The value of PR

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The value of public relations especially at a time of recession and public sector cuts has never been more important.

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The value of PR

  1. 1. 
The
Stockholm
Accords,
ratified
in
June
2010,
set
out
to
identify
where
and
how
the
public
 relations
 and
 communication
 management
 profession
 adds
 value
 to
 the
organisation.
The
value
of
public
relations
especially
at
a
time
of
recession
and
public
sector
cuts
has
never
been
more
important.

 Introduction
 
Good
 communication
 is
 a
 vital
 ingredient
 for
 maintaining
 a
 healthy
 organisational
reputation
during
a
time
of
recession.
Naturally
the
UK’s
economic
woes
has
had
a
dramatic
 impact
 on
 UK
 businesses,
 as
 demonstrated
 by
 the
 scale
 of
 cuts
 and
 the
number
 of
 established
 high‐street
 companies
 descending
 into
 administration
(Kollewe,
2009).
In
this
time
of
widespread
uncertainty
the
Stockholm
Accords
have
sought
 to
 affirm
 the
 importance
 of
 strategic
 PR
 by
 reinforcing
 its
 value
 as
 an
important
management
tool
to
effectively
govern
stakeholder
relationships.
A
recent
study
 of
 CEOs
 from
 leading
 UK
 companies,
 which
 investigated
 the
 value
 of
 public
relations
 to
 their
 organisation,
 Stephen
 Carter
 of
 Ofcom
 commented:
 “We
 should
not
look
for
a
return
on
investment
(ROI)
for
public
relations…it
is
simply
a
necessary
cost,
 the
 cost
 of
 doing
 business
 –
 you
 really
 just
 need
 to
 do
 it”
 (Carter
 cited
 in
Murray
 and
 White,
 2005,
 p.
 349).
 This
 view,
 although
 accepting
 the
 need
 for
strategic
 communications,
 marginalises
 the
 PR
 function
 as
 being
 non‐strategic.
However,
during
times
of
change
and
uncertainty
it
is
suggested
that
public
relations
practitioners
are
better
equipped
to
manage
the
movement
of
messages
out
of
the
organisation
 to
 its
 publics,
 explaining
 policy
 modifications
 or
 actions
 (Grunig
 and
Hunt,
 1984).
 The
 Stockholm
 Accord
 endorses
 this
 view
 by
 asserting
 the
 PR
practitioners
 role
 as:
 “bringing
 the
 organisation’s
 voice
 and
 interests
 into
stakeholder
deliberations”
(Stockholm
Accord,
2010,
p.10).
Due
to
the
downturn
in
the
 economy
 and
 ensuing
 realignment
 of
 organisations’
 priorities,
 it
 is
 increasing
important
 for
 PR
 practitioners
 to
 be
 more
 aware
 of
 their
 role
 in
 organisational
leadership,
 as
 well
 as
 their
 impact
 to
 the
 triple
 bottom
 line
 and
 business
sustainability.
 The
 quality
 and
 effectiveness
 of
 communications
 are
 increasingly
determined
 by
 the
 ability
 of
 PR
 to
 interpret
 stakeholder
 expectations
 and

  2. 2. communicate
change
effectively.
This
is
achieved
by
creating
a
listening
culture
that
allows
the
organisation
to
adapt
and
respond
to
the
external
environment.
It
is
only
when
 the
 top
 communicator
 possesses
 strategic
 change
 management
 knowledge
and
 engages
 in
 communication
 with
 all
 stakeholders
 that
 public
 relations
 can
 be
considered
to
be
value‐generating
especially
during
challenging
economic
times.
This
essay
argues
that
to
work
effectively,
particularly
at
a
time
of
recession
and
public
sector
 cuts,
 an
 organisation
 needs
 good
 PR.
 
 Furthermore,
 a
 senior
 PR
 manager
should
be
part
of
the
dominant
coalition
and
must
fully
understand
all
aspects
of
the
organisation.
 The
 section
 headings
 are
 inspired
 by
 key
 themes
 outlined
 in
 the
Stockholm
Accords.

  3. 3. Stakeholder
Governance
Through
Relationship
Management
 
It
 is
 widely
 accepted
 by
 PR
 practitioners
 that
 relationships
 are
 one
 of
 the
 most
precious
assets
an
organisation
possesses.
As
a
key
management
practice
primarily
concerned
 with
 understanding
 and
 directing
 stakeholder
 relationships,
 public
relations
 is
 concerned
 with
 the
 communication
 of
 perceptions
 and
 strategic
relationships
between
an
organisation
and
its
internal
and
external
stakeholders,
for
mutual
benefit
and
a
greater
social
order.
Grunig
and
Huang’s
(2000)
expands
on
this
view
 of
 PR
 as
 a
 relationship
 practice:
 “Public
 relations
 makes
 organisations
 more
effective
 by
 building
 relationships
 with
 strategic
 publics”
 (Cited
 in
 Phillips,
 2006,
 p.
212).
The
quality
of
an
organisation’s
relationship
and
exchanges
with
it
publics
will
impact
 on
 the
 brand
 reputation
 in
 a
 competitive
 marketplace.
 Mutually
 beneficial
relationships
 will
 affect
 brand
 equity,
 loyalty
 to
 products
 and
 services,
 assist
 in
stimulating
empathy
during
crisis,
while
with
internal
publics
it
will
affirm
loyalty
and
staff
 moral
 (Heath,
 2005).
 Ledingham
 (2003)
 provides
 a
 pragmatic
 approach
 to
managing
 relationships
 between
 an
 organisation
 and
 its
 publics
 by
 suggesting
 a
process
 of
 scanning
 through
 environmental
 surveillance;
 setting
 goals
 and
objectives;
 developing
 and
 pre‐testing
 initiatives;
 rolling‐out
 and
 putting
programmes
 in
 place;
 evaluating
 the
 success
 of
 the
 initiatives;
 and
 monitoring
 and
maintaining
relationship
quality
(cited
in
Heath,
2005,
p.741).

A
 stakeholder
 is
 any
 group
 or
 individual
 who
 can
 affect
 or
 is
 affected
 by
organisational
 behaviour.
 It
 is
 important
 that
 stakeholders
 are
 identified
 and
assessed
 in
 terms
 of
 their
 engagement
 level
 with
 the
 organisation.
 The
 key
 to
stakeholder
 relationship
 management
 is
 to
 ensure
 that
 PR
 practitioners
 recognize
and
 link‐in
 with
 all
 stakeholders.
 Sincere
 engagement
 is
 the
 first
 step
 towards
enhancing
 two‐way
 communication
 excellence.
 Strategic
 relationship
 building
 with
stakeholders
is
key
to
the
successful
management
of
announcements
around
cuts
or
other
changes
to
an
organisation.
Grunig
and
Hunt
(1984)
defined
stakeholders
as:
“a
group
whose
collective
behaviour
can
directly
affect
the
organisation’s
future,
but
which
 is
 not
 under
 the
 organisation’s
 control”
 (p.297).
 Stakeholder
 pressure
 is
undoubtedly
 one
 of
 the
 most
 challenging
 issues
 facing
 organisations
 as
 they
 try
 to
adapt
to
the
current
austere
climate.
The
role
of
the
public
relations
practitioner
is

  4. 4. to
ensure
that
the
leadership
of
the
organisation
communicates
effectively
with
all
of
 the
 stakeholders,
 both
 by
 coaching
 management
 into
 a
 better
 communications
performance
 and
 also
 by
 helping
 to
 articulate
 only
 the
 messages
 that
 matter
(Murray
and
White,
2005).
Both
internal
and
external
stakeholders
need
to
be
part
of
a
two‐way
communication
model,
forming
part
of
a
larger
strategic
management
process
during
times
of
change.
This
is
vital
to
negate
the
possibility
of
dissonance
while
ensuring
a
licence
to
operate.


  5. 5. Engagement
with
Publics
 
A
public
forms
from
a
group
of
people
who
stand
to
be
affected
by
an
organisation’s
behaviour:
 “They
 can
 instigate
 change
 in
 the
 wider
 public
 mood
 and
 bring
 their
concerns
 to
 the
 attention
 of
 the
 organisation,
 at
 worst
 forcing
 unplanned
 and
expensive
 changes”
 (Campbell,
 2003,
 ch9).
 At
 a
 time
 of
 recession
 or
 during
 public
sector
cuts,
many
previously
latent
publics
can
form
a
new
public,
which
in
turn
has
consequences
 for
 the
 organisation.
 It
 is
 important
 to
 recognise
 that
 the
 term
‘publics’
 does
 not
 refer
 solely
 to
 people
 outside
 of
 an
 organisation.
 Organisational
publics
 can
 also
 be
 made
 up
 of
 people
 within
 it.
 An
 individual
 can
 also
 belong
 to
more
 than
 one
 public
 at
 a
 time:
 “There
 is
 an
 increasing
 diversity
 in
society...individuals
 have
 many
 roles
 and
 may
 belong
 to
 more
 than
 one
 public”
(Varey,
1997,
p97).
An
example
of
this
is
a
group
facing
redundancy,
those
who
feel
their
jobs
are
undervalued,
users
objecting
to
cutbacks,
or
strong
media
opposition
to
policy.
A
public
sector
employee
can
also
be
a
union
representative,
member
of
a
local
 community,
 customer
 of
 other
 public
 services
 and
 a
 member
 of
 an
 activist
group,
 all
 at
 the
 same
 time.
 “Public
 relations
 practice
 is
 the
 management
 of
communications
 between
 an
 organisation
 and
 its
 publics”
 (Grunig
 and
 Hunt
 1984,
cited
in
Tench
and
Yeomans
p5).

Through
his
situational
theory,
Grunig
developed
a
classification
 tool
 to
 allow
 the
 PR
 practitioner
 to
 identify
 publics,
 establish
 their
character
 and
 formulate
 a
 clear
 communication
 strategy
 in
 response.
 Grunig
theorised
that
consequences
create
the
conditions
necessary
for
a
public
to
develop.
That
is,
when
an
organisations
behaviour
has
a
consequence
for
people,
it
creates
an
issue
 around
 which
 a
 public
 forms.
 Grunig
 noted
 that
 not
 everyone
 affected
 by
organisational
 consequences
 detect
 them.
 
 Of
 those
 that
 do,
 not
 all
 proceed
 to
discuss
 the
 problem
 or
 galvanise
 to
 respond.
 He
 theorised
 that
 the
 factors
 that
differentiate
these
groups
were
the
extent
to
which
they
recognise
the
problem,
the
degree
 to
 which
 they
 feel
 they
 can
 do
 something
 about
 it,
 and
 the
 level
 to
 which
they
feel
affected
by
organisational
behaviour
(Grunig
and
Hunt
1984,
Varey
1997).


Deep
recession,
subsequent
public
sector
cuts
and
the
social
effects
on
communities
due
are
wide
and
varied.
In
this
arena
a
diverse
group
of
publics
are
created
around

  6. 6. a
myriad
of
issues
who
must
all
be
identified,
communications
objectives
established
and
 strategy
 initiated.
 The
 PR
 practitioner
 can
 bring
 the
 organisation’s
 voice
 to
 its
varied
publics
to
engage
in
deliberations.
A
public
forms
from
a
group
of
people
who
stand
 to
 be
 affected
 by
 an
 organisation’s
 behaviour.
 Recently
 we
 have
 witnessed
widespread
chaotic
scenes
of
student
protests
over
the
announcement
of
increased
tuition
 fees
 and
 cuts
 to
 education
 spending
 now
 exacerbated
 by
 the
 trade
 unions
pledge
 to
 join
 in
 with
 coordinated
 industrial
 action
 to
 build
 a
 ‘wider
 anti‐cuts
campaign’
 and
 in
 their
 own
 words:
 ‘declare
 war’.
 This
 domino
 effect
 of
 creating
publics
forming
around
a
central
theme
and
all
requiring
different
communication
is
an
 arena
 where
 strategic
 PR
 practice
 becomes
 a
 vital
 function
 (Taylor,
 2010).
 For
example,
 following
 the
 Coalition
 Government’s
 determination
 that
 public
 services
are
to
be
drastically
cut,
local
authorities
have
been
preparing
themselves
to
address
their
share
of
reduced
spending.
Across
the
country,
councils
are
investing
heavily
in
public
 consultation,
 which
 encourages
 its
 respective
 residents
 to
 make
 their
suggestions
 as
 to
 where
 the
 cuts
 should
 fall.
 This
 has
 the
 effect
 of
 making
 it
 clear
that
spending
must
be
reduced
but
includes
various
publics
in
the
decision‐making
process.

  7. 7. Coordinating
Internal
and
External
Communication
 
Managed
 communication
 should
 be
 a
 critical
 component
 of
 any
 organisational
change
and
the

PR
practitioner
is
pivotal
to
the
managerial
function
of
crafting
and
delivering
 effective
 communication
 strategy.
 Well‐known
 management
 academic,
John
Kotter
(1996)
has
observed
that
50
percent
of
companies
fail
during
the
early
stages
 of
 change,
 which
 he
 suggests
 is
 attributed
 to
 ineffective
 communication
(Tourish
and
Hargie,
2004).
Dawson
(2004)
echoes
this
view,
suggesting
they
usually
fail
because
communication
around
any
change
is
often
limited.
It
may
be
restricted
to
 just
 a
 few
 memos
 followed
 by
 the
 head
 of
 the
 organisation
 making
 speeches,
while
 everyone
 else
 remains
 silent.
 Also,
 the
 behaviour
 of
 some
 highly
 visible
individuals
 may
 conflict
 with
 the
 message
 being
 communicated.
 Change
management
requires
strategic
verbal
communication,
which
is
consistent
with
the
actions
of
an
organisation
ensuring
consistency
and
an
accurate
presentation
of
the
issues.
 Communication
 with
 internal
 stakeholders
 will
 be
 most
 effective
 when
employees
 are
 kept
 informed
 and
 where
 feedback
 and
 consultation
 is
 encouraged
consequently
 positively
 affecting
 staff
 moral.
 
 Resistance
 to
 change
 is
 largely
associated
with
natural
anxiety,
ignorance
and
misunderstanding
and
opposition
can
be
 reduced
 if
 PR
 practitioners
 ensure
 a
 thorough
 understanding
 of
 the
 key
 issues
(pp.61
‐
62).
For
change
communication
to
be
effective
the
message
tone
and
pitch
must
 be
 set
 to
 an
 appropriate
 level
 for
 the
 intended
 audience
 or
 adjusted
 where
necessary,
 the
 communication
 has
 to
 be
 a
 two‐way
 process
 and
 an
 appropriate
medium
 of
 communication
 must
 be
 utilised
 (Paton
 and
 McCalman,
 2000
 cited
 in
Dawson,
2004).


  8. 8. Boundary
Spanning
 
The
 concept
 of
 boundary
 spanner
 provides
 the
 context
 into
 which
 the
 PR
practitioner
can
approach
their
role
in
modern
PR:
“They
function
at
the
edge
of
the
organisation,
serving
as
a
liaison
between
the
organisation
and
the
external
groups
and
individuals”
(Grunig
and
Hunt,
1984,
p.9).
This
theoretical
concept
is
succinctly
explained
by
Tench
and
Yeomans:
“Taking
a
systems
perspective,
it
can
be
seen
that
PR
 professionals
 have
 a
 boundary
 spanning
 role…working
 with
 all
 the
 internal
subsystems
 by
 helping
 them
 communicate.
 They
 also
 help…with
 their
 external
communications
by
both
providing
expert
advice
on
what
and
how
to
communicate
and
 by
 helping
 them
 with
 implementation”
 (Tench
 and
 Yeomans,
 2006,
 p.27).
 In
discussing
 the
 relationship
 between
 PR
 and
 the
 strategic
 role
 it
 plays
 in
organisational
 effectiveness,
 it
 is
 vital
 to
 establish
 what
 role
 the
 senior
 public
relations
 practitioner
 plays
 within
 the
 organisation
 itself.
 Research
 by
 Broom
 and
Smith
 (1979)
 categorized
 the
 function
 of
 PR
 into
 two
 roles,
 communication
technician
and
manager.
These
roles
and
the
subsequent
practise
of
the
role
of
the
communication
 manager
 working
 as
 a
 ‘problem
 solving
 facilitator’
 has
 become
 the
basis
 for
 organisations
 to
 see
 the
 PR
 function
 as
 a
 valued
 part
 of
 the
 strategic
process.
 In
 this
 role,
 the
 senior
 PR
 practitioner
 acts
 as
 the
 boundary
 spanner
 –
gathering
information,
defining
and
solving
problems,
helping
the
dominant
coalition
formulate
 the
 right
 strategy
 whilst
 bringing
 excellence
 to
 communication
 of
 the
mission.
 Many
 academics
 argue
 that
 this
 role
 can
 only
 truly
 be
 seen
 as
 effective
 if
the
senior
public
relations
manager
is
a
member
of
the
dominant
coalition:
“Public
relations
is
most
likely
to
contribute
to
organisational
effectiveness
when
the
senior
public
relations
manager
is
a
member
of
the
dominant
coalition
where
he
or
she
is
able
to
shape
the
organisational
goals”
(Grunig,
et.
al.
2002.
Cited
in
L’Etang,
2008,
p.162)
Sung
(2007)
expands
on
this
view:
“PR
benefits
the
organisation
because
the
members
of
the
dominant
coalition
often
do
not
see
the
organisation’s
environment
with
an
objective
viewpoint…PR
can
contribute
to
strategic
management
by
helping
the
 organisation
 enact
 the
 environment
 of
 which
 they
 may
 not
 be
 aware”
 (Sung
cited
in
L’Etang,
2008,
p.163).
In
the
2001
UK
census
48,000
respondents
identified
themselves
 as
 being
 employed
 in
 public
 relations.
 However
 even
 with

  9. 9. unprecedented
 growth
 in
 the
 number
 of
 practitioners,
 in
 the
 last
 decade
 the
occupation
 of
 PR
 has
 found
 that
 professional
 status
 remains
 elusive.
 Despite
 its
popularity,
 practitioners
 remain
 largely
 communication
 technicians,
 focusing
 on
tactical
matters.
A
viewpoint
endorsed
by
Grunig
(1990)
suggesting
that:
“they
tend
to
remain
‘outside
the
door’
when
those
top‐level
decisions
are
being
made…rarely
ascending
 to
 the
 managerial
 level
 that
 would
 make
 them
 part
 of
 the
 decisional
process.”
 This
 brings
 about
 unique
 challenges
 when
 communicating
 with
stakeholders
during
uncertain
times,
as
the
communication
is
one‐way,
since
the
PR
practitioner
is
not
present
when
significant
issues
are
being
debated
and
conclusions
are
being
reached.

This
limits
their
input
to
simply
explaining
and
justifying
others’
decisions.
 Taking
 a
 systems
 perspective,
 this
 should
 affect
 and
 influence
organisational
 decision
 making
 and
 communication
 strategy:
 “When
 functioning
well,
 it
 acts
 as
 the
 anvil
 against
 which
 managements
 moral
 problems
 can
 be
hammered”
(Finn,
1959.
Cited
in
Newsom
and
Scott,
1981,
p.421).

  10. 10. The
Networked
Environment
 
The
Chartered
Institute
of
Public
Relations
defines
PR
as:
“the
determined,
planned
and
 sustained
 effort
 to
 establish
 and
 maintain
 mutual
 understanding
 between
 an
organisation
 and
 its
 publics”
 (CIPR,
 2010).
 This
 definition
 endorses
 the
 systems
theory
view
that
an
organisation
co‐exists
in
a
symbiotic
relationship
with
its
publics
and
is
inevitably
influenced
by
it.
In
order
to
achieve
their
objectives,
it
must
be
able
to
 listen
 and
 adapt
 to
 changes
 in
 its
 operational
 environment,
 thus
 ensuring
 its
survival.
 As
 L’Etang
 and
 Pieczka
 (2006)
 argued:
 “The
 role
 for
 public
 relations
practitioners
 is
 effectively
 to
 limit
 this
 external
 influence
 and
 control
 that
 the
environment
 is
 able
 to
 exert
 and
 place
 the
 various
 relationships
 into
 a
 state
 of
harmony,
 which
 allows
 the
 organisation
 to
 pursue
 its
 goals
 with
 minimum
interference
or
obstruction.”
Cutlip,
et.
al.
endorses
this
view:
“…The
public
relations
staff
 is
 charged
 with
 keeping
 the
 organisation
 sensitive
 to
 environmental
 changes,
anticipating
 as
 well
 as
 reacting
 to
 change
 pressures”
 (Cutlip,
 Center
 and
 Broom,
2000,
p.
232).
The
concept
of
systems
theory
outlines
that
an
organisation
(and
the
actions
 it
 undertakes)
 does
 not
 exist
 or
 operate
 in
 isolation.
 They
 are
 affected
 and
must
 adapt
 to
 changes
 in
 the
 political,
 economic,
 social
 and
 technological
environment
 in
 which
 they
 operate.
 At
 a
 time
 of
 the
 most
 crippling
 recession
 in
living
 memory,
 the
 Royal
 Bank
 of
 Scotland
 incited
 public
 revolt
 with
 their
announcement
that
£1.3
billion
in
bonuses
would
be
made
to
22
of
their
investment
bankers.
 This
 was
 despite
 reporting
 losses
 of
 £5
 billion
 and
 receiving
 a
 £54
 billion
payout
from
the
taxpayer.
In
contrast,
when
hundreds
of
aircraft
were
grounded
at
UK
 airports
 due
 to
 inclement
 weather,
 last
 Christmas,
 the
 CEO
 of
 BAA,
 Colin
Matthews
tried
to
appease
critics
who
said
snow
should
not
have
forced
airports
to
close.
 He
 announced
 he
 would
 not
 accept
 his
 bonuses
 for
 the
 year
 as
 a
 means
 of
showing
 empathy
 for
 the
 disrupted
 travelling
 public.
 This
 was
 a
 good
 example
 of
excellent
PR
practice
as
the
organisation
demonstrated
sensitivity
to
its
environment
by
listening
and
adapting
(Swinford,
2010).





  11. 11. Conclusion
 
Wilson
 (2001)
 states
 that
 when
 public
 relations
 is
 managed
 strategically,
 it
 itself
becomes
a
valued
part
of
the
strategic
management
process:
“helping
practitioners
to
 join
 the
 ranks
 of
 those
 whose
 efforts
 make
 strategic
 contributions
 to
 the
organisation.”
This
type
of
PR
practice
can
only
serve
to
elevate
the
PR
function
to
one
that
truly
contributes
to
the
realisation
of
organisational
goals.
A
view
echoed
by
Grunig
(1990):
“The
public
relations
practitioner
with
the
potential
to
contribute
to
 the
 organisational
 goals
 would
 be
 more
 effective
 as
 a
 member
 of
 the
 dominant
coalition
than
as
an
independent
actor
in
the
organisational
system.”
This
essay
has
examined
 the
 various
 functions
 of
 the
 role
 of
 public
 relations.
 Whilst
 all
 of
 these
topics
and
themes
exist
in
the
day‐to‐day
business
arena,
at
a
time
of
recession
or
during
 public
 sector
 cuts,
 it
 is
 even
 more
 vital
 to
 bring
 excellence
 to
 internal
 and
external
 communications.
 Recession,
 cuts,
 ensuing
 uncertainty
 and
 increasing
dissonance
 are
 all
 factors
 that
 require
 any
 organisation
 to
 not
 only
 communicate
well,
but
to
be
able
to
listen
and
adapt
to
the
task
environment.
It
is
often
said
that
the
test
of
any
organisation
is
during
times
of
crisis,
which
is
when
a
well‐run,
well‐funded
PR
department
often
comes
into
its
own.
Whilst
ROI
may
not
be
specifically
measurable
 in
 terms
 of
 hard
 data,
 PR
 as
 a
 so‐called
 ‘soft’
 impact
 during
 recession
may
prove
invaluable
to
an
organizations
very
survival.

Word
Count:
2750


  12. 12. Bibliography
and
References

Campbell,
A.
(2003)
Putting
the
publics
into
public
relations.
In
IPR
Diploma
Resource
Pack,
chapter
9.

Cutlip,
S
and
Centre,
A
and
Broom,
G.
(2000)
Effective
Public
Relations.
7th
ed.
New
Jersey.
Prentice‐Hall.

Dawson,
P.
(2004)
Managing
Change.
Edited
by
Tourish,
D.
and
Hargie,
O.
(2004)
Key
Issues
in
Organisational
Communication.
London.
Routledge.


Finn,
 D.
 (1959)
 Cited
 in
 Newsom,
 D.
 and
 Scott,
 A.
 (1981)
 The
 Realities
 of
 Public
Relations.
2nd
ed.
USA.
Wadsworth
Publishing.

Grunig,
 J.
 and
 Hunt,
 T.
 (1984)
 Managing
 Public
 Relations.
 1st
 ed.
 New
 York.
 Holt,
Rinehart
and
Winston.

Grunig,
L.,
Grunig,
J.
and
Dozier,
D.
(2002)
Cited
in
L’Etang,
J.
(2008)
Public
Relations,
Concepts,
Practice
and
Critique.
London.
Sage.

Grunig,
L.
(1990)
Power
in
the
Public
Relations
Department.
Cited
in
Public
Relations
Research
Annual.
Volume
2.
New
Jersey.
Lawrence
Earlbaum.

Heath,
R.
(2005)
Encyclopedia
of
Public
Relations.
Volume
2.
London.
Sage.

Kollewe,
 J.
 (2009)
 High
 street
 casualties
 timeline.
 Guardian.co.uk.
 [Online]
http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/dec/29/high‐street‐retailers‐administration.
[accessed
20
December
2010].

L’Etang,
 J.
 and
 Pieczka,
 M.
 (2006)
 Public
 Relations:
 Critical
 Debates
 and
Contemporary
Practice.
New
Jersey.
Lawrence
Erlbaum
Associates.


  13. 13. Phillips,
D.
(2006)
Towards
Relationship
Management:
Public
relations
at
the
core
of
organisational
 development.
 Cited
 in
 the
 Journal
 of
 Communication
 Management.
Vol.
10
No
2.
Emerald
Group.

Sung,
 A.
 (2007)
 Cited
 in
 L’Etang,
 J.
 (2008)
 Public
 Relations,
 Concepts,
 Practice
 and
Critique.
London.
Sage.

Swinford,
S.
(2010)
Calls
to
deny
Heathrow
chief
his
bonus.
[Online].
The
Telegraph.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/topics/weather/8218553/Calls‐to‐deny‐Heathrow‐chief‐his‐bonus.html.
[Accessed
22
December
2010].

Taylor,
M.
(2010)
Unions
warn
of
massive
wave
of
strikes
in
battle
to
halt
cuts.
Cited
in
The
Guardian.
20
December
2010.

Tench,
R.
and
Yeomans,
L.
(2006)
Exploring
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1st
ed.
Harlow.
Pearson
Education.

Varey,
R.
(1997)
Public
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Cited
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Public
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‐
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London.
Thompson
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