中国风电资讯 风电传媒China Wind PoWer information 2011 the 04th ISSUE                                  Support Unit 支持单位            ...
CounCil                                                            of the Magazine中国风电资讯 杂志理事会China Wind PoWer information...
China Wind PoWer information                                        Chinese & English                                     ...
China Wind PoWer information                                       Chinese & English              整机商动态 | News about Manuf...
China Wind PoWer information                                          Chinese & English                                   ...
中国风电资讯·2011 年04月20   CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
装机容量 | installed capacity     2010年中国风电装机容量统计Chinas Wind PoWer installed CaPaCity in 2010                                 ...
装机容量 | installed capacity(见下图表)                   省(自治区、直辖市)Province                                                      ...
装机容量 | installed capacity  23                 湖南Hunan                           4.95                92.3                97...
装机容量 | installed capacity     2010年在众多机组制造商中,不管是中国新增风电                           capacity of 4386MW, accounting for 23.2% ...
装机容量 | installed capacity                  (2010年风电机组生产企业安装及出口情况)                                                         ...
装机容量 | installed capacity                     天威风电     23                                40       60.5                    ...
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中国风电资讯·2011 年04月28   CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
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技术交流 | Technical Exchange       风力发电,是为数不多的绿色能源之一.这种发电的方法,从一开始出现,就伴随着一个棘手课题---电缆缠绕.     Wind power generation is few in nu...
技术交流 | Technical Exchange发电机的上面。                                introduced technology , it is not convenient to use and ev...
技术交流 | Technical Exchange     如果风车的主要结构需要大规模的改动,最后           t need pay for any fee even without application procedure. Ex...
技术交流 | Technical Exchange 提升风电产量 正确使用润滑油是关键       hoW to: Choosing the right Wind turbine          lubriCant to oPtimize P...
技术交流 | Technical Exchange     带动发电机运转的主变速箱可以说是齿轮传动型             most gearboxes is only one year. Once the gearbox is no lo...
技术交流 | Technical Exchange个测试都在每分钟1500转的转速下进行,并且使用专门用于          after gears have been replaced to help promote efficient微点蚀...
技术交流 | Technical Exchange     齿轮油的过滤性能指的是齿轮油在实际的运行条          life dramatically.件下通过过滤器,同时不会堵住过滤器的能力,这种过                  A...
2011 年04月·中国风电资讯CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION   37
www.nanhua.com     中国风电资讯·2011 年04月38   CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
2011 年04月·中国风电资讯CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION   39
行业分析 | Industry Analysis                风电基地建设应与调峰配套     Wind PoWer base ConstruCtion shall gear              With Peak re...
行业分析 | Industry Analysis峰电源造成的。                  become the primary contradiction in grid connection of wind power. Factor...
行业分析 | Industry Analysis电大机组被迫非常规调峰的局面,推进风电开发,                   The five experts also suggest that the construction of pu...
2011 年04月·中国风电资讯CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION   43
中国风电资讯·2011 年04月44   CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
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奋勇开拓,“精裁”人生Forge ahead bravely, Fine Cut liFe                                    ——和鹰科技助力全球风能产业发展------Yin Science & Techn...
China wind power information issue 2011.04
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China wind power information issue 2011.04

  1. 1. 中国风电资讯 风电传媒China Wind PoWer information 2011 the 04th ISSUE Support Unit 支持单位 维斯塔斯风力技术(中国)有限公司 Vestas 山东伊莱特重工有限公司 Shandong Iraeta Heavy Industry Co.Ltd NORDEX(北京)风力发电工程技术有限公司 Nordex 苏司兰能源(天津)有限公司 Suzlon 亚什兰高性能材料 ASHLAND Expert Advisors 专家顾问 石定寰Shi Dinghuan 马胜红Ma Shenghong 周凤起Zhou Fengqi 王慧炯Wang Huijiong 杨富强Yang Fuqiang 于午铭Yu Wuming 朱瑞兆Zhu Ruizhao 马学禄Ma Xuelu 宋丽莉Song Lili 胡兆光Hu Zhaoguang 谢绍雄Xie Shaoxiong 林伯强Lin Boqiang 武建东Wu Jiandong 马人乐Ma Renle 吴运东Wu Yundong 叶杭冶Ye HangYe 封面公司广告:科尼起重机设备(上海)有限公司 Publisher出版 《中国风电资讯》杂志社“WIND POWER INFORMATION ”MAGAZINE Executive Editor执行主编 张 芳Zhang Fang Editorial Director编辑部主任 贺 涛He Tao Editor in Charge责任编辑 刘 哲Liu Zhe 陈玉程Chen Yucheng Art Editor美术编辑 姜 心Jiang Xin 杨 阳YangYang Market Department市场部 沈宗辉Shen Zonghui 孙玲玲 Sun Lingling 田 雨Tian Yu 魏世力Wei Shili Distribution Department发行部 王 晓Wang Xiao Network Department网络部 刘 芳Liu Fang 马 红Ma hong Legal Advisor法律顾问 北京民桥律师事务所Beijing Minqiao Law Firm General Ad Agent广告总代理 北京聚焦广告有限公司Beijing Focus Advertising Co., Ltd. Tel电话 +86 10-52960721 e-mail邮箱 zgfdzx@vip.163.com Wind Electricity-Info Network风电商情网 http://www.windss.cn 本刊每月15日出版,如果发现印刷、装订等质量问题,请与本刊发行部联系调换。 地址:北京市海淀区杏石口路55号,金谷大厦418室(100195) 电话:+86 10-5296 0722 传真:+86 10-5296 0718 版权声明: 投稿信箱:zgfdzx@vip.163.com 网址:www.windss.cn在本刊发表的文章、图片等版权 add:room 418, Jingu Building, no. 55 Xingshikou road, haidian district, Beijing归本刊所有,未经本刊书面许可, tel:+86 10-5296 0722 fax:+86 10-5296 0718不得转载、翻印及传播。 e-mail:zgfdzx@vip.163.com Website:www.windss.cn
  2. 2. CounCil of the Magazine中国风电资讯 杂志理事会China Wind PoWer information理事长石定寰国务院参事、中国可再生能源学会理事长常务理事长牛余刚 山东伊莱特重工有限公司 总经理副理事长张其智 山东瑞其能电气有限公司 董事长常务理事(按姓氏笔画)叶凯森 NORDEX(北京)风力发电工程技术有限公司 CEO叶杭冶 浙江运达风力发电工程有限公司总工程师 副总经理齐剑波 北京北重汽轮电机有限责任公司 总经理刘东远 国电联合动力技术有限公司 总经理刘海东 德州世纪威能风电设备有限公司 总经理吴 刚 REpower瑞能北方风电设备有限公司 CEO吴运东 华仪电气股份有限公司 副董事长张 军 中国国电集团公司 副总经理理事(按姓氏笔画)马人乐 国水投资集团包头风电科技有限公司总工程师、同济大学建筑工程系教授刘 琪 上海电气风电设备有限公司 副总经理刘仁智 黑龙江省瑞好(集团)能源科技有限公司 副总经理吴明隆 红叶风电设备有限公司 总经理张保昌 亚什兰高性能材料 亚太区业务总监金志焱 江苏通达动力科技股份有限公司 营销总经理姚世平 伊顿流体动力(上海)有限公司 业务总监陶友传 中船重工(重庆)海装风电设备有限公司副总经理 总设计师梁宝川 北京莱维塞尔科技有限公司 总经理爱华德 艾默生网络能源有限公司/埃斯倍风电科技(青岛)有限公司 首席运营官 入会申请:+86 10-5296 0721
  3. 3. China Wind PoWer information Chinese & English 046 企业专访 | Enterprise Interviewcontents目 录 2011 the 04th ISSUE21 装机容量 | installed capacity 21 2010年中国风电装机容量统计 Chinas Wind Power Installed Capacity in 201030 技术交流 | Technical Exchange 30 电缆缠绕在塔架上的解决办法 The method to solve cable winding to tower 33 提升风电产量 正确使用润滑油是关键 How to: Choosing the Right Wind Turbine Lubricant to Optimize Production40 行业分析 | Industry Analysis 40 风电基地建设应与调峰配套 Wind Power Base Construction Shall Gear with Peak Regulation46 企业专访 | Enterprise Interview 46 奋勇开拓,“精裁”人生 Forge Ahead Bravely, Fine Cut Life52 整机商动态 | News about Manufacturers 52 中航惠德2.0兆瓦风机进入国网张北实验风场检测 AVIC Huide 2.0MW Wind Turbine Enters State Grid Zhangbei Experimental Wind Farm for Test
  4. 4. China Wind PoWer information Chinese & English 整机商动态 | News about Manufacturers 052contents目 录 2011 the 04th ISSUE 53 银河艾万迪斯2.5兆瓦直驱永磁机组低电压穿越成功 Yinhe Avantiss 2.5MW Direct-driven Permanent Magnetic Wind Turbine Passed LVRT 54 “长星风电”风电产业配套洽谈会上备受瞩目 Changxing Wind Power Received Most of the Attention at the International Fair for Wind Power Industry Supporting 55 银川33台风机将远销巴基斯坦 33 Wind Turbines from Yinchuan to be Exported to Pakistan58 产品应用 | Product Application 58 风电功率预报系统“经纬 V1.0”正式运行 Wind Farm Output Forecasting System Jingwei V1.0 Put into Operation62 业内资讯 | Inside Information 62 东海大桥海上风电场二期扩建项目年内启动 East Sea Bridge Offshore Wind Farm Phase II Expansion Project to be Launched This Year 62 年产600套凯明风电塔筒正式建成投产 600sets/year Kaiming Wind Turbine Tower Project Built and Put into Operation 64 高原风电首座风机塔筒运抵阿克塞 First Wind Turbine Tower of Plateau Wind Farm Arrived at Akesai 64 珠海投资百亿元搞风电 Zhuhai Invested RMB10 billion in Wind Power 66 葛洲坝集团中标山西、贵州66套风电塔筒制造合同 Gezhouba Group was Awarded Manufacturing Contracts of 66 Wind Turbine Towers for Shanxi and Guizhou 66 瑞能电气签订900套电控系统大单 REnergy Electric Signed Contract for 900 Electric Control Systems
  5. 5. China Wind PoWer information Chinese & English 062 业内资讯 | Inside Informationcontents目 录 2011 the 04th ISSUE70 项目信息 | Projects Information 70 大唐山东清洁能源公司与鄄城县签署风电开发协议 Datang Shandong Clean Energy Company Signed Wind Power Development Agreement with Juancheng County 70 世界上规模最大的风电试验基地 迎来首批风电机组 Worlds Largest Wind Turbine Test Base Received First Wind Turbines 71 惠州首个风电项目下半年可动工 First Wind Power Project in Huizhou to Start in the Second Half of the Year 72 中国节能与甘肃省签订百亿元风电合同 China Energy Conservation and Environmental Protection Group Signed Wind Power Contract Worth RMB10 billion with Gansu 72 河北尚义风电项目明确目标抓落实 Hebei Shangyi Wind Power Project Specifies Target and Enforces Implementation 73 东源风电第二批6台风机顺利并网发电 Six Wind Turbines of Dongyuan Wind Power Realized Grid-connected Power Generation 74 赤峰马宗山5万千瓦风电开发项目通过核准 Chifeng Mazongshan 50MW Wind Power Development Project Approved 74 安徽来安风电场一期并网发电 为皖首个并网风电项目 Anhui Laian Wind Farm Phase I Connected to Grid The First Grid-connected Wind Power Project in Anhui 75 大唐招远金岭风电一期工程项目落地开工 Datang Zhaoyuan Jinling Wind Farm Phase I Project Started 76 国电红寺堡石板泉风电场一二期正式开工 Guodian Hongsipu Shibanquan Wind Farm Phase I and Phase II Started 76 国电山东新能源获威海地区150兆瓦风电开发权 Guodian Shandong New Energy Got the Right to Develop 150MW Wind Power in Weihai 77 浙中首座风力发电场发电量突破500万千万时大关 Power Generation of First Wind Farm in Central Zhejiang Breaks through 5million kWh82 企业名片 | Enterprise Name Card
  6. 6. 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月20 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  7. 7. 装机容量 | installed capacity 2010年中国风电装机容量统计Chinas Wind PoWer installed CaPaCity in 2010 整理:贺涛 毛立国 Sorted out by: He Tao, Mao Liguo 本数据由“中国可再生能源学会风能专业委 The data are based on investigation of wind power installed员会(CWEA)”统计结果,专委会自2010 年12 capacity in the Chinese market by the Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA) from the end of December 2010 to early March 2011.月末至2011 年3 月初,对中国市场2010年风电装 The statistics show that Chinas wind power equipment industry机情况进行了调研和统计。 has made great achievements. A number of wind power equipment 据统计数据显示,我国风电技术装备行业 manufacturers like Goldwind and SINOVEL that represent international已经取得较大成绩,金风、华锐等一批代表国际 level are the main force in Chinas wind power development. In 2010,水平的风电装备制造企业是中国风电发展的主力 Chinas wind power installed capacity ranked first in the world.军。2010年我国的风电装机容量跃居世界第一。 In China (not including Taiwan), the number of wind turbines 2010年中国(不包括台湾地区)新增风电机 increased by 13904 and the installed capacity by 18927.99MW in 2010, up 37.1% year on year; in total, China has 34485 wind turbines and组13904台,装机容量18927.99MW,年同比增 44733.29MW installations, up 73.3% year on year. (See the diagram长37.1%;累计安装风电机组34485台,装机容量 below)44733。29MW,年同比增长73.3%。(见下图) The remarkable achievements are based on Chinas wind 能够取得骄人的 resources: China has a vast territory,成绩,是与我国的风电 long coastline, and abundant wind资源特征相依托:我国 resources. According to statistics at 10m above the ground, the national幅员辽阔,海岸线长, average wind power density is 100w/风能资源丰富。据我国 m2, the gross reserves of wind的陆地上离地10m高度 resources are around 3.226 billion统计资料估算,全国平 kw and about 1 billion kw is open for均风功率密度为100w/ exploration and use, including 253m2,风能资源总储量约 million kw onshore wind resources and 750 million kw offshore wind32.26亿kw,可开发和 resources.利用的陆地上风能储量 By region, Chinas wind有2.53亿kw,近海开发 resources are mainly distributed in和利用的风能储量有7.5 wind resource-rich area in Northeast China, North China and Northwest亿kw,共计约10亿kw。 China, wind resource-rich area on southeast coast of China, and some 就区域分布来看,我国风能主要分布在: inland wind resource-rich area. These areas are also places with largest and fastest growing installed capacity. (See the following diagram)“三北”(东北、华北、西北)地区风能丰富 In terms of added and cumulative installed capacity in 2010, Inner带、东南沿海地区风能丰富带、内陆局部风能丰 Mongolia is still ahead of other provinces, followed by Gansu and Hebei.富地区。同样这三个地区也是装机容量最大、增 (See the following diagram)长最快的地方。(见下图) Among a number of wind turbine manufacturers, the top three 2010年各省份新增及累计装机容量中,内 were SINOVEL, Goldwind and Dongfang Turbine no matter in terms of蒙古仍然处于领先地位,接下来是甘肃、河北。 added or cumulative installed capacity. SINOVEL had an added installed 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 21
  8. 8. 装机容量 | installed capacity(见下图表) 省(自治区、直辖市)Province 2009年累计 2010年新增 2010年累计 序号No. (autonomous region, municipality Cumulative in 2009 Added in 2010 Cumulative in 2010 directly under the Central Government) 1 内蒙古Inner Mongolia 9196.16 4661.85 13858.01 2 甘肃Gansu 1187.95 3756 4943.95 3 河北Hebei 2788.1 2133.4 4921.5 4 辽宁Liaoning 2425.31 1641.55 4066.86 5 吉林Jilin 2063.86 877 2940.86 6 山东Shandong 1219.1 1418.7 2637.8 7 黑龙江Heilongjiang 1659.75 710.3 2370.05 8 江苏Jiangsu 1096.75 371 1467.75 9 新疆Xinjiang 1002.56 361 1363.56 10 宁夏Ningxia 682.2 500.5 1182.7 11 山西Shanxi 320.5 627 947.5 12 广东Guangdong 569.34 319.44 888.78 13 福建Fujian 567.25 266.45 833.7 14 云南Yunnan 120.75 309.75 430.5 15 浙江Zhejiang 234.17 64 298.17 16 上海Shanghai 141.9 127.45 269.35 17 海南Hainan 196.2 60.5 256.7 18 陕西Shaanxi —— 177 177 19 北京Beijing 152.5 —— 152.5 20 安徽Anhui —— 148.5 148.5 21 河南Henan 48.75 72.25 121 22 天津Tianjin —— 102.5 102.5 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月22 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  9. 9. 装机容量 | installed capacity 23 湖南Hunan 4.95 92.3 97.25 24 江西Jiangxi 84 —— 84 25 湖北Hubei 26.35 43.4 69.75 26 重庆Chongqing 13.6 33.15 46.75 27 贵州Guizhou —— 42 42 28 青海Qinghai —— 11 11 29 广西Guangxi 2.5 —— 2.5 30 香港Hong Kong 0.8 —— 0.8 汇总Total 25805.3 18927.99 44733.29 31 台湾Taiwan 77.9 —— —— 总计Total 25883.2 18927.99 44733.29 (2010年中国新增风电装机前20机组制造商) (Top 20 Wind Turbine Manufacturers in Terms of Added Installed Capacity in 2010) 装机容量(MW)Installed capacity序号No. 制造商Manufacturer 市场份额Market share (MW) 1 华锐SINOVEL 4386 23.2% 2 金风Goldwind 3735 19.7% 3 东汽Dongfang Turbine 2623.5 13.9% 4 联合动力United Power 1643 8.7% 5 明阳Mingyang Electric 1050 5.5% 6 Vestas 892.1 4.7% 7 上海电气Shanghai Electric 597.85 3.2% 8 Gamesa 595.55 3.1% 9 湘电风能XEMC Windpower 507 2.7% 10 华创风能China Creative Wind Energy 486 2.6% 11 重庆海装Chongqing Haizhuang 383.15 2.0% 12 南车时代CSR Times 334.95 1.8% 13 远景能源Envision Energy 250.5 1.3% 14 GE 210 1.1% 15 Suzlon 199.85 1.1% 16 华仪HuaYi 161.64 0.9% 17 银星Yin Xing 154 0.8% 18 运达 Windey 129 0.7% 19 三一电气SANY Electric 106 0.6% 20 长星风电Changxing Wind Power 100 0.5% 其他Others 382.9 2.0% 总计Total 18927.99 100% 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 23
  10. 10. 装机容量 | installed capacity 2010年在众多机组制造商中,不管是中国新增风电 capacity of 4386MW, accounting for 23.2% of the market,装机容量还是累积风电装机容量中,位列前三名的分别是 and a cumulative installed capacity of 10038MW, accounting for 22.4% of the market; Goldwind had an added installed华锐、金风、东汽。其中华锐新增装机容量4386MW, capacity of 3735MW, accounting for 19.7% of the market, and占市场份额23.2%,累计装机容量10038MW,占市场 a cumulative installed capacity of 9078.85MW, accounting for份额22.4%;金风新增装机容量3735MW,占市场份额 20.3% of the market; Dongfang Turbine had an added installed19.7%,累计装机容量9078.85MW,占市场份额20.3%; capacity of 2623.5MW, accounting for 13.9% of the market,东汽新增装机容量2623.5MW,占市场份额13.9%,累计 and a cumulative installed capacity of 5952MW, accounting for装机容量5952MW,占市场份额13.3%。下面三个表分别 13.3% of the market. The following three tables respectively为2010年中国新增风电装机前20机组制造商、2010年中 present the top 20 wind turbine manufacturers in terms of added installed capacity, the top 20 wind turbine manufacturers国累计风电装机前20机组制造商以及2010年风电机组生产 in terms of cumulative installed capacity, and installation and企业安装及出口情况。 export conditions of wind turbine manufacturers, in 2010. 2010年中国累计风电装机前20机组制造商) (Top 20 Wind Turbine Manufacturers in Terms of Cumulative Installed Capacity in 2010) 装机容量(MW) 序号No. 制造商Manufacturer 市场份额Market share Installed capacity (MW) 1 华锐SINOVEL 10038 22.4% 2 金风Goldwind 9078.85 20.3% 3 东汽Dongfang Turbine 5952 13.3% 4 Vestas 2903.6 6.5% 5 联合动力United Power 2435 5.4% 6 Gamesa 2424.3 5.4% 7 明阳Mingyang 1945.5 4.3% 8 GE 1167 2.6% 9 湘电风能XEMC Windpower 1089 2.4% 10 上海电气Shanghai Electric 1073.35 2.4% 11 Suzlon 805.1 1.8% 12 运达 Windey 723 1.6% 13 华创风能China Creative Wind Energy 682.5 1.5% 14 Nordex 524.7 1.2% 15 重庆海装Chongqing Haizhuang 479.25 1.1% 16 南车时代CSR Times 465.3 1.0% 17 远景能源Envision Energy 400.5 0.9% 18 华仪HuaYi 295.08 0.7% 19 银星Yin Xing 252 0.6% 20 航天万源安迅能CASC-Acciona 249 0.6% 其他Others 1750.26 3.9% 合计Total 44733.29 100% 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月24 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  11. 11. 装机容量 | installed capacity (2010年风电机组生产企业安装及出口情况) 单位:MW (Installation and Export of Wind Turbine Manufacturers in 2010) Unit: MW 国内Domestic 出口Export 总计Total 台数 台数序号No. 企业名称Manufacturer 数量 数量 国家 Number of 台数 Number of 数量Quantity Quantity Quantity Country units units 1 华锐风电SINOVEL 2903 4386 2903 4386 2 金风科技Goldwind 2648 3735 6 4.5 古巴Cuba 2654 3739.5 东方汽轮机Dongfang 3 1749 2623.5 1749 2623.5 Turbine 4 联合动力United Power 1095 1643 1095 1643 明阳风电Mingyang Wind 5 700 1050 1 1.5 美国US 701 1051.5 Power 6 Vestas 601 892.1 601 892.1 7 上海电气Shanghai Electric 384 597.85 384 597.85 8 Gamesa 564 595.55 564 595.55 湘电风能 9 253 507 253 507 XEMC Windpower 华创风能China Creative 10 324 486 324 486 Wind Energy 重庆海装Chongqing 11 214 383.15 214 383.15 Haizhuang 12 南车时代CSR Times 201 334.95 201 334.95 13 远景能源Envision Energy 167 250.5 167 250.5 14 GE 140 210 140 210 15 Suzlon 129 199.85 129 199.85 智利、白 俄罗斯 16 华仪HuaYi 138 161.64 3 4.5 Chile, 141 166.14 White Russia 17 银星能源Yin Xing Energy 154 154 154 154 18 运达风电Windey 139 129 139 129 19 三一SANY 70 106 70 106 长星风电Changxing Wind 20 50 100 50 100 Power 21 NORDEX 57 86.5 57 86.5 22 中航惠德AVIC Huide 62 63 62 63 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 25
  12. 12. 装机容量 | installed capacity 天威风电 23 40 60.5 40 60.5 Tianwei Wind Power 24 瑞其能Swiss Electric 33 49.5 33 49.5 美国、 25 新誉New United Group 20 30 2 3 泰国US, 22 33 Thailand 26 许继风电Xuji Wind Power 11 22 11 22 27 久和Geoho 21 17.85 21 17.85 汉维风电Hanwei Wind 28 9 13.5 9 13.5 Power 航天万源China Energine 29 8 7.2 8 7.2 International 东方电气新能源Dongfang 30 4 6 4 6 Electric New Energy 31 中科天道TEWIN 4 6 4 6 天地风能Tiandi Wind 32 4 6 4 6 Power 33 沈鼓Shenyang Blower works 2 4 2 4 34 西门子Siemens 1 3.6 1 3.6 35 麦德MULTECK 2 3 2 3 36 万德Wind 2 2.75 2 2.75 北重/京城新能源Beizhong/ 37 1 1.5 1 1.5 Jingcheng New Energy 38 瑞祥(A-power) 1 2.05 美国US 1 2.05 总计Total 12904 18927.99 13 15.55 12917 18943.54 据资料显示,截止至2010年我国风电新增装机容量 Data show that by 2010, China has 18927.99MW of added18927.99MW,累计装机容量44733.29MW。风电机组安 wind power installed capacity and 44733.29MW of cumulative installed capacity, and has installed and exported 12917 wind装及出口12917台。而且在煤炭资源日益紧缺,最近又受 turbines. Due to the shortage of coal resources and Japans日本福岛第一核电站核燃料泄漏事故的影响,更加安全的 Fukushima nuclear power plant leak, wind power projects风电等可再生能源项目也越来越受到世界各国的重视。预 and other renewable energy projects that are safer will attract计未来国内以及世界范围内的风电装机容量将会进一步扩 increasing attention of the world. It is estimated that the wind大。 power installed capacity in China and around the world will continue to expand. 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月26 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  13. 13. 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 27
  14. 14. 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月28 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  15. 15. 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 29
  16. 16. 技术交流 | Technical Exchange 风力发电,是为数不多的绿色能源之一.这种发电的方法,从一开始出现,就伴随着一个棘手课题---电缆缠绕. Wind power generation is few in number of green energy resources, from the first appearance moment, this generation method has been followed by a troublesome issue----cable winding. 电缆缠绕在塔架上的解决办法 the method to solve Cable Winding to toWer 作者:王金明 Author: Mr. Wang Jinming 起初,似乎没有人意识到 这是个问题,从而很少 At the very beginning, it seemed that nobody could realize this被重视.电缆缠紧在塔架上面,经常被拉断,肯定是不 problem, therefore it was not emphasized at all . cable is often pulled cut due to winding to tower, which is not reasonable. The measures行的.那些时候采取的措施几近应付,难以理解的是, taken at that time was just to deal with, what is difficult to understand直到现在仍然被广泛地沿用着.比如:在尾舵的连杆 is being used till now. for example: on connecting rod of tail vane, there上,拴着1根铁丝或者像球阀的手柄与阀体上的限位 tying one iron wire or like hand shank of ball valve that is same with挡块一样,只是把这个挡块放在塔架和风车连接 limit stop of valve body, just putting this stop dog on the connection的地方。 between tower and windmill. 早期的风力发电机,功率普遍不大,就算使 Early wind driven generator is with ordinary power, even for taking用电刷滑环,也不存在任何问题。如今的风力发 brush slip ring, it still doesn’t exist any problem. Current wind driven generator belongs to megawatt electric and even for synchronization,电机动辄兆瓦级的还要并网,主要依赖于来自国 which closely depends on foreign cast loosing technology.外的解缆技术。 So called cast loosing technology or system, by means of annular cable 所谓的解缆技术或曰解缆系统,利用盘成 with circle form, which can drive windmill to revolve five circles around tower一圈又一圈的环形电缆,可以让风车绕着塔筒旋 drum. From the middle position, no matter it turns to right or left for two转5圈。从中间位置算起,不论风车右转两圈半 and half circles, it will finally return back for reaching limiting position. The process to return middle position doesn’t generate electricity naturally. More还是左转两圈半,都会因为到达极限位置需要返 terrible thing is forthcoming: wind direction for one wind power station is回。向中间位置返回的这个过程,自然是停止发 always keeping the same, starts and stops for several air blowers, which has big电的。更加可怕的还在后面:一个风电场的风向 impact for power grid, itself also becomes not durable.往往是相同的,很多个风机的起起停停,对电网的冲击可想而知,自身也变得不耐用起来。 Cast loosing technology must match with yawing system for use, this is destined to be used for large generator and not suitable for medium-small sized wind driven generator. 解缆技术必须和偏航系统配套应用,也就注 Encoder and controller are used for cast loosing technology ,定了它只能用于大型机而难以应用在中小型风力 its core technology is out of our master. This is the disadvantage for 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月30 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  17. 17. 技术交流 | Technical Exchange发电机的上面。 introduced technology , it is not convenient to use and even can’ 解缆技术需要使用的编码器和控制器等等, t contribute to any development for promoting industry. Previous problems were not resolved fundamentally; on the contrary, the其核心技术亦不在我们掌握。既是引进技术就要受 situation was much worse than before. Isn’t it to understand that制于此,除了用起来并不便宜,更不能指望在促进 large wind driven generators just operate with intervals even starts and产业的发展上有任何贡献。从前的问题没有从根本 stops?上得到解决,相反,情况更加糟糕了。难道说大型 If not giving up cast loosing technology, it’s very pity to confirm的风力发电机就只能间歇地工作,起起停停吗? the answer is positive , say large wind driven generators won’t have 如果不放弃解缆技术,那么很遗憾,答案是 possibility to operate continuously.肯定的,大型风力发电机将不会具有连续工作的可 Cable winding issue hasn’t been resolved completely, is it really complicated? After careful thinking, blade rotates around principal能性。 axis and principal axis rotates around tower, transmission relation is 电缆缠绕这个问题,一直没有被很好地解 relative fixed without change. As early as 2004, I ever made a wind决,真的非常复杂吗?仔细想一想,叶片围绕主轴 driven generator for no power district users far away from power旋转,主轴围绕塔架旋转,传动关系相对固定,并 grid, for kindred between us, therefore this matter soon got sufficient不存在变化。早在2004年,我为一家远离电网的 support including economic issues after several talks and discussions.无电地区用户,制作风力发电机的时候,由于彼此 From then on, cable winding issue has been handed and emphasized seriously.还是亲戚关系,在经过几次交谈和讨论后,得到了 The major idea at that moment is just to move generator out充分的支持,包括经济上的。打这个时候起,开始 of windmill. It’s very hard to avoid the cable winding to tower if严肃地对待电缆缠绕问题。 generator is installed into swing windmill with the wind. If the generator 当时抱定的主要想法之一,就是把发电机从 is fixed to tower or ground and can’t swing with the wind, it won’t风车里面挪出来。发电机安装在随风摆动的风车里 have cable winding issue and even the cable can be conveniently fixed面,将无法回避电缆同塔架的缠绕。如果发电机可 for installation, the whole electric power transmission section won’t exist flexible connection cable!以固定在塔架上或者地面,不再随风摆动,则不存 After repeating deliberates and improvements, simple and issue-在电缆的缠绕问题,甚至连电缆也可以很方便地固 solving scheme was finally taken shape. Referring to patent No定安装起来,整个电力输送部分,将不存在活动的 200720115999 <a kind of gearing for wind driven generator>, the链接电缆! original method is not so complicated. Details are as follow: impeller 经过反复的推敲和改进之后,终于形成 principal axis can change force’s transmission direction by means of了简单实用而又能把问题解决的方案。参考 bevel gear and becomes rotating transmission shaft against vertical installation direction, then the transmission axis drives the generator200720115999号专利《一种风力发电机的传动装 for operation. Connect generator to impeller principal axis with置》原来方法并不是特别复杂。叶轮主轴通过伞形 transmission axis to become main stream wind driven generator of齿轮,改变力的传递方向,变成垂直安装的传动轴 horizontal axis and realize continuous operation for wind.旋转,再由传动轴带动发电机。通过传动轴把发电 What more delightful thing is this solution has good compatibility机和叶轮主轴链接起来,使水平轴的主流风力发电 and can match well with most main stream technology such as cable机,实现了连续对风工作。 loosing and yawing and so on, with flexible collocation and possibility of continuous operating of wind driven generator. This year, international 更为可喜的是,这种方案的兼容性很强,与 wind driven generation exhibition was unprecedented presence among解缆技术和偏航技术等大部分主流技术均能够很好 history.地配套,搭配灵活并且使风力发电机具有连续不间 Our innovation today, worlds mainstream tomorrow. At this grand断工作的可能。今年的国际风力发电展览会盛况空 meeting, I had agreeable talk and discussion with the project professor前,当属历届最大。 from North China Electric Power University. 我们今日之创新our innovation today,世界明 If the main structure of windmill needs to change at large and日之主流worlds mainstream tomorrow.在这次盛 finally comes to adjustment for production relations, it may need a process but it’s better to always follow behind others. What we have会上,华北电力大学的项目负责教授与我聊得颇为 reached consensus is : this should be open patent establishing in public投缘。 benefit, anyone who intends to copy or use for commercial doesn’ 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 31
  18. 18. 技术交流 | Technical Exchange 如果风车的主要结构需要大规模的改动,最后 t need pay for any fee even without application procedure. Except遇到生产关系调整的时候,可能会要有一个过程,但 that someone think it is very import to solve cable winding issue and need patent right, for this case, he can write to me. My additional总比跟在别人家的后面强。我们达成的共识:这应该 point: if friends who are making have any help from me, I will try my是一个立足于公益性的开放专利,任何人仿制或者用 best to assist based on its my hobby to do these things kinds .于商业化用途,都不需要缴纳任何费用,甚至连招呼 On page 36, No.10 periodical 2010 from China Wind Power都不用打。除非有人觉得解决电缆缠绕问题很重要, Information message <five elements causing lower investment并且需要专利权时,才可以给我写信联系。我又补充 value of large wind driven generators from technology analysis说:如果朋友们在制作的时候,有需要我的地方,我 viewpoint > , in the third section <technology analysis causing much将义不容辞。作为爱好,非常乐于干这方面的事; breakdowns>, pointing out at the end: “swing method of electric wires carried by yawing system is the incentive to cause several 《中国风电资讯》2010年10期36页《大型风电 breakdowns”, <technology analysis causing few functions> in机组投资价值不高五大成因之技术解析篇》中的第3 the fourth section also points out at the end “several large power部分【故障多成因的技术解析】,在最后指出“与偏 generation systems must be fixed to ground”…..航系统携带电线电缆旋转的对风方式也是造成故障多 Multi-pole dynamo magneto doesn’t take overdrive gear but的诱因” 第四部分【功能少成因的技术解析】在最 be directe-driven by impeller principle axis, it has large trend to后也指出“而其庞大的多发电机系统必须设置在地 lead future development direction. With large diameter for multi- pole dynamo magneto, like generator in wind driven generator面”... ... with Siemens SWT-3.6-107 type, with power of 3.6MW, outside 多极永磁发电机不用增速齿轮箱,由叶轮主轴直 diameter of 5.5 meters, thickness of 2.5 meters and weight of more驱,大有引领未来技术发展方向的趋势。由于多极的 than 70 tons . engine room should be designed too much space in永磁发电机直径很大.如西门子SWT-3.6-107风机中 order to contain this grand machine. If takes previous scheme say的发电机,功率3.6MW,其外径长达5.5米,厚度2.5 using transmission axis method, moving generator out of engine米重量70多吨。为容纳此巨物,机舱更加庞大。如 room and installing on the top of tower or even arrange under tower drum, even for larger generator like more than 182 poles and with果应用前面提到的方案,通过使用传动轴的办法,把 rotation of less than 10 rounds every minute for multi-pole dynamo发电机从机舱里挪出来,安装在塔筒上或者干脆布置 magneto, which is not necessary to consider installation space在塔筒以下,就算是更加大型的发电机,如182极以 and weight issue, at the same time , it also accumulates beneficial上,每分钟低于10转的多极永磁发电机,也无需考虑 elements for improving carrying capability of tower drum. This安装空间问题和重量问题,对塔筒受力情况的改善, revolutionary nature technology which can’t make cable winding同样积蓄了有利因素。使电缆缠绕不再成为问题的这 become problem finally leads large wind driven generator to run continuously.种革命性技术,最终将使大型的风机,能够做到连续 Three-dimensional animation is rapid and audio-visual in地运行。 terms of description for wind driven generator’s structure. The 三维动画设计在风机结构的描绘上,真是快速直 professional I met this time presented my intention on the screen观。这次遇到的专业人员,将我的意图跃然于屏幕之 easily and only tens of minutes , it’s clear to observe incorporation上,只要十几分钟功夫,图像的任意翻转之下,各个 situation between transmission relation of corresponding positions部位的传动关系与零件的结合情况,一目了然。娴熟 and spare parts. Skilled computer operation and speed impressed me very much, it’s hard to imagine without my real witness的计算机操作手法和速度给我留下特别深刻的印象, experience.如非亲身体会,真是难以想象。 Don’t compromise to issues encountered and continuously to 不向问题妥协,突破这一难题而前进。在机舱空 break through this difficulty to move forward. What we met in terms间利用上面,遇到的却是真正的挑战。 of space using for engine room is the real challenge. 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月32 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  19. 19. 技术交流 | Technical Exchange 提升风电产量 正确使用润滑油是关键 hoW to: Choosing the right Wind turbine lubriCant to oPtimize ProduCtion 作者:弗瑞德·米切尔 埃克森美孚润滑油与特种油品公司,美孚工业润滑油事业部设备建造工程师By: Fred Mitchell, Equipment Builder Engineer Mobil Industrial Lubricants ExxonMobil Lubricants & Petroleum Specialties Company 风能是世界上最丰富的可再生能源之一。风机 One of the most prolific sources of renewable energy is wind的叶片在风能的推动下高速旋转,源源不断地输出 power. Generating electricity by the circular turning blades of a turbine that are propelled by wind, the prevalenace of this renewable energy电能。这种可再生的能源利用模式过去几年在全球 source has, over the past several years, grown dramatically.都得到了迅猛地发展。 In fact, China has potential to become the world’s largest 事实上,中国在风能利用方面潜力巨大。根据 producer of wind power. Its capacity can reach 230 million kilowatts中国资源综合利用协会可再生能源专业委员会的预 by 2020, according to the Chinese Renewable Energy Industry测,中国的风电装机容量到2020年将达到2亿3000 Association.万千瓦。不久的将来,中国有望成为全球最大的风 To ensure that newer and older wind turbines operate reliably力发电生产国。 and are able to produce the maximum amount of electricity, it is imperative that maintenance professionals utilize the proper lubricants. 中国的风电厂在不断提高电力产量的同时,也 The design of a well-balanced wind turbine lubricant is complex. This确保原有的和新装的风机长期稳定地运转,而润滑 article outlines the performance characteristics that maintenance油在其中扮演着重要的角色。风电设备对于润滑油 professionals need to consider when selecting a wind turbine品要求十分严苛,而润滑油参数指标十分复杂,要 lubricant for the main gearbox. By evaluating these product attributes,从市场上众多的产品中选择一款可以兼顾生产效率 maintenance professionals can make a more informed decision when和设备保护的、性能均衡的润滑油产品对于负责风 it comes to selecting the right lubricant for the very demanding wind turbine lubrication application from among those available in the机维护保养的人员来说是极大的挑战。 marketplace.. 美孚工业润滑油的工程师们在长期的实践中 Lubrication Points累积了丰富的经验。根据风机的特点和润滑油的产 While there are several main lubrication points in a wind turbine品属性,他们总结出了极具操作性的指导意见。风 —— main gearbox, ancillary pitch and yaw gearboxes; hydraulic机的维护保养人员们参考这些指导意见后在挑选润 controls for braking and pitch control; pitch, yaw and main bearings;滑油时将更加有针对性,也能更容易做出正确的选 and generator bearings —— the most challenging one to lubricate is generally the main gearbox.择。 The main gearbox is the heart of gear driven wind turbines, as it 一、润滑部位 drives the generator. With their advanced design and construction and 风机有几个主要的润滑部位,包括主变速箱 their overall importance to system performance, it’s no surprise that(main gearbox)、变桨和偏航变速箱(ancillary they are very costly.pitch and yaw gearboxes),制动液压控制和变 For example, when factoring in all expenses, replacing a gearbox浆控制(hydraulic controls for braking and pitch for a 1.5 MW turbine can cost a company more than $250,000, which includes the price of a new gearbox, the crane rental and the lostcontrol),变桨(pitch)、偏航和主轴承(yaw revenue from downtime and manpower.and main bearings)以及发电机轴承(generator Typically, gearboxes come from the factory filled with syntheticbearings)等,在这些润滑部位当中,最最关键的 lubricant that is designed for the turbine to operate for approximately要属主变速箱。 three years. However, the standard length of the warranty now for 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 33
  20. 20. 技术交流 | Technical Exchange 带动发电机运转的主变速箱可以说是齿轮传动型 most gearboxes is only one year. Once the gearbox is no longer风机的心脏。由于对整个系统的正常运作至关重要,主 under warranty, maintenance professionals will be responsible for choosing the replacement lubricant, often called the second fill or变速箱的设计和制造通常都非常先进,也因此往往造价 service fill.不菲;而一旦发生故障,更换主变速箱要付出更高昂的 When considering the potential challenges and costs代价。 associated with maintaining a wind turbine gearbox, it is 举例来说,如果要为一个功率为1.5兆瓦涡轮机更 recommended that maintenance professionals utilize a well-换主变速箱,把购买新变速箱的费用、起重设备租用、 balanced gearbox lubricant that can deliver exceptional protection停工造成的收入损失以及人工费等各项成本都合算进 and performance over the long haul.去,总花费将超过25万美元。 Performance Characteristics Micropitting protection 一般来说,变速箱原厂灌装的都是设计使用寿命 The drive to minimize up-tower weight has resulted in为三年左右的合成润滑油。但现在大多数变速箱的标准 compact gearbox designs that include the use of case hardening of保修期只有一年。这意味着当变速箱的保修期结束后风 the gear surfaces. Case-hardened gears exposed to unpredictable机维护人员将担负起选择替换润滑油(通常称为二次注 winds and loads found in wind turbines (carburized, nitride,油或服务注油)的责任。 induction and flame hardened) are susceptible to micropitting and 考虑到风机变速箱维护中可能遇到的困难以及费 require a gear lubricant that protects against this type of wear. Micropitting is a surface fatigue phenomenon that is primarily用问题,美孚建议设备维护人员采用性能均衡的变速箱 observed in gears and rolling element bearings. Starting within润滑油,这种润滑油可以在长时间为变速箱提供很好保 the first few hours of operation, micropitting can cause numerous护的同时保证变速箱拥有极佳的生产效率。 surface cracks. The cracks propagate at a shallow incline angle 二、润滑油的性能指标 to the surface (usually <30 degrees), forming extremely small ● 微点蚀保护 micropits with a magnitude typically < 10 microns (μ). The 为最大限度的减少塔身上部(up-tower)重量, micropits aggregate to produce a continuous fractured surface. Individual micropits have a size of 5μ - 20μ and depth up to变速箱一般采用紧凑型设计,其中包括齿轮的表面硬化 10μ, making them invisible to the unaided eye.设计。经过表面硬化处理(渗碳、氮化、感应和火焰淬 To put the size of the particles in perspective, the width of火)的齿轮在复杂的气候条件和运行负荷下极易受到微 a human hair is about 40μ. While the size of the micropits may点蚀(Micropitting)的影响。因此选用的齿轮润滑油 seem small, these small pits can reduce gear tooth accuracy and必须拥有防止此类磨损的功能。 even lead to gear breakage. 微点蚀是一种表面磨损现象,主要发生在齿轮和 To minimize the chance of unscheduled downtime and gear replacement, maintenance professionals can use an oil that has滚动轴承上。运转开始后几个小时内,微点蚀作用就能 been formulated to be micropitting. resistant. The micropitting引起表面开裂。这些细微的裂痕以与表面成浅斜角(通 protection of a gear lubricant is measured using the FVA 54常小于30度)的状态不断扩大,继而形成直径在10微 Micropitting Test.米以下的微点。在这些微点的共同作用下,表面的裂 An oils micropitting protection is rated based on its痕又会被继续扩大。一个微点大小在5微米到20微米之 performance during the two sections of this industry standard间,深度最高达10微米,这样大小是什么概念呢?做 test: six sets of increasing loads for 16 hours each and a high load endurance test conducted for 80 hours. Both tests are conducted个比较,人类一根头发大概40微米粗,所以人们无法 at 1500 rpm and C-faced gears are used that are specifically用肉眼看到它们。不过这些微点虽然看起来很小,但它 designed to micropit.们能降低轮齿的吻合度,严重的可导致齿轮断裂故障。 Based on tooth profile deviation, percentage of micropitting 为了尽量避免意外停机和更换齿轮造成的损失, area and weight loss, the oil is graded with a number score维护人员可以使用专门用来防止微点蚀的润滑油。齿轮 and a high/normal/low endurance designation. All major gear润滑油对微点蚀的保护功效的高低是一般通过FVA 54 manufacturers recommend that maintenance professionals use an微点蚀测试(FVA 54 Micropitting Test)来测量的。 oil with a rating of at least ‘=10 high’. It is important to note that micropitting protection of a second 该测试包括两部分,分别是:六次递增负荷,每 fill lubricant will not fix gears that have already started to develop次运转16小时;以及80小时的高负荷耐久实验。这两 micropits. However, the performance feature should be addressed 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月34 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  21. 21. 技术交流 | Technical Exchange个测试都在每分钟1500转的转速下进行,并且使用专门用于 after gears have been replaced to help promote efficient微点蚀测试的C型齿轮(C-faced gears)。 production and prolong the life of new gears. 根据齿形的吻合程度、微点蚀区域所占的比例以及重量 Anti-scuffing and Bearing Protection Scuffing, characterized by material transfer between损耗情况,润滑油被分为不同的等级,用数字和高/中/低耐 sliding tooth surfaces, occurs when there is inadequate film久性来表示。各大齿轮生产商都会建议维护人员使用至少是 thickness of the gear oil and creates metal-to-metal contact“=10 高” (= 10 high) 等级的润滑油。 between gears. If scuffing persists, gears will need to be 需要注意的是,二次注油无法修复之前已经发生微点蚀 replaced prematurely.的齿轮。但一旦更换齿轮后,注入的润滑油可以帮助提高生 The FZG Scuffing Test (DIN 51354-2 mod) measures产效率并延长新齿轮使用寿命。 the scuffing resistance and anti-wear performance using standardized gear-sets under various temperatures and ● 抗磨损和轴承保护 speeds. Lubricants are rated based on their Fail Stage 磨损主要由滑行齿面间的材料移动造成。当齿轮油的油 (FLS). Maintenance professionals should employ an oil with膜厚度不够时就会造成齿轮间金属部件的接触。如果磨损一 ‘FLS>14’.直持续下去,就不得不过早地更换齿轮。 One of the most common areas of gearbox downtime FZG磨损测试(DIN 51354-2 mod)利用标准的齿轮机 is related to bearing failure due to poor lubricant quality and组在不同的温度和速度下测试抗擦伤和抗磨损性能。润滑油 application. The FAG FE8 Four-Stage Test for Wind Turbine Gear Oils measures a lubricants performance on a bearing的等级根据其失效级数(FLS)而定。美孚建议维护人员应 under varying load, speed and temperature conditions. The该使用失效级数(FLS)大于14的润滑油。 four stages of the test are wear test, mixed friction, life test, 由于润滑油质量差而损坏轴承也是导致变速箱停机最 and sludge. Based on the collective results of the four stages,为常见的原因之一。风机齿轮油的FAG FE8四级测试可在不 lubricants are rated on a scale of ‘1’ to ‘5’. A score of同的负荷、速度和温度条件下对轴承上润滑油的性能进行测 ‘1’ indicates that the lubricant provides superior bearing试。该测试的四级分别是磨损测试、混合摩擦、使用期限测 protection. Viscometrics试和油泥测试。润滑油的等级由这四级测试的总体结果从1 Viscometrics refers to a lubricants ability to maintain its到5不等。1级表示该润滑油可为轴承提供极佳的保护。 viscosity over a range of cold and hot temperatures. Wind ● 粘度 turbines are exposed to extremely demanding operating 粘度指的是润滑油在各种高温和低温环境下保持其粘 conditions. From day to night and summer to winter, turbines稠性的能力。风机的运行环境非常恶劣。昼夜轮换、寒暑交 can operate at temperatures as cold as -45° C and as hot as替,风机的工作环境有时低至零下45摄氏度,有时又会高达 80°C. To determine if a lubricant can withstand temperature changes, maintenance professionals can evaluate a products80摄氏度。为了确定润滑油是否能经得住温度的剧烈变化, viscosity index. The viscosity index is tested by using ASTM维护人员可以对产品的粘度指数进行评估。粘度指数可根据 D2270 and indicates a lubricants resistance to changeASTM D2270标准进行测量,它反映了润滑油的粘度对温度 viscosity with temperature. Maintenance professionals变化的抵抗能力。美孚建议维护人员应该选择粘度指数在 should look for products with a score of ‘160’ or higher.160或160以上的产品。 Synthetics offer significant viscometric advantages over 合成润滑油与矿物油基润滑油相比,具有更为突出的粘 their mineral-oil based counterparts and provide excellent lubricity over a wide range of temperatures. For this reason,温性,并且在很多温度环境下都有卓越的润滑能力。因此, synthetic-based products are more prevalent for gearbox合成润滑油在变速箱油中使用得更为普遍。 oils. 例如,美孚SHC XMP320齿轮油的粘度系数为164,这 For example, Mobilgear SHC XMP 320, a high-款高性能的聚烯烃基齿轮油,得到了全世界大部分风机、变 performance PAO-based gear oil endorsed or approved速箱和轴承生产商的认可。 by a large percentage of wind turbine, gearbox and bearing ● 过滤性能 manufacturers worldwide delivers a VI of ‘164’ . 美国齿轮制造商协会(AGMA)指南对主变速箱中的齿 Filterability AGMA guidelines have set forth some very stringent轮油清洁度有严格的要求,原因是保持齿轮油清洁可大大延 requirements for gear oil cleanliness in main gearboxes.长零部件的使用寿命。 Reason being, maintaining a clean oil will increase component 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 35
  22. 22. 技术交流 | Technical Exchange 齿轮油的过滤性能指的是齿轮油在实际的运行条 life dramatically.件下通过过滤器,同时不会堵住过滤器的能力,这种过 An oils filterability, its ability to pass through filters and not clog them under actual field operating conditions, is often times滤性能经常被忽视。标准的过滤性能测试一般都只对表 overlooked. Standard filterability tests typically only evaluate new明或不表明运行条件的新的不含水的油进行评估。大型 dry oil which may or may not be indicative of what the conditions的风力发电厂已经证明,即使按照原始设备制造商建议 are like while in operation. It has been documented at large wind更换频率的两倍来更换过滤器,一年的总体拥有成本也 farms that the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) expense to replace要超过27.5万美元。 filters even as little as twice as often as recommended by your 了解齿轮油里的添加剂对过滤性能的影响也很重 OEM can run well over $275,000 annually.要。过滤性能一般是以微米等级来界定的。在很多情况 It is also important to understand how an oils additive package impacts its filterability. Filterability is generally talked下,会使用2到3微米的肾形回路(Kidney Loop)过滤 about in terms of micron (μ) rating. Often times, 2-3μ kidney器和5微米主过滤器来清洁齿轮油和保护风机变速箱的 loop filters and 5μ main filters are used to clean the oil and部件。正确了解和对待微米等级的过滤材料也十分重 protect wind turbine gearbox components. Care must be taken要。有时候,添加剂可以从齿轮油里过滤出来或有可能 that micron rating and filter material is properly understood and从齿轮油里分离出来,特别是当齿轮油与水混在一起 treated. Sometimes, additives can be filtered out or have the时。另外,湿性和干性的齿轮油的过滤性能是不同的。 tendency to drop out of an oil especially if the oil holds water. Filterability varies in an oil depending if its wet or dry. 为了弄明白影响过滤性能的复杂因素,美孚建议 To understand this relationship, it is imperative to consult your在需要的时候一定咨询润滑油生产商和过滤器供应商, lubricant manufacturer and filter suppliers to find the oil that works在他们的指导下能正确有效地找到最适合的润滑油。 best with the filters in your system. ● 耐水性 Water Tolerance 变速箱里的油不能混入水分。但是,由于风机本 Oil and water in a gearbox should not mix. However, keeping身运行时特点,要使风机里的油和水完全分离几乎是不 oil completely separate from water in a wind turbine is practically impossible due to the inherent nature of how turbines operate.可能的。当叶片在旋转时,变速箱运行的温度高达80 While the blades are turning, gearboxes operate at temperatures摄氏度,而当叶片停止旋转时,变速箱就会冷却下来并 as hot as 203° F (80°C). Then, when the blades stop turning,从空气中吸取水分或湿气。因此,水分难免会进入变速 the gearbox cools down and draws in the moisture or humidity箱。 from the air. So, as it breathes, water enters the gearbox. 这个时候,如果使用耐水性差的齿轮油就会导致 Employing an oil with poor water tolerance can result in油泥和水解。为了防止由于水的缘故造成故障,必须找 residue formation and oil breakdown. To prevent these water- related issues from occurring, it is important to find a gear oil到一种不易吸水但在少量水存在的情况下也能给设备提 that does not have a tendency to retain water but still provides供充足润滑保护的齿轮油。 adequate equipment protection in the presence of small amounts 齿轮油的耐水性特征通过ASTM D1401标准测试进 of water.行衡量,该测试可测量油的油水分离能力,测试标准以 An oils water tolerance characteristics are evaluated by ASTM时间(分钟)表示。美孚建议维护人员应选择15分钟 D1401, measuring an oils ability to shed water. This measurement或更低的齿轮油。 is given in terms of time (minutes), and maintenance professionals should look for an oil with a score of ‘15 minutes’ or less. 风机变速箱润滑油是现代工业世界中最具挑战性 Making the Decision的工业润滑应用领域之一,需要通过尖端的技术来确保 Lubricant manufacturers spend millions of dollars formulating品质。美孚工业润滑油部门投入了大量的资金研发各种 and qualifying lubricants for these demanding applications. Wind润滑油并确保其适用于严苛的工作环境。除了产品的研 turbine gearbox oil is in one of the most challenging industrial发,美孚的工程师们认为帮助风场作出正确的选择同样 lubricant applications in the modern industrial world and requires重要,他们不断分享在工作中的实践经验,旨在帮助风 cutting-edge technology. By evaluating the performance力发电厂掌握在挑选风机润滑油时所需的宝贵经验,从 characteristics outlined in this article, maintenance professionals will gain valuable insights needed in selecting the wind turbine而帮助风电厂提高生产效率,最大限度减少停机时间, gearbox oils that will help increase productivity, minimize并降低维护和零部件更换成本。 downtime and reduce maintenance and component costs. 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月36 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
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  24. 24. www.nanhua.com 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月38 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  25. 25. 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 39
  26. 26. 行业分析 | Industry Analysis 风电基地建设应与调峰配套 Wind PoWer base ConstruCtion shall gear With Peak regulation 作者:陆宇 Author: Lu Yu “并不了网的风电中,90%是缺少调峰电 "Of wind power that cannot be connected to the power grid, 90% is源造成的。” due to the lack of peaking power sources." This was said by Huang Qili, member of the national committee of 说这话的是全国政协委员、中国工程院院 CPPCC, academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, and honorary士、东北电网名誉总工程师黄其励,时间是3 chief engineer of Northeast China Grid, during the National Peoples月初两会期间。 Congress and the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference in early March. 调峰有多重要 在我国,风电并网难是老问题了,也是风 how important is peak regulation电产业的顽疾。 In China, difficulty of wind power connection to grid is an old problem and a stubborn disease for the wind power industry. 在这里举例解释风电为什么需要调峰。 Examples will be given below to explain why peak load needs to be 用户的用电量随时间变化,比如深夜用 regulated with wind power.电量很少,如果发电装置是火电或水电,这时 Users electricity demands change with time. For example, little可以少烧些煤、水闸的门放下一些,从而减少 electricity is needed late at night. If it is thermal power or hydro power,发电量。但是,深夜往往是风力较大的时候, we can burn less coal or lower the water gate to reduce the generation.人们无法让风小一些,多发的风电由于不能储 However, wind usually blows hard at this time. We cannot make the wind drop or store the extra wind power, so it can only be wasted.存,只能白白浪费。 If we have a peaking power source, such as a pumped storage 如果有了调峰电源,如抽水蓄能电站, power station, we can pump the extra wind power generated late at night深夜多发的风电可以通过水泵把水从低处抽到 upwards and store it. When electricity demand surges, we can open the高处,储存起来,待到用电高峰时,再放开水 water gate and generate power with hydro-power generating units. Wind闸,通过水电机组发电。风电变相地储存在了 power is stored in water at a high altitude in a disguised form.高处的水中。 China is now in urgent need of peaking power sources like a pumped storage power station, so a lot of wind power can only be wasted. 我国现在急缺类似抽水蓄能这样的调峰电源,所以很多风电只能浪费。 Peak regulation has become the primary contradiction According to the Regulation Report on Wind Power and PV Power 调峰已上升为主要矛盾 Generation issued by the State Electricity Regulatory Commission in 国家电监会1月发布的《风电、光伏发电 January, in half of 2010, China had over 2.7 billion kWh wind power that情况监管报告》统计,2010年半年中,我国 couldnt be connected to the power grid. Calculating at the minimum wind power price of RMB0.51 per kWh, we wasted nearly RMB 1.4 billion in half有超过27亿度风电无法并网,按最低每度风电 a year. According to what Huang Qili said, RMB1.26 billion in it is wasted0.51元计算,半年中就浪费了近14亿元。按照 due to the lack of peaking power sources.黄其励的说法,其中12.6亿元的浪费是缺乏调 Apparently, the laggard construction of peaking power sources has 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月40 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  27. 27. 行业分析 | Industry Analysis峰电源造成的。 become the primary contradiction in grid connection of wind power. Factors 看来,调峰电源建设滞后已经上升到 like weak grid, market absorption and lack of transmission channels are just foils.了风电并网的主要矛盾,而诸如电网薄弱、 How serious is the contradiction of peaking power sources in China?市场消纳、缺乏输送通道等因素,仅仅是陪 Lets have a look at the opinions of senior experts in the power circle.衬。 Huang Yingju, former assistant chief engineer of Power Dispatching 目前,我国调峰电源的矛盾到底有多严 Bureau under Northeastern Power Administration, said, "I have been working重,我们来听听电力界资深专家们的看法。 on power grid dispatching all my life. Peak load regulation has always been 原东北电管局调度局副总工黄英矩对 a big problems for our country. It is difficult to solve the problem when there记者说:“我做了一辈子电网调度工作,调 is no wind power. Now, with wind power, it is truly misfortunes never come single. "峰一直是我国的大问题,没有风电时都不好 Meng Dingzhong, former professor-level senior engineer of the解决,现在加上风电,真是‘屋漏偏逢连夜 Department of Production under the Ministry of Power Industry, said, "Our雨’。” country adopts a constructing large generating units while restricting small 原电力部生产司教授级高工蒙定中对记 ones policy. It is correct to shut down small thermal power units, save者说:“国家一直实行‘上大压小’政策, energy and reduce pollutant emission. But most of the small thermal power关停小火电,节能减排是正确的,但关停了 units shut down have the function of peak load regulation. We should build alternative peaking power sources while shut down small thermal power的小火电大多承担调峰功能,应该在关停的 units. The large-capacity generating units used now for peak load regulation同时规划建设相应的替代调峰电源,现在是 can only contribute about 50% of their capacity, which is neither economical用大容量机组调峰,只能出力50%左右,不 nor energy-saving. Low-carbon units running in a high-carbon state plus经济也不节能,低碳机组高碳运行,再加上 wind power make peak load regulation impossible at all."风电,根本无法调峰。” It is also learned that because of the critical shortage of peaking power 此外,记者了解到,由于我国奇缺调峰 sources and the inability to meet the changing electricity demands, we have to resort to power rationing. Shen Gencai, former director of the General电源,无法满足时刻变化的用电需求,常常 Office of the Ministry of Water Resources and Power, said that in most拉闸限电。原水利电力部办公厅主任沈根才 cases, power rationing is not because we dont have enough generating对记者表示,拉闸限电在很多时候并不是发 units but because we are short of peaking power sources.电机组不够用,而是缺少调峰电源造成的。 Wind power base construction starts from central eastern area 风电基地建设东中部先行 In such a situation, where our wind power industry should go? Huang Yingju, Guo Xiangrong, Jiang Jianmin, Xia Deming and Du 面对这样的现状,我国的风电应该何去 Yunhua from Northeast China Grid have followed this issue for a long time.何从? They proposed their solutions. 东北电网黄英矩、郭象容、蒋建民、夏 "10GW-level wind power bases are mostly planned from the德明、杜蕴华关注此问题很久了,五位专家 perspective of wind resources. In light of the critical shortage of peaking提出了他们的解决方案。 power sources in our country, we shall develop wind power bases in eastern “千万千瓦级风电基地,多是从风资 and central areas with peaking power sources first, and then develop wind resources in northwestern areas. We have to decide where our priorities源的角度考虑的规划,根据我国调峰电源奇 are."缺的现状,应首先发展东部、中部的风电基 Huang Qili said, "During the 12th Five-year Plan period, we shall地。在调峰电源比较好的地方首先发展,而 particularly strengthen the construction of pumped storage power stations后在陆续开发西北等地的风电资源,做到有 first and carry out studies and application of various energy storage methods先有后,分清轻重缓急。” (chemical power storage, heat storage and energy storage). To change the 与此同时,黄其励认为,“十二五”期 situation of forced unconventional peak load regulation by large thermal间,首先要特别加大对抽水蓄能电站的建设 power units and promote wind power development, we shall reconstruct a certain number of pumped storage power stations. I suggest that pumped力度,同时开展多种形式的蓄能方式研究(化 storage power stations shall account for no less than 10% of total power学蓄电、蓄热、蓄能)和应用。 为改变目前火 sources." 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 41
  28. 28. 行业分析 | Industry Analysis电大机组被迫非常规调峰的局面,推进风电开发, The five experts also suggest that the construction of pumped应补建一定数量的抽水蓄能电站。建议规划抽水蓄 storage power stations is a long cycle and cannot catch up with the rapid development of wind power. In places with gas supply, we能电站应占电源总规模不少于10%。” can change 100-200MW coal-fired generating units shut down at 五位专家进一步建议,因蓄能水电建设周期 power consumption centers of big cities to gas-fired generating长,跟不上风电迅猛发展步伐,在有燃气供应的地 units as backup power sources for grid peak load regulation, reactive方,还可把在大城市用电中心关停的10-20万kW compensation and accidents. This solution requires lower investment燃煤机组改成燃气机组,作电网调峰、无功、事故 and has fast effects.备用电源。投资省,见效快。 Wind power has developed fast for over five years. The issue of 我国的风电高歌猛进了5年多,并网问题已经 grid connection has reached the point where it must be solved. Only with this contradiction solved can wind power go far.到了非解决不可的地步。解决调峰这个主要矛盾,风电才能大有作为。 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月42 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  29. 29. 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 43
  30. 30. 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月44 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION
  31. 31. 2011 年04月·中国风电资讯CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION 45
  32. 32. 奋勇开拓,“精裁”人生Forge ahead bravely, Fine Cut liFe ——和鹰科技助力全球风能产业发展------Yin Science & Technology Boosts Development of Global Wind Power Industry 编辑:贺涛 Editor: He Tao 绿色环保,还地球一片蓝天!这一思想在近 Protect the environment and return blue sky to the earth! This idea has几年已经成为大多数人的共识。国家政策导向性 become the consensus of most people in recent years. National policies guide domestic manufacturers to develop towards "greeness".让国内厂商开始向“绿色”方向发展。 Environmental protection in the context of industry is undoubtedly 在工业范畴的绿色环保,无疑又是以节能减排 developing towards energy conservation, emission reduction,和清洁无污染为主要发展突破口。根据中国科学院 cleanness and no pollution. According to the judgement of the Chinese开展的“中国至2050年重要领域科技发展路线图” Academy of Sciences in the Scientific and Technological Development的判断,能源与资源领域是最可能发生科技革命的 Routes in Major Fields in China by 2050, the field of energy and领域之一。 resources is one of the fields where scientific and technological 风电行业以其清洁、低耗的特性,在最近5年 revolution is most likely to occur. Featured by cleanness and low consumption, wind power中受到国家极力推进,进入了一个高速增长的时 industry is greatly promoted by the state in the last five years and期。2009年我国装机容量2580.53万千瓦,至2010 中国风电资讯·2011 年04月46 CHINA WIND POWER INFORMATION

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