Hope in the word sola scriptura


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Hope in the word sola scriptura

  1. 1. The SEPTUAGINT (LXX) – Circa 250 BC The Bible of the early Greek-speaking church. Translated in Greek by Jewish scholars in Alexandria, Egypt.
  2. 2. “In the past God spoke to our ancestors many times and in many ways through the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us through his Son. He is the one through whom God created the universe, the one whom God has chosen to possess all things at the end. He reflects the brightness of God's glory and is the exact likeness of God's own being, sustaining the universe with his powerful word. After achieving forgiveness for the sins of all human beings, he sat down in heaven at the right side of God, the Supreme Power.” Hebrews 1:1,2,3 Good News Bible
  4. 4. SOLA SCRIPTURA…       La tin, circa 1517, Scripture Alone; Scripture Only The first of the 5 solas of the Protestant Reformation by Martin Luther (founder of the Protestantism) October 31, 1517, Wittenberg, Germany States that the Bible, in its entirety (plenary inspiration), is indeed the Word of God – God’s divine revelation to mankind and God’s way of directly communicating to his people. The m agna carta of faith and conduct of all Christian believers. The center-piece of all Christian gatherings and basis for all Christian practice, arts, expressions, literature, and culture.
  5. 5. The Holy Bible The Bible is God’s Word to us. It is the traveler’s map, The pilgrim’s staff, The pilot’s compass, The soldier’s sword And the Christian’s charter. It should fill the memory, rule the heart and guide the feet. It should be read slowly, frequently and prayerfully. - Source Unknown
  6. 6. THE PROTESTANTS… (a.k.a.) Bible-Based Christians
  7. 7. The HOLY BIBLE     The Holy Bible is the central sacred religious text of Judaism and Christianity.[1] Modern Judaism generally recognizes a single set of canonical books known as the Ta na kh, or Hebrew or Jewish Bible.[2] It comprises three parts: the Torah ("Teaching", also known as the Pentateuch or "Five Books of Moses"), the Prophets, and the Writings. It was primarily written in Hebrew with some small portions in Aramaic.[citatio n ne e de d] In Protestant / Evangelical Christianity, the Tanakh is known as the Old Testament (39 books). The Christian Bible includes both the Old Testament and a collection of newer canonical books known as the New Testament (27 books).
  8. 8. THE BIBLE & FUNDAMENTALISM   In reaction to libe ra l (o ne who is o p e n-m ind e d o r no t s tric t in the o bs e rva nc e o f e s ta blis he d fo rm s o r wa y s ) Bible be lie ve rs ... Christian Fundamentalism Fundamentalism placed primary emphasis on the authority and sufficiency of the Bible, and typically advised s e p a ra tio n fro m e rro r a nd c ultura l c o ns e rva tis m as an important aspect of the Christian life.                          An American family Bible dating to 1859 A.D.  
  9. 9. τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια (ta biblia ta ha g ia )   This stemmed from the Greek term τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια (ta biblia ta ha g ia ), "the holy books", which derived from βιβλίον (biblio n),[5] "paper" or "scroll," the ordinary word for "book", which was originally a diminutive of βύβλος (by blo s , "Egyptian papyrus"), possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician port Byblos
  10. 10.    τὰ βιβλία (The Bo o ks ) Biblical scholar Mark Hamilton states that the Greek phrase Ta biblia ("the books") was "an expression Hellenistic (GreekCultured) Jews used to describe their sacred books several centuries before the time of Jesus ,"[6] and would have referred to the Septuagint.[7] The Online Etymology Dictionary states, "The Christian scripture was referred to in Greek as Ta Biblia as early as
  11. 11. Canonization of the Old Testament (circa 90 – 100 AD) OLD TESTAMENT canon – the The final books that were accepted by the rabbis as sacred or inspired – is thought to have been agreed upon and closed by a Council of Elders (Rabbinical Scholars) at Jamnia (west of Judah).
  13. 13. ‫( תנ"ך‬TANAKH)     The Tanakh (Hebrew) consists of 24 books. Tanakh is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible: Torah ("Teaching/Law" also known as the Pentateuch) Nevi'im ("Prophets") Ketuvim ("Writings," or Hagiographa)
  14. 14. ‫( תנ"ך‬TANAKH)     The Old Testament is the collection of books written prior to the life of Jesus but accepted by Christians as scripture. Several Christian denominations also incorporate additional books (Apocryphal or deuterocanonical books) into their canons of the Old Testament. A few groups consider particular translations to be divinely inspired. Notably the Greek Septuagint, the Aramaic Peshitta, and the English King James Version. For further verification, scholars refer to the Dead Sea Scrolls for variants and extant scriptural renditions.
  15. 15. 1. The TORAH (400 BC)  The Torah (Hebrew), or "Instruction," is also known as the "Five Books" of Moses, and Pentateuch from LXX, meaning "five scroll-cases." The Torah comprises the following five books: 1. Genesis, Ge—Bereshit (‫)בראשית‬ 2. Exodus, Ex—Shemot (‫)שמות‬ 3. Leviticus, Le—Vayikra (‫)ויקרא‬ 4. Numbers, Nu—Bamidbar (‫)במדבר‬ 5. Deuteronomy, Dt—Devarim
  16. 16. Foundation Books:   The PENTATEUCH or TORAH: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. General Context: God calls and chose Israel to be his people, frees Israel from its bondage in Egypt, and enters into a covenant with Israel at Mt. Sinai.
  17. 17. 2. The Nevi’im (200 BC)  The Nevi'im, or "Prophets," tell the story of the rise of the Hebrew monarchy, its division into two kingdoms, and the prophets who, in God's name, warned the kings and the Children of Israel about the punishment of God.
  18. 18. TETRAGRAMMATON OF “YHWH” The most widely accepted meaning of the name is “the one who is; that is, the absolute and unchangeable one.” This is the name the Lord revealed to Moses (Exodus 3:15; compare 3:1314; John 8:56-58). According to the Ten Commandments, the Jews were not to take this name in vain (Exodus 20:2, 7). The Jews, therefore, regarded the name as so holy that they would not pronounce it; instead, they said Adonai, “Lord.”
  19. 19. “The one who is; that is, the absolute and unchangeable one.”
  20. 20. The Nevi'im comprise the following eight books: 6. Joshua, Js—Yehoshua (‫)יהושע‬  7. Judges, Jg—Shoftim (‫)שופטים‬  8. Samuel, includes First and Second, 1Sa–2Sa—Shemuel (‫)שמואל‬  9. Kings, includes First and Second, 1Ki– 2Ki—Melakhim (‫)מלכים‬  10. Isaiah, Is—Yeshayahu (‫)ישעיהו‬  11. Jeremiah, Je—Yirmiyahu (‫)ירמיהו‬  12. Ezekiel, Ez—Yekhezkel (‫)יחזקאל‬ 
  21. 21. Continuation of the Nevi’im  13. Twelve, includes all Minor Prophets—Tre Asar (‫ירתרי‬ ‫)עשר‬  a. Hosea, Ho—Hoshea (‫)הושע‬  b. Joel, Jl—Yoel (‫)יואל‬  c. Amos, Am—Amos (‫)עמוס‬  d. Obadiah, Ob—Ovadyah (‫)עבדיה‬  e. Jonah, Jh—Yonah (‫)יונה‬  f. Micah, Mi—Mikhah (‫)מיכה‬  g. Nahum, Na—Nahum (‫)נחום‬  h. Habakkuk, Hb—Havakuk (‫)חבקוק‬  i. Zephaniah, Zp—Tsefanya (‫)צפניה‬  j. Haggai, Hg—Khagay (‫חגי‬
  22. 22. 3. The Ketuvim (100 BC)  The Ketuvim (“Writings”) contain lyrical poetry, philosophical reflections on life, and the stories of the prophets and other Jewish leaders during the Babylonian exile. It ends with the Persian decree allowing Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple.
  23. 23. The Ketuvim comprise the following eleven books:  14. Psalms, Ps—Tehillim (‫)ירתהלים‬  15. Proverbs, Pr—Mishlei (‫)משלי‬  16. Job, Jb—Iyyov (‫)איוב‬  17. Song of Songs, So—Shir ha-Shirim (‫)שיר השירים‬  18. Ruth, Ru—Rut (‫)רוירת‬  19. Lamentations, La—Eikhah (‫ ,)איכה‬also called Kinot (‫)קינוירת‬  20. Ecclesiastes, Ec—Kohelet (‫)קהלירת‬  21. Esther, Es—Ester (‫)אסירתר‬  22. Daniel, Dn—Daniel (‫)דניאל‬   23. Ezra, Ea, includes Nehemiah, Ne—Ezra (‫ ,)עזרא‬includes Nehemiah (‫)נחמיה‬ 24. Chronicles, includes First and Second, 1Ch–2Ch—Divrei haYamim (‫ ,)דברי הימים‬also called Divrei (‫)דברי‬
  25. 25. Protestant View It is commonly agreed that some of the books of the apocrypha contain material of literary merit and historical value. Their canonicity, however has been rejected, and they have been gradually omitted from most modern editions of Protestant Bibles for the following reasons:
  26. 26. 1. 2. 3. 4. They were never quoted by Jesus, and it is doubtful if they were alluded by the apostles. Most of the early Church Fathers regarded them as unspired. They did not appear in the ancient Hebrew canon (OT Scrolls and Codices). The inferior quality of most of the writings, as compared with the canonical books, stamps them as unworthy of a place in the Sacred Scriptures.
  27. 27. Καινὴ Διαθήκη Ka in ē Dia thēkē (N w Te s ta m e nt) e
  28. 28. Criteria for the Canonization of the New Testament 1. The Authors had to have 2. 3. apostolic credentials, or had close association with an apostle. The writings has to be standardized / harmonized content. The writings had to have
  29. 29. AD 367 – Canonization of the NT  In his Easter (Christmas) letter, BISHOP ATHANASIUS of Alexandria (Center of Theological Learning of the Roman Empire) defines the 27 books of the New Testament.
  30. 30. Καινὴ Διαθήκη       The Bible as used by the majority of Christians includes the New Testament, which relates the life and teachings of Jesus, the letters of the Apostle Paul and other disciples to the early church and the Book of Revelation. The New Testament is a collection of 27 books, of 4 different genres (types; groupings) of Christian literature: 1. GOSPELS (Synoptic Gospels & Gospel of St. John) 2. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 3. EPISTLES (LETTERS TO THE CHURCHES) 4. REVELATION
  31. 31. It’s ALL ABOUT YOU, JESUS! Jesus is its central figure.  The New Testament was written primarily in Koine Greek in the early Christian period, though a minority argue for Aramaic primacy. 
  32. 32. HELLENISTIC LITERATURE’S BEST-SELLER!    Copies of the books of the New Testament produced by scribes, and copies of the Bible made from these copies. Until the fifteenth century, when Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press, books were copied by hand, and the New Testament books were no exception. For many centuries, the New Testament books were copied out one at a time by single scribes; later the process was speeded up by dictation, in which one reader would read the text aloud to many scribes. As far as we know, we have over 5,350 manuscript copies of the Greek New Testament, in part or in whole. No other book written in ancient Greek exists in so
  33. 33. Καινὴ Διαθήκη   1. The Gospels Synoptic Gospels     Gospel According to Matthew , Mt Gospel According to Mark, Mk Gospel According to Luke, Lk Gospel According to John , Jn
  34. 34. Καινὴ Διαθήκη 2. Acts of the Apostles, (Acts) (continuation of the Gospel of St. Luke)
  35. 35. 3.)Epistles (Letters to the Churches) 1. Pauline Epistles          Epistle to the Romans, Ro First Epistle to the Corinthians, 1Co Second Epistle to the Corinthians, 2Co Epistle to the Galatians, Ga Epistle to the Ephesians, Ep Epistle to the Philippians, Pp Epistle to the Colossians, Cl First Epistle to the Thessalonians, 1Th Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, 2Th
  36. 36. Cont. EPISTLES 2. Pastoral Epistles      First Epistle to Timothy, 1Ti Second Epistle to Timothy, 2Ti Epistle to Titus, Tt Epistle to Philemon, Pm Epistle to the Hebrews, He
  37. 37. Cont. EPISTLES 3. General Epistles, also called Jewish Epistles  Epistle of James, Jm  First Epistle of Peter, 1Pe  Second Epistle of Peter, 2Pe  First Epistle of John, 1Jn  Second Epistle of John, 2Jn  Third Epistle of John, 3Jn  Epistle of Jude, Jd
  38. 38. 3. Revelation or the Apocalypse Revelation, or the Apocalypse (Rev.) Parallels / Crossreferenced with: Daniel – of the OT 
  39. 39. Κοινε    The books of the New Testament were written in Koine Greek, the language of the earliest extant manuscripts, even though some authors often included translations from Hebrew and Aramaic texts. Certainly the Pauline Epistles were written in Greek for Greek-speaking audiences. Some scholars believe that some books of the Greek New Testament (in particular, the Gospel of Matthew) are actually translations of a
  40. 40. Καινὴ Διαθήκη Best-attested Literature of the Ancient World According to the British scholar John A.T. Robinson, “The wealth of manuscripts, and above all the narrow interval of time between the writing and the earliest extant (existing) copies, make [the New Testament] by far the best-attested text of any
  42. 42. 1. ARCHAEOLOGY ... is a science that recovers and studies what humans leave behind. What others may consider worthless junk, biblical archaeologists consider priceless clues to biblical history.
  43. 43. ARCHAEOLOGY  The Bible is filled with historical materials: dates, names, rulers, and events that can be confirmed by historians. It is reasonable to assume that if archaeology can document some of the historical details of the Bible, we can then have increased confidence that the Bible is reliable at other points as well.
  44. 44. Historical King David…   1993, A team of archaeologists was excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Dan in upper Galilee. Led by Avraham Biran of Hebrew Union College in Jerusalem, the archaeologists discovered an inscription bearing David’s name. The inscription was quickly identified as part of a shattered monument from the ninth century B.C., “apparently commemorating a military victory of the king of Damascus over two ancient enemies: the king of Israel and the house of David.”
  45. 45. Historical St. Luke…  Interestingly, archaeologists working in the ruins of ancient Damascus discovered an inscription referring to a government official named Lysanias. The inscription was dated somewhere between A.D. 14 and A.D. 29, exactly the time period Luke is referring to in his Gospel. If Luke took such care with a seemingly trivial detail, it is reasonable to think that he took the same rigorous approach to accuracy in the rest of his book.
  46. 46. A Scientist’s comment on CREATION…  Gerald Schroeder, an applied physicist trained at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), writes, “During my three decades as a scientist active in applied physics and oceanography, and a 25-year immersion in the study of biblical tradition . . . the most exciting discovery . . . is that the duration and events of the billions of years that, according to cosmologists, have followed the Big Bang and those events of the first six days of creation are in fact one and the same. They are identical realities that have been described in very different terms.”
  48. 48. FULFILLED PROPHECIES   On biblical prophecy, one scholar counted 109 prophecies that were fulfilled in the birth, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The fulfilment of biblical prophecies alone ought to be enough to convince a person who is intellectually honest of the reliability and authority of the Bible.
  49. 49. JESUS fulfilled Biblical Prophecies…    700 years before the birth of Christ the prophet Micah predicted that a great king of Israel would be born in the lowly town of Bethlehem: “You, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, are only a small village in Judah. Yet a ruler of Israel will come from you, one whose origins are from the distant past. The people of Israel will be abandoned to their enemies until the time when the woman in labor gives birth to her son” (Micah 5:2-3). This prophecy was fulfilled when Jesus was born in the town of Bethlehem (Matthew 2:1).
  50. 50. Prophet Isaiah’s prophecy, 700 BC    About the same time, roughly 700 B.C., the prophet Isaiah predicted that a virgin would miraculously give birth to a child: “Look! The virgin will conceive a child! She will give birth to a son and will call him Immanuel —‘God is with us’ ” (Isaiah 7:14). This prophecy was fulfilled when Mary—while still a virgin—was found to be pregnant by the Holy Spirit and gave birth to a son named Jesus (Matthew 1:18-25; Luke 1:26-38).
  51. 51. Prophet Zechariah’s prophecy, 500 BC    Prophet Zechariah predicted that a great king would ride into Jerusalem on the back of a donkey: “Rejoice greatly, O people of Zion! Shout in triumph, O people of Jerusalem! Look, your king is coming to you. He is righteous and victorious, yet he is humble, riding on a donkey—even on a donkey’s colt” (Zechariah 9:9). This prophecy was fulfilled in what is traditionally called the Triumphal Entry (now celebrated by Christians as Palm Sunday), when Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey less than a week before he was crucified (Matthew 21:1-11; Luke
  52. 52. 3. EXPERIENTIAL FACTORS RATIONAL person, One HONEST and beyond reasonable doubt, will believe that the HOLY SCRIPTURES speak of UNDENIABLE TRUTHS that have LIFECHANGING EFFECTS.
  54. 54. Bible History Milestones:      400 BC – 95 AD – Written on scrolls, papyrus, parchments, paper, mosaics, art works, oral traditions. 200 AD – Written on codices (books with pages that could be turned) 476 AD – Middle Ages, monks secretly & elaborately made copies of the Holy Scriptures in Scriptoriums. 900 AD – Written with upper and lower cases 1100 AD – Written with upper and lower cases and with spacing
  55. 55. Bible History Milestones:   1226 AD – Divided into CHAPTERS by Archbishop Stephen Langton (Anglican) of Canterbury, England At last after 1,626 the Bible was read with Chapters!
  56. 56. Bible History Milestones:   1456 AD – Johann Gutenburg of Mainz, Germany, invented the printing press, and printed the LATIN VULGATE (Latin Bible), a.k.a. Gutenberg Bible. The production of Bibles moved from handwriting to movable (printed) type.
  57. 57. Bible History Milestones:   1551 AD – Divided into VERSES by Robert Estienne, a French printer in Geneva. (325 years after the Cha p te rs were invented) 1560 AD – Geneva Bible was the first Bible in which the text was divided into
  58. 58. 1382 AD, Wycliffe Bible The first translation of the Bible into English by John Wycliffe, who translated the Latin Vulgate into English in 1382.
  59. 59. 1526 AD, Tyndale NT Bible The first English Bible to be printed was an NT translation by William Tyndale, the “Father of the English Bible,” who translated the Bible into English from the original languages / manuscripts. The was strangled and burned at stake by the RC, in 1536 before completing his OT translation.
  60. 60. 1534, Anglican Schism (s p lit) England finally separated from Vatican in 1534, forming its own church – The Church of England (Anglican Church; Episcopalian Church). This was the year many English translations of the Bible began to dominate Christendom.
  61. 61. 1611 – King James Version King James I of England commissioned a group of 54 scholars and churchmen to produce an “authorized” version, known today as the King James Version (KJV) of 1611. -The KJV became the Bible of the Protestant, English-speaking world until other versions appeared in the Evangelical world up to the 19th -
  63. 63. We believe that the Bible is… 1. 2. 3. 4. Inspired (Verbum Dei) Inerrant (Without Error) Infallible (Trustworthy) Institutus (Latin for Institution, i.e., Authoritative)
  64. 64. 1. Inspired (Verbum Dei) The Bible is the vehicle or medium through which God’s “word” comes to us. -The Bible is p le na ry inspired. -The divine selection of the authors, and the guidance to assure the trustworthiness of their testimony, is called ins p ira tio n. -
  65. 65. 2. Inerrant (Without Error) We believe that the Bible is without error in all regards, even as to such matters as history, science, and geography. -Those holding this position believe that admitting to the possibility of errors in the Bible is the first step down the slippery slope of disbelief. -Rationally, the Bible is without error in all that it te a c he s (with regard to God’s will), but not everything in the Bible is meant to be understood as “doctrine.” -
  66. 66. 3. Infallible (Trustworthy) The Bible is completely trustworthy, especially as to the self-revelation of God in Jesus Christ. -The Bible is the sufficient source in knowing and understanding God and His divine will. -
  67. 67. 4. Institutus (Authoritative) Because the Bible is the inspired witness to God’s special revelations, it is authoritative in matters of Christian Beliefs (Orthodoxy), and also Christian Practice and Actions (Orthopraxis). -
  69. 69. 1. WRITTEN ON NATURE. Psalm 19:1 2. WRITTEN ON CONSCIENCE. Romans 2:15
  71. 71. 5. THE ENTIRE SCRIPTURES. (OT / NT) Romans 15:4 6. WRITTEN ON THE HEART. Hebrews 8:10
  72. 72. 7. CHRISTIANS AS LIVING EPISTLES 2 Corinthians 3:2,3
  73. 73. 30. Jesus’ disciples saw him do many other miraculous signs besides the ones recorded in this book. 31. But these are written so that you may believe* that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing in him you will have life. JOHN 20: 30,31
  74. 74. IN THIS WORLD… Our HOPE is in the WORD!