greta Thunberg, and I thought what she was doing was really cool. However I did not actually know what the school strike was about, and whether it was people in political parties, youth parties or what it was. Then my dad suggested to me that I should watch a debate a week prior to the protest. The grownup politicians were saying: “You should not fly and therefore you destroy just as much as we do.”All these sort of things, and I remember one of the women debating against that man said something really good in response about the strike. So that changed my mind and I wanted to join the strike. Because sometimes it is easy to get overwhelmed with all the awful things that are
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  67. 67. 68 happening around our planet. It makes me think that I am sitting here and I am not part of anything, I am not doing anything. Now I had the opportunity to take part and protest, so I sent a friend a message to ask if she wanted to join me. Alex: How was it to be there on 15 March? Julie: Well, at first I was surprised by how many had turned up. I was surprised to see the number of people, such an extreme number, showing up. I was overcome by the number that had turned out and when we went through the mass of people, there was almost nowhere to stand. Yet it was so cool because children and young people of all ages were carrying cardboard posters. It was not only the youth politicians or the activists, it was all of us. It really shows how many that care. There were small children that had joined their parents, people who were almost grown-ups, a lot of different people that seemed interested. So I stood there for a while, but then I had to get out of the crowd and people started taking pictures of my poster. Well, there was another thing that I found special – the grandparents for the climate, our children our future. I thought that was really nice and it made me really happy. I meet way too many old people who say: “I will not live in the future, so I do not need to care.” Then on that day old people showed that they cared. Because sometimes adults make you lose hope for the future, and this was different. Alex: Which things have you thought about since then? Is there anything that goes through your mind? Julie: Yes the first thing I thought is that it is something I want to do again. There were so many people there and I hoped it would happen again, and luckily it did. When I saw that everyone I knew had posted pictures from the strike I got the feeling that people care, but then I completely forgot my cardboard poster until friends started tagging me in different posts asking if that was my poster. Alex: What was it like when you noticed that your cardboard sign had gone viral? Julie:Yes, the first time I saw it was on Instagram. It was not on a very big account, but I was pretty happy that people had
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  69. 69. 70 shared it. Then I told my parents, and my dad said he had seen it on Twitter and re-tweeted it – although he did not know it was mine. Then i felt that more people had seen it: “Oh, people have seen my message!”And it made me happy. Alex: Yes, I thought it was a message that resonated with many. Several events were happening at the same time. Protests against climate and political protests at the same time. Julie: Yes, it is not really a climate message, but it tells leaders to sober up in many ways. Alex: I do not think this has happened to the same extent or scale. Not that I know of. I do not know that a protest initiated by so many children and young people all over the world simultaneously has ever before occurred in the history of humanity. Some could call it a historical moment, yet what expectations do you have for the future? Julie: That things work out, that is what I hope. Even though as more time passes it becomes less likely, yet I want it to be fixed in a way. Because yes we cannot just… We must not let the planet die, it is frightening to consider. So I hope as these protests happen more often we will be able to influence important leaders, and I hope our leaders take responsibility. Even if not everybody does, someone in some country will decide to do something that influences other countries. Alex: Your message has had some influence across the world, but what responsibility do you want to take going forward? Julie: Yes, I often get sad that I do not take action. In the time since, I have read a lot about fast-fashion. I knew that it was an issue, but at the same time I am interested in clothes. So I thought: “Yes, I will buy fewer clothes.” I feel I am old enough now to take proper responsibility for as much as I can. It is hard to approach my parents and say: “Now we will get solar panels and become vegan.” So for now I will buy used clothes, and control whichever action I can take in my given situation. Alex: In terms of climate engagement for the city, how do you think young people could be included in the development of a better city?
  70. 70. 71 Julie: I have an elective at my school called: “Make an effort for others.” Right now we are talking about solutions for the climate. What can students do, what can teachers do, and what can the school do. Then we started talking at our school about how we should have an elective about the climate next year.An elective where you learn about climate-friendly solutions, environmentally friendly food, and doing things differently. That it either becomes an elective, part of another subject and that we learn more about caring for nature so that we are influenced to take less harmful actions that pollute nature. Yes, that is what I was thinking about, that we need more information in the schools. In that way those who do not care a lot may realise that they do care. If this climate- thing is just a removed event you watch on the television, but not something that you take part in – it will be much harder to do something. If you are surrounded by it all the time, learn about it in school and see how others are adversely affected, it may help. That is why I think social media is cool, because you can see how people all over the world experience climate change. Because for other countries it is far worse with floods for those countries at lower elevations. If we learn more about it in school I believe that more people will engage with these issues. - I found her!
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  72. 72. 73 The day before the climate protests in Norway that attracted 40,000 children and young people to protest out in the streets, the Norwegian Government decided to invite young people to a “youth climate top meeting” or a youth conference of the parties (Aftenposten, 14 March 2019). This was to discuss solutions and hear suggestions from young people. The date for the meeting was set for 30April and an agenda was posted four days prior on the government website (Regjeringen, 26April). We would have liked to have been present at this meeting to follow up on youth climate engagement , however we did not see any news about the inclusive workshop nor did we see it posted anywhere online before it was held. Two hours in Oslo The climate top meeting lasted for two hours. It started with an introduction from the Minister for Climate and the Environment, followed by a 70 minute roundtable on a variety of topics, and then concluded with a summary by the Minister for Knowledge and Integration. There was an opportunity to interview selected politicians and young people after the meeting. To the best of our knowledge, the children and young people did not define the topics, and discussions proposed by members of the school strike were not included in the discussion. Loosely translated into English, the topics at the workshop, were as follows: • Low-carbon society: what does the future low-carbon society look like? • Green transition: what challenges and opportunities are there in the transition to a more sustainable society? • The future of work: how do we get more people interested in researching new technological solutions to the climate challenges? • My local environment: what can you do in your local environment to cut emissions?And what do you want to do yourself to contribute to less emissions? • Democracy and participation: how can children and young people have better opportunities to influence the future climate policies? The Youth Climate Top Meeting in Oslo by Alex Moltzau
  73. 73. 74 • Knowledge and education: how can the school provide more encouragement regarding climate and sustainable development? It is currently unknown as to what the results from the meeting were or how they will bring this engagement forward. We sent an email and called the communication department for the Ministry of Climate and the Environment and asked for (1) the results, (2) who proposed the questions and (3) who took the initiative. The respective answers were: “Had to check”, “Not sure”, and “It was initiated by the politicians”. The only summary we could find from the government repeated the event outline with two positive comments: one positive comment from a student and one positive comment from the Minister for Climate and Environment (Regjeringen, 30April 2019). The most extensive coverage we could find was from a young journalist who was present at the meeting. Her overall impression was that the young people were disappointed and embarrassed and felt it was hypocritical (Filter Nyheter, 7 May 2019). However, her depiction of the event deserves some space. Here we may be able to answer a few questions which the ministry was unable to answer: For the round-table topic discussions there were note-takers at each table. These were supposed to gather all the feedback and compile it into one document. However it appears the notetakers were the politicians and were selectively able to choose which aspects they wanted to take into consideration. “Halleland received a comment: higher prices in the toll ring for cars and less parking spots, as an example. One young person noticed that this was a good way for their parents to choose to take public transportation to the city instead. Halleland did not take notes.” (Filter Nyheter, 7 May 2019). As such, if notes are taken and compiled by policy-makers, “selective hearing” appears to be a practice. The article describes the anger and frustration when some young people at one table were blamed for the climate issues by the politician. It also describes how the Norwegian oil and gas lobby organisation’s argument was used enthusiastically by the Norwegian Minister of the Climate and Environment Minister. Before the protest on 14 March,
  74. 74. 75 a series of authors and scientists signed a declaration in support of the protesting young people (Morgenbladet, 14 May 2019). Later on the date of the second deep strike on 24 May, one of the signatories of this agreement commented on the development. His sentiment in the article he wrote at the time was not a direct comment on the youth climate top meeting, however it accurately describes the situation through a metaphor: “If you raise yourvoice on behalf of the climate today it is a bit like the experience of hitting cottonwool. You do not meet any resistance, but you leave no imprint.” – Dag O. Hessen, Professor of Biology at the University of Oslo (Morgenbladet, 24 May 2019) While this may be unfair, let us approach this from principles we mentioned earlier from the Norwegian Children and Youth Council: (1) independence, (2) representation, (3) expertise, (4) sufficient information, and (5) continuity. Let us rank these according to low, medium and high depending on how they comply with the outline presented by LNU. It is problematic that there are no set sub criteria for this, however we can still attempt to approach an outline as if we were grading a term paper for a friend.As such, we could follow up with some constructive suggestions. Let us start with the first principle, independence – that young people should choose what to engage in and that the government does not decide. How far does this go? If young people are unable to define the agenda or topics from which they participate nor help determine the outcome, using this standard we could argue that this had a very low degree of independence.A medium degree could be permitting young people to decide on the topics discussed and a high degree could be to let youth representatives help shape the event itself. The second principle is representation, and children and young people were not represented on stage nor were any reasons given for the those selected other than them being in the requisite age group. The argument was that leaders of different school councils and those engaged in political parties would be a good choice. There are national organisations that were not represented and some actively
  75. 75. 76 choose not to be present. It seems unreasonable that there was no livestream or no digital participation after 40,000 young people protested. Since an attempt was actually made, perhaps we can accept that there was a low to medium degree of representation.A medium degree could be taking into consideration national youth organisations and permitting young people to speak on stage.A high degree would be explaining the representation and inviting others to influence or challenge the selection of groups represented. The third principle is expertise and young people were not recognized as subject area experts. The politicians at the different tables were the experts overseeing the different discussions. Yes, the politicians were listening, but they were not necessarily discussing the matters with young people on equal terms.Again, the only speakers lined up for this event were politicians, and the notetakers were politicians etc. Several of the topics pushed responsibility back onto young people rather than recognizing expertise or building expertise. There are several subject area experts in the relevant age group that could have been brought in.As such, the event cannot be said to be seen as recognition of this and therefore has a medium degree of recognition of youth expertise. To achieve a high degree, certain young people could be hosting the table discussions about the different topics. Fourth, insufficient information was provided in advance. The event was not well-reported either before or after the event (based on our semi-structured interviews at protests on 15March and 24 May).At best, it was seen as a hopeful or feeble attempt at stopping or neutralizing the protests and at worst it was seen as a disaster. There does not appear to have been any information shared on any of the topics discussed beforehand, and it was an open discussion without any underlying information to discuss. Nor was it specific in terms of policy, but rather avoided the information provided and communicated by the protesters. No comprehensive information was shared after the event, and we could argue this has a low degree of information sharing. Medium degree could be to share what came out of the meeting and high degree could be to create a basic summary that could be interactive or open for comments, perhaps even facilitated discussions.
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  77. 77. 78 Presenting a positive message about how great the event was is not necessarily informative in itself (Kunnskapsdepartementet Facebook, 2 May 2019). Fifth, continuity was not apparent. There was mention of climate meetings scheduled to occur in different cities, however there was no clear statement of what these meetings would lead to other than brief comments by politicians on a few topics.After the event, there was no clear means of understanding what had resulted from the discussions; no minutes, no talks etc. What is the plan for continued focus on the climate crisis unfolding, and how is this being addressed by those who were present on the given day? Continued engagement with young people who are interested in these issues and protesting was also uncertain. Due to this, let us argue for a low-medium degree of continuity due to the claims of there being climate meetings in several locations, as well as documents promised. Yet when young people are protesting a climate crisis we could ponder whether a medium-high degree of continuity would be to collaborate. On the one hand, we may ask if we are expecting too much of politicians regarding participatory planning with young people. On the other hand, after seeing young people from around Norway and the world being passionate about this issue, we may allow ourselves to have higher expectations for this participatory process. When we spoke to young people about the meeting at the next protest they had either not heard of it or did not believe in the process that had been instigated. Here are a few examples: “We have made the decision not to participate in the youth climate top meetings as the youth organisation we are becausewe see it does not lead to real action, andwe are an organisationwith other organisations thatworkwith policy development and disseminating information.As suchwe have decided it is important to undertake other activities than going to another meeting that results in nothing. Our time isvaluable, and sometimes it feels like the politicians do not understand this.” - Hege Skarrud (28) leader for Spire, working for a just and sustainable distribution of the world’s resources, interviewed at the school strike on the 24th of May.
  78. 78. 79 “I think it is unfortunate how they were completely open without any way of ensuring stakeholder commitment to participation. There was a sort of first come first served principle – not listening fully to the organised voices, rather voices that talk for themselves, because that is somewhat contrary to what you otherwise do in a democracy. I think it is admirable that the government wants to listen to young people, and they should do it more often, however it has to happen on the young people’s own terms. When one of the topics discussed is how young people can effect change themselves at a local level, it seems you have not fully understood the issue at hand. Therefore, I believe a climate meeting should not be to push the problem back at young people, it must be to actually listen, and listening does not mean 100% implementation and decisions by young people. That is also not democratic. Yet you cannot simply write-off suggestions that are made by young people as cute and engaging. You have to be able to answer clearly: yes we will pursue this or yes we will not pursue this.” - Rode Hegstad (26) President of the Norwegian Children and Youth Council, interviewed at the school strike on the 24th of May. We have to get youth involvement right when it comes to addressing the sustainable development goals. Good or bad intentions? Hard to say, but did it work? Hard to say. There were positive comments that were presented by the government and their attempt to involve young people is to be commended, but involvement could be viewed as inherently flawed when the government falls in-between expectations. Is it a show or participation? We need to give more meaning to these processes than this, which can be presented or summarised in a reductive manner: 1. Important person talks. 2. Possibly panel debate with selected members. 3. Discussion by tables, one politician each (selectively written notes by policy makers). 4. Summary on stage by important person who moved tables or has a key role. 5. Unknown what was said and suggested at different tables. 6. Unknown what results or when an update will be given. 7. Unknown what possible course of action has been brought forward. Further roaring frustration may result from a lack of involvement.
  79. 79. 80 Klimabrølet – Climate Roar Friday 30 August Children, young people, adults, senior citizens, companies and organisations have made their voice heard. The movement that has grown from historic children and youth engagement has now moved citizens across Norway to demand climate action.
  80. 80. 81 The people, both youth and adults are roaring together for climate action.
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  82. 82. 83 2. Stories from young people who create Greta Thunberg says that the house is on fire, but if so where are the firefighters? Yes, they are protesting on the streets and asking for action, however young people certainly also have the capacity to take action in different venues of society. In fact, young people are already taking action in a myriad of ways all over the world. We need to bring people together, inform them about challenges and make new solutions together that can address this climate crisis. Young people are fighting the fire. This is something we are certain of and, empirically ,we have seen it in our network and by reading stories from 178+ countries in the shape of applications to our program aimed at creating solutions through sustainable entrepreneurship. We see pictures and have discussions every week on a community with more than 10,000 young people online, from more than a hundred countries. Changes have been documented, communicated, discussed and felt by community members these past three years. We are generally optimists and enjoy the change towards what we call earthpreneurship, i.e. making sustainability business the norm. However it can be argued whether we are acting as if the house is on fire. What would that sense of panic even look like? Because there is no doubt we do need actual change in policies, business and how we work with young people. Indeed we will have to re-evaluate our very notions of participation in these issues. So let us say we act, both by exploring how issues are tackled and looking at their work towards specific solutions. This can be difficult while reading a report, so let us talk about urgency in the shape of a few stories. The following pages will present five stories of individuals with different backgrounds, which range from addressing the future of cities within one of the most densely populated urban environments in the world to leaving the education system to create a clean-water machine for someone on the other side of the planet and starting projects within a war zone. These are young people who have made a personal commitment and used vigorous engagement to embark on the journey towards creating something that can address the problems we are facing. The stories presented are excerpts from full interviews we conducted from early 2019.

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