Why Smart Homes??Smart Home Perspective .... 21st Century Integration of 19th Cenrury 20th Century comprehensive Living Elementary tasks based Functional System Environment on Human Capability & Integration makes life Flexibility easier Infotainment Health care
To begin with, the intelligent building concept has been defined by organisations such as :The Intelligent Building Institute Foundation (I.B.I.) in 1989,The European Intelligent Buildings Group (EIBG) in 1998,The Smart Homes Foundation . These definitions highlight :1. the integration of all kinds of building systems, services and controls,2. the importance of techno-economics,3. the needs of the owners and end-users.
Some questions we need to answer to know Smart Buildings…Definition of Smart Building…??What is Smart?What is intelligence?What is human intelligence?What is building intelligence?And then, back to the definition of Smart Building…
Let us understand Bergson’s theory of human intelligence first…"A fundamental role of intelligence is to generatedistinctions that enable an intelligent being to actin its environment according to its capabilitiesand needs;"Bergson says, "Human beings do not only useexisting tools, but also create tools using theirintelligence"The ability of the human intelligence to lendits intelligence to a building was proved byBergson.
Building intelligence is derived from theseven forms of the human intelligence ofGardnersThus, the definition of building intelligence is a function of humanintelligence: HI = f (hiGardner1 ... hiGardner7) where HI is human intelligence, hiGardner is a form of the humanintelligence as defined by Gardner.The definition of building intelligence can be defined to be: BI = f (bi1 ... bin) where BI is the concept of the Building Intelligence, bi is a form of the BI and n is the number of forms of the BI.Bi can be presented as: bi = f (HI) where HI is the human intelligence
The total intelligence of the interplay between the builtenvironment and the end-user is: BIF = f (HI, BI) where HI is human intelligence, the BI the building intelligence.
So now, we can define Smart homes.Smart homes are buildings which have inculcated thisINTELLIGENCE!
Things to be kept in mind whiledealing with Smart Buildings… • No threshold of Smartness.. • Assessed in terms of performance and not technology. • Stakeholders and owner’s requirements are valuable than any other criteria. • Behavioral coordination with the residents’ desires.
Intelligent building Perspective ....any device (Smart Machine) becomes a Point for Service Delivery tothe enterprises Digital Intrusion Video surveillance detection Access control Alarms management Energy / Inventory …. Management Fire alarm
So in short… An intelligent building is one that provides a comfortable andproductive environment to the occupants through automatedcontrol systems such as:• Heating, ventilation, air-conditions (HVAC)• fire safety• security• energy/lighting management.It is one in which these control systemsare integrated and interact with each other. “An intelligent building is also one that integratestelecommunications and control services through one structuredcabling network and management system that meets current andfuture technologies, and building/user demands.”
• A house or working environment, which includes the technology to allow for devices and systems to be controlled automatically, may be termed a Smart Home.• The degree to which this control is exercised is variable, being a function of the cost, the person’s own wishes, and the type of building into which the technology is to be installed.• But consider the freedom of choice.
Other important concepts for smartbuildings: • Transdisciplinarity • Highly interactive • Integration over a wide range • Mapping of user requirements with building facilities • Solving ANOMALIES!!!
Smart Index: There are nine quality environment modules:1. Environmental friendliness2. Life cycle costing3. Comfort4. Safety5. Working efficiency6. Image of high technology7. Culture8. Construction process9. structure
Few other advantages:• "Design for All" concept• Boon for the disabled.• Scalability• Scaled according to stakeholder(usually the occupant)• Workspace management• Ergonomics etc…
Did you know that buildings aresignficant Energy Consumers?
Zero Net Energy Building:ZNEB• Zero Net Energy Building –ZNEB is a popular term to describe a building with zero net energy consumption and zero carbon emissions annually. Zero Net Energy Zero Carbon Emission• Aggregate Renewable Energy=“total use” Grid connected Fully off Grid• Energy Conservation v/s Energy Harvesting• New Constructions versus Retrofits-Home Energy Retrofit
Concern:“How to retrofit buildings in cost-effective way toreduce energy footprint?” Detection of Inefficiencies: Infrared Thermography-Temperature Blower Door Test-Air Tightness Applications: Testing buildings for compliance with standards for energy efficiency Testing building envelopes and window frames for water tightness and rain penetration Duct Leakage Testing of forced air heating/cooling systems Testing residential and commercial buildings for air tightness
Functions of Smart Buildings: Sensing:• Energy usage sensing, occupancy sensing• Spatial and temporal usage within building• Different resolution: cube/zone/floor/department Monitoring Analytics:• learn usage patterns• detect changes, anomalies• identify waste, oppurtunities for conservation Control & Feedback:• actionable recommendation to users• Incorporation of user feedback
In short, Outlet Sensors are fine grained and are meant for Individual Load Usage Monitoring ; Meter sensors provide aggregate home level usage.So, how to disambiguate “Individual Load Usage” from total usagetrace? Non-Intrusive Load monitoring-NILMHelp me find a loop hole with this NILM, once we get to know what isNILM, won’t you?
NILM with Smart Meters:Distinguishably different and sometimes unique Signature for each loadUse pattern recognition, learning, mining to identify signatures from a power usage traceAccuracy depends on sensing resolution• At second-level: many concurrent events can not be discerned• At micro-second: good accuracy possible
Privacy Leakage : NILM NILM inadvertently leaks detailed information about household activities• How about having a privacy preserving Smart Meter Architecture that enables an electric utility to achieve its net metering goals, while respecting the privacy of its consumers.??This is what Smart Meters do!!-Registration,Tuple Gathering andReconciliation.
Networking protocols Wired Powerline:1. X10-Domotics-Industry Standard• Very low bandwidth, limited range (wiring length),primitive MAC layer: no CA, CD• Only 256 devices, no encryption• Signals may leak outside home2. Insteon• Enhancement to X10, backward compatible:• Dual-mode mesh topology: powerline + RF• All Insteon devices are repeaters:USes phase-shift keying to make repetition synchronous• Collisions may occur: Can resend messagesBenefits of Insteon:• Low cost (~$40 per device), More reliable than X10• Non-proprietary• Not solely reliant on wired or wireless
Continued…IP: 6LoWPAN: Ipv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area networkEncapsulation and header compression mechanisms that allow IPv6packets to be sent to and received from over IEEE 802.15.4 basednetworks.IEEE 802.15.4 devices provide sensing communication-ability in thewireless domain.OSIAN, or Open Source IPv6 Automation Network :free and opensource implementation for ipv6 networking in low power devices.Tiny OS is the underlying system-PPP Connection with billing systemand UDP packets are sent.So why 6LoWPAN??
Wireless protocols?Zigbee:• High level communication protocol• Using small, low-power digital radios• Less expensive even than bluetooth• Heard of The ZigBee Smart Energy V2.0 ?• Zigbee Components: • Zigbee Coordinator • Zigbee Router • Zigbee End Device 10-75m range, 1mW radios Device discovery supported 128 bit keys for encryption ZWAVE- another Low power wireless protocol for remote Control
BACnet: Building Automation and Control NETworks • Designed by ASHRAE (1987), ANSI and ISO standard (1995) Widely used in commercial buildings • control HVAC, ventilation and lighting control Discovery service: who-is, I-am, who-has, I-have Ability to read and write properties/objects • analog/binary input/output, events, calendar, program, loop command, device Supports many data-link and physical layer protocols • Ethernet, ARCNET, RS232, BACnet/IP Global Testing lab: SoftDEL, Pune BACnet gateways • front-ends such as HTTP Competitors: LonWorks, Modbus
Do you know? Current practices with HVAC systems. Occupancy Sensing and Smarter HVAC Smart Thermostat Soft sensors: Swipe cards, Wifi Accesspoints,Mobile phones. How do thermostats determine when resident leaves or goes to sleep? Programmable Thermostats Reactive Thermostats Smart Thermostat
Think of this… Demand side Load Management in Smart Buildings. Energy Usage Monitoring Peak Load shaving Foreground and Background Loads Smart Cap:adjust demand to supply Smart cap scheduler based on Slack LSF-Least Slack First Smart Home gateway Battery cap:modulte supply to meet demand Moral of the Story: Reduced Electricity Bills… Happier User
References:VTT Institute’s Paper on Smart homes.IBM’s user manual for IBNiagra’s(Company) BrochureSmart Building Concept Lecture series by Prof.PrashantShenoy(University of Massachusetts Amherst)Wikipedia : outlet sensors,meter sensors, thermography, X10,LONTalk, BacNetDavid Irvin and Kevin Fu: Private memoirs of a Smart MeterSean Barker, Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant Shenoy, andJeannie Albrecht: Exploiting Home Automation Protocolsfor Load Monitoring in Smart Buildings