Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
A Contextual Framework of
Change Management Models
André Degreef (FAHRI)
Process models such as ADKAR and Kotter’s eight step model are the most common approach
to change
This is not surprising a...
Organisation Lifecycle
Greiner’s Growth Model
Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium Model
Models
Process Models
Prosci – ADKAR
...
Lifecycle and evolution models
Organizations grow and evolve through stages of stability and change or upheaval
All proces...
Creativity
Leadership
Crisis
Direction
Autonomy
Delegation
Control
Coordination
Red Tape
Collaboration
Organisations move ...
Culture models –
Internal culture is often hidden and can push back against change from the inside out
These frameworks ar...
Assimilation Integration
Deculturation Separation
Culture
Models
Nahavandi and Mlekzadeh
Harrison
Low HIgh
LowHighDesirabi...
Diagnostic Models
These theories focus on identifying interactions and cause/effect relationships between
structures, syst...
Inputs Transformations Outputs
Key
Organization
Processes
External
Environment
Employees &
Tangible
Assets
Dominant
Coalit...
Process models
Since the 1950’s and the work of Lewin, process models have formed the basis of
change management strategie...
Sense of Urgency
Powerful
Coalition
Create a
Vision
Communicate
the Vision
Empower
Broad Based
Action
Short Term
Wins
Neve...
Individual Reaction models
Process models tend to assume that recipients of change are rational in their responses. Commun...
Individual
Reaction
Models
Fisher
Bridges Transition Model
Kubler-Ross
Time__________________________________________
Mora...
Although change will ultimately be a managed process,
that process sits within a large and complex organizational
environm...
Organisation Lifecycle
Greiner’s Growth Model
Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium Model
Models
Process Models
Prosci – ADKAR
...
André Degreef is a change management, organizational development and workforce planning specialist
based in Brisbane, Aust...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Change Management Models in Context

3,380 views

Published on

A quick summary of organizational change management models from a variety of theoretical perspectives including classic process models within the context of lifecycle models, culture theories, diagnostic frameworks and individual reaction models.

Published in: Business
  • Hello! I have searched hard to find a reliable and best research paper writing service and finally i got a good option for my needs as ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • To get professional research papers you must go for experts like ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Andre, this is a great piece of work. I come back to this time and time again. Thank you.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Change Management Models in Context

  1. 1. A Contextual Framework of Change Management Models André Degreef (FAHRI)
  2. 2. Process models such as ADKAR and Kotter’s eight step model are the most common approach to change This is not surprising as they describe the necessary stages to move an organization from its current state to its preferred state However change processes occur within a complex context of an organizational lifecycle and culture; technical and human systems, relationships and components; and individual perceptions of, and reactions to, change Understanding change at these levels may support more effective implementation of transformation processes The following slides provide a brief overview of some of the models of each type
  3. 3. Organisation Lifecycle Greiner’s Growth Model Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium Model Models Process Models Prosci – ADKAR Kotter’s Eight Step Model Lewin’s Three Stage Model Diagnostic Models Kotter’s Organisational Dynamics McKinsey 7S Model Open Systems Organisation Culture Models Nahavandi &Mlekzadeh Harrison Individual Reaction Models Kubler-Ross Fisher Bridges Transition Model
  4. 4. Lifecycle and evolution models Organizations grow and evolve through stages of stability and change or upheaval All process change and business transformation occurs within the context of this growth and evolution These models focus on the overarching consideration of the strategic issues of growth and development; they set the scene in relation to understanding where an organization is at in its development and what drivers for change may exist at that stage These models describe how organizations change over time
  5. 5. Creativity Leadership Crisis Direction Autonomy Delegation Control Coordination Red Tape Collaboration Organisations move through five stages of growth with each stage characterised by specific leadership challenges that trigger change and movement to the next stage. Life Cycle Models Greiner Gersick (Punctuated Equilibrium) The underlying, internal deep structure (culture, beliefs & rules) holds an organization in equilibrium and resists change. Change occurs by revolution once the status quo can no longer resist change due to an internal or external shock (competition, technological advances, new leadership etc.) Tuning Reorientation Adaptation Recreation Nadler et al Organizations grow and evolve through reactive or proactive processes that can be either incremental or transformational in their scope Incremental Transformational ReactiveProactive Time__________________________________________ Change___________
  6. 6. Culture models – Internal culture is often hidden and can push back against change from the inside out These frameworks argue that ‘organizations are culture’, and that the considerations of aligning change strategies to the existing culture of the organization, and the culture of individual groups affected, is the key to success These models describe how to match change to organization culture (or subcultures within the organization)
  7. 7. Assimilation Integration Deculturation Separation Culture Models Nahavandi and Mlekzadeh Harrison Low HIgh LowHighDesirabilityofotherculture Desire to keep own culture Based on anthropological models& arising from research into mergers, the appropriate form of change is based on a comparison of the desire of a group to keep their own culture versus the attractiveness of the other group’s culture Organisational culture can be integrated and uniform, differentiated into several connected subcultures or a loosely connected collection of subcultures with few shared values. Appropriate change interventions will be different in each culture. Integration Differentiation Ambiguity Myerson & Martin The degree to which an organization is managed by formal rules and procedures, and its degree of centralized control is manifested in four distinct organizational cultures. Different approaches to change are likely to be needed depending on the nature of that culture Power Role AchievementSupport Low Formalization High Formalization High Centralization Low Centralization
  8. 8. Diagnostic Models These theories focus on identifying interactions and cause/effect relationships between structures, systems and processes within an organization Identifying currently dysfunctional or misaligned factors or relationships (or those at risk of future misalignment) within the enterprise and its environment will lead to the most appropriate change interventions Diagnosis is a often a missing step in the application of process models in many change programs; change managers can step straight into establishing a sense of urgency, creating awareness or mobilizing energy and commitment without first fully diagnosing the real issues being faced by the enterprise These models help identify where to target change processes
  9. 9. Inputs Transformations Outputs Key Organization Processes External Environment Employees & Tangible Assets Dominant Coalition Technology Internal Social System Formal Organization Arrangements Diagnostic Models McKinsey 7S Organizational Dynamics (Kotter) Open Systems Theory Shared Values Strategy Structure Style Staff Skills Systems Feedback Organizations function through the interaction of seven elements over time. As the relationships and dynamics change, so to does the appropriate response by the change manager and organization. The elements may be different but, like the organizational dynamics model, this framework posits that for an organization to perform well, the seven elements need to be aligned during change. The framework can be used to diagnose how the elements are interrelated, and how the effects of change to one or more element may impact the others. At their simplest, open systems theories identify that organizations take inputs from the external environment and transform them to outputs of some value. Analysis of the system will identify opportunities for change.
  10. 10. Process models Since the 1950’s and the work of Lewin, process models have formed the basis of change management strategies and implementation Process models remain the most popular, and (when used by change managers with an understanding of the broader context of the organizational environment, application of organizational analytics and research to support diagnosis, and consideration of individual reactions to change and transition) the most effective models for implementing organizational change and business transformation These models describe how to implement change in organizations
  11. 11. Sense of Urgency Powerful Coalition Create a Vision Communicate the Vision Empower Broad Based Action Short Term Wins Never Let Up Incorporate Change into Culture Mobilize energy through joint problem identification Develop a shared vision Identify the leadership Focus on results Start at the periphery Institutionalize success Monitor & adjust strategies Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis Develop a shared vision Foster consensus Spread revitalization Institutionalize revitalization Monitor & adjust strategies Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement Process Models Whether it is 5,6,7,8 or more, change occurs in stages – successfully moving through the stages generally requires certain actions to have occurred in previous stages Kotter’s 8 step model Prosci ADKAR model Luecke’s 7 steps for change Beer’s 6 steps for change Based on Lewin’s original 3 step model, process models offer variations on the themes of building the case for change, communication & resourcing, and reinforcing the change. Prosci’s ADKAR model is one of the leading current process models of change, outlining the five core elements change leaders must address at both individual & organizational level to effectively implement change.
  12. 12. Individual Reaction models Process models tend to assume that recipients of change are rational in their responses. Communication and information focuses largely on cognitive processing and the explanation of the change process. Evolving from research in the areas of grief and loss, individual reaction or transition models place the emotional reactions of change recipients at the heart of their frameworks – identifying the stages individuals go through during change Central to these theories is the hypothesis that matching the organizational change journey and interventions to the requirements of individuals at each stage of response and adaptation, and implementing appropriate support, will lead to more successful change outcomes These models describe how individuals react to change
  13. 13. Individual Reaction Models Fisher Bridges Transition Model Kubler-Ross Time__________________________________________ Morale____________________ Shock & Denial Bargaining Depression Acceptance Time__________________________________________ Morale____________________ Anxiety Happiness Fear Threat Guilt Denial Disillusionment Moving Forward Depression Hostility Complacency Originally a description of the five stages of grief, this model has been applied to describe the broad range of feelings people may experience when dealing with change in their own lives or in the workplace. Rather than specifying a linear curve, Bridges’ Model outlines the broad phases individuals go through during transition and emphasises that people will go through each stage at their own pace. This is something change managers need to recognize. Extending many of Kubler-Ross’s themes, Fisher shows that the journey towards acceptance may be impeded by a range of negative reactions that stall progress, each requiring a different intervention strategy. Anger
  14. 14. Although change will ultimately be a managed process, that process sits within a large and complex organizational environment To effectively manage transition and transformation, change leaders need to consider The overall stage of development of the organization Relationships between components and systems in the organization The culture of the organization, and subcultures within the organization The emotional reactions of individuals and the organization as a whole
  15. 15. Organisation Lifecycle Greiner’s Growth Model Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium Model Models Process Models Prosci – ADKAR Kotter’s Eight Step Model Lewin’s Three Stage Model Diagnostic Models Kotter’s Organisational Dynamics McKinsey 7S Model Open Systems Organisation Culture Models Nahavandi &Mlekzadeh Harrison Individual Reaction Models Kubler-Ross Fisher Bridges Transition Model
  16. 16. André Degreef is a change management, organizational development and workforce planning specialist based in Brisbane, Australia He is currently providing change management leadership to support the University of Queensland through a transformational redesign of its research management processes, systems and culture André is a Fellow of the Australian Human Resources Institute and holds a Master’s Degree in Psychology, as well as qualifications in HR, training and management. He is currently completing a Doctor of Business Administration, specializing in organizational change, downsizing and career development. Presenter Profile:

×