Adapting to Change: How to Accelerate Impact

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Adapting to Change: How to Accelerate Impact

  1. 1. Adapting to Change: How to Accelerate Impact<br />J. Rubiano1 S. Cook2, B. Douthwaite3, M.Rajasekaran2, V.Soto3<br />1 King’sCollege, University of London, jerubiano@gmail.com<br />2 Basin Focal Project, CPWF<br />3 International Center for Tropical Agriculture, CIAT, Colombia.<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  2. 2. This analysis shows where local projects have regional or global potential to change the lives of millions.<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  3. 3. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />Extrapolation domains for the PN15 Quesungual Project<br />
  4. 4. EDA<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  5. 5. What is this work useful for?<br />Assuming successful project interventions (technological/ institutional)<br /><ul><li>To identify the potential for wide scale adoption (scaling out) and its impact while linked with Global (B&SEM)
  6. 6. To link research with development (partnerships)
  7. 7. Add value to individual PNs’ and the CPWF
  8. 8. Guide Investors (SDC, WB…etc…)</li></ul>2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  9. 9. Outline<br />Overall concept<br />How the method works?<br />A graphical example<br />An example from a CPWF project<br />Where to next?<br />Assessment<br />Recomendations<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  10. 10. What’s a right bed for my seeds?<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  11. 11. Pilot sites of 11 CPWF projects (nursery)<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  12. 12. The extrapolation problem<br />Where else can we go with these projects?<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  13. 13. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />A knowledge common sense game<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  14. 14. It is black<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  15. 15. It is hairy<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  16. 16. Has more than 2 legs<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  17. 17. It is not a pet<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  18. 18. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  19. 19. Back to the CPWF<br />How to realise about the potential of the CPWF projects?<br />How to wisely use information?<br />End of phase 1, 40+ CPWF funded projects<br />Knowledge<br />Improving our ability to adapt<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  20. 20. Use evidence and knowledge to estimate the likelihood of an event<br /><ul><li>Given an evidence…
  21. 21. Black (one in four) - Uncertain
  22. 22. Hairy (three in four) - Maybe
  23. 23. Has more than three legs (two in four) - Perhaps
  24. 24. It’s not a pet (one in one) - Certain
  25. 25. The inference is a …</li></ul>2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  26. 26. The extrapolation problem: Where else can we go with these projects?<br />Knowledge<br />Tell us factors are important<br />Data<br />About the original and target location<br />About the distribution of important factors<br />A method<br />To link these two components<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  27. 27. How would I know a particular place is a good site for a project?<br /><ul><li>From the project sites we know that particular factors are important for the project (e.g):
  28. 28. Stony soils
  29. 29. Mid altitude ranges
  30. 30. Low to medium precipitation
  31. 31. Technical institutional support
  32. 32. Prevalence of poverty
  33. 33. Etc…
  34. 34. From spatial analysis we also know how important these factors are for the project</li></ul>2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  35. 35. How to weight the contribution of each factor?<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  36. 36. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />Pantropical world<br />Important factors<br />Research sites<br />
  37. 37. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />1. Weights of Evidence<br />Area=173<br />Pilot sites=20<br />Prior Prob=0.115 <br />Factor Area = 22 Pilot sites in Factor Area = 8<br />
  38. 38. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />2. Weights of Evidence<br />Area=173<br />Pilot sites=20<br />Prior Prob=0.115 <br />Factor Area = 22 Pilot sites in Factor Area = 8<br />Conditional Probabilities<br />A. Factor and sites<br />B. Factor but no sites<br />C. No Factor but sites<br />D. No Factor no sites<br />W- = ln C/D<br />W+ = ln A/B<br />
  39. 39. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />4. Weights of Evidence<br />Conditional Probabilities<br />A. Pattern and sites <br />B. Pattern but no sites <br />C. No pattern but sites <br />D. No pattern no sites<br />W- = ln C/D<br />W+ = ln A/B<br />Odds Post = ln (Odds Prior + ∑(W+ +W-)<br />Post Prob = Odds Post /(1+ Odds Post )<br />Area=173<br />Pilot sites=20<br />Prior Prob=0.115 <br />Evidential Pattern Area = 22 Pilot sites in Pattern = 8<br />Test of Conditional Independence of the evidential layers<br />Posterior Probability=0.14<br />P(SjF1F2) =[P(F2jS) P(F1jS) P(S) ] / [P(F2) P(F1)]<br />
  40. 40. How would I know a particular place is a good site for a project?<br />Summarizing up to here….<br />We use the contribution of each factor (positive and negative weights)<br />Associate this information with the basic knowledge of the site (prior probability of pilot sites)<br />Calculate a value per each potential new site (posterior probability)<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  41. 41. How to read results?<br />Check for total conditional independence and uncertainty<br />Organised results in maps for dialogue with project team members<br />Iterate after adjustments<br />Review results to the light of complementary information<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  42. 42. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  43. 43. Quesungual seed sites<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  44. 44. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />“Important” factors<br />AVAILABLE<br /><ul><li>Poverty (2 USD/day) (Thornton et al., 2002)
  45. 45. Climate (length of dry season) (Jones et al., 2005)
  46. 46. Slope (From SRTM data, Jarvis et al., 2006)
  47. 47. Water availability (Proximity to water sources, from Lehner et al., 2004)
  48. 48. Access to markets (Nelson, 2006)
  49. 49. Land Cover (Tree cover from GLCF, 2008))</li></ul>NOT AVAILABLE OR NON INDEPENDENT<br /><ul><li>Erosion
  50. 50. Agriculture and Livestock productivity
  51. 51. Agricultural subsistence systems
  52. 52. Land Tenure
  53. 53. Soils Type (Shallow soils)</li></ul>Community and Institutional Participation/support<br />
  54. 54. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />Location of prospecting sites for the PN15 Quesungual Project<br />
  55. 55. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  56. 56. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />Area<br />Population<br />
  57. 57. Thanks<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  58. 58. 2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />Summary of Feedback<br />
  59. 59. Assessment<br />Mixed response about the approach (you love it or hate it)<br />Data availability is a key constraint but solvable<br />Local knowledge will improve its validity<br />EDA, in general, is a useful starting point for the promotion of innovative techniques to new locations<br />A recognition that suitable sites are not the unique guarantee for successful scaling out of interventions<br />Does not work for all type of projects<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  60. 60. Recommendations<br /><ul><li>Incorporateit in futureprojects’ development
  61. 61. More dialog at the beginning of projects to ensure the validation of variables to be used
  62. 62. Capture local knowledge
  63. 63. Use it as anaidforpartnershipsearch
  64. 64. Dynamic elements should be introduced
  65. 65. To allow the generation of different EDAs under different scenarios
  66. 66. A Country level EDA
  67. 67. Use of higher resolution data
  68. 68. To target more specific locations for intervention</li></ul>2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  69. 69. Thanks<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  70. 70. There must be other ways of doing this, if better, use them, but please let me know I am always open to learn<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  71. 71. Key References<br />Bonham-Carter, GF, Agterberg, FP., Wright, DF. Weights of evidence modeling: a new approach to mapping mineral potential. In: Agternerg, FP, Bonham-Carter, GF, editors. Statistical Applications in the Earth Sciences. Canada: Geological Survey of Canada; 1989, 171-183. <br />Bonham-Carter, GF. Geographic Information Systems for geoscientists: modelling with GIS, First ed. Ottawa, Canada: Pergamon; 1994<br />Bonham-Carter, GF. Geographic information systems for geoscientist: Modelling with GIS. In: Merriam DF, editors. Computer Methods in the Geosciences. New York: Pergamon/Elsevier; 2002, 302-334.<br />2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />
  72. 72. The Holidays dilemma<br /><ul><li>Who knows where are you going on Christmas?
  73. 73. Paris?, The Caribbean?, London?, Home?
  74. 74. From previous experience you reckon that you enjoy being at…
  75. 75. Historical places ?
  76. 76. A sandy beach ?
  77. 77. Warm temperature ?
  78. 78. Being with relatives ?</li></ul>2nd International Forum on Food and Water, Ethiopia 10th to 14th of November 2008<br />

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