World lit


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World lit

  2. 2. • Colombia , officially the Republic of Colombia is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the north by theCaribbean Sea; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador andPeru; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Colombia is the 26th largest country by area and the fourth largest in South America after Brazil, Argentina and Peru. With over 46 million people, Colombia is the 27th largest country in the world by population and has the second largest population of any Spanish-speaking country in the world, after Mexico. Colombia is a middle power, and is now the fourth largest economy in Latin America, and the third largest in South America. Colombia produces coffee, flowers, emeralds, coal, and oil. These products comprise the primary sector of the economy. The worlds third biggest bank HSBC has created a perspective on the economic outlook in 2050 where Colombia is seen playing a decisive role in the global economy, especially in the Americas as the number 25 in the world economies measured by GDP.
  3. 3. • Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez born March 6, 1927) is a Colombian novelist, short- story writer, screenwriterand journalist, known affectionately as Gabo throughout Latin America. Considered one of the most significant authors of the 20th century, he was awarded the 1972 Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature, and is the earliest remaining living recipient.1 He pursued a self-directed education that resulted in his leaving law school for a career in journalism. From early on, he showed no inhibitions in his criticism of Colombian and foreign politics. In 1958, he married Mercedes Barcha; they have two sons, Rodrigo and Gonzalo.• He started as a journalist, and has written many acclaimed non- fiction works and short stories, but is best known for his novels, such as One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) and Love in the Time of Cholera (1985). His works have achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial success, most notably for popularizing a literary style labeled as magic realism, which uses magical elements and events in otherwise ordinary and realistic situations. Some of his works are set in a fictional village called Macondo (the town mainly inspired by his birthplace Aracataca), and most of them express the theme of solitude.
  4. 4. One Sunday morning, the village children find a seaweed covered body on thebeach. They play with it until the adults discover the corpse and decide that itmust be given a small funeral and thrown off the cliff which their village rests, intothe sea as they do with all dead bodies. In order to do so, however, they mustclean the corpse before it can be given final rest. The village men carry the bodyup to the village so that the village wives can prepare it for the funeral, then go toneighboring villages to ask if the man was from there. Upon removing the seaplants from his face, they discover his handsome face. The women of the villagebecome attached to him and dream of the wonderful villager he could have been.Eventually, they name the man Esteban, to give him some sort of identity. At oncethey realize his physical qualities and translate how his personality must havebeen. The women believe that he could perform in one night what their husbandscould not in the course of their lives. This leads to a postmortem development ofhis character. The stranger’s body is quite tall, and his face is humble with a firmjaw. Thinking of how he must have had to stoop to enter doorways and how hemust have felt uncomfortable in small chairs makes the women feel pity andsympathy for the man who had not uttered a word. They dress him in a hand-sewnsuit of bridal linen and attach little ‘relics’ for his safety. This includes holy waterjars and nails. Annoyed at the elaborate measures their wives are taking, the menof the village come to take the body. Nevertheless, they too see his face and areawed by the character they see in him. Soon the entire town begins makingexcessive funeral arrangements and one of the village families is chosen to pose ashis relatives and grieving widow. No sooner had the villagers thrust his body fromthe cliff do they realize that one day he may come again. In celebration of the newlife they had discovered, the village men irrigated their bleak and barren land toproduce flowers, and the houses were painted in bright colors to identify Esteban’sVillage and give him a home to which he could return. One day, he returned, andall of the people were happy once again.
  5. 5. • Russia also officially known as the Russian Federation is a country in northern Eurasia.It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earths inhabited land area. Russia is also the worlds ninth most populous nation with 143 million people as of 2012. Extending across the whole of northern Asia, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the worlds largest reserves of mineral and energy resources and is the largest producer of oil and natural gas globally. Russia has the worlds largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the worlds fresh water.
  6. 6. • Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ); known in the Anglosphere as Leo Tolstoy; September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910)[1] was a Russian writer who primarily wrote novels and short stories. Later in life, he also wrote plays and essays. Tolstoy is equally known for his complicated and paradoxical persona and for his extreme moralistic and ascetic views, which he adopted after a moral crisis and spiritual awakening in the 1870s, after which he also became noted as a moral thinker and social reformer.• His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him in later life to become a fervent Christian anarchist and anarcho-pacifist. His ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as The Kingdom of God Is Within You, were to have a profound impact on such pivotal twentieth-century figures as Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
  7. 7. • Once there lived a young merchant named Ivan Dmitri Aksenov with his family in the land of Vladimir, who in his younger days lived life to the fullest by experiencing all the material things world has to offer. Until he got married.•• One summer, he planned to go to Nizhny fair but his wife warned him that she had a bad dream of her husband-- she dreamt about Ivan that he returned from the town with hair of grey. Ivan laughed as if he doesnt care and went on the fair.•• He travelled half way and met a merchant, whom he spent the night drinking tea with and shared an adjoining room in the inn. Since Aksenov is not used of sleeping for long hours he decided to wake up and continued his journey.••
  8. 8. • Along the way of his journey, two soldiers in a troika stopped him, and began asking questions, for the merchant he met halfway on his travel was found dead. Since all evidences of the crime are pointing Aksenov guilty he was imprisoned.•• Learning the sad fate of Aksenov, his wife remembered her dream about Aksenov and was worried and even considered the thought of her husband being guilty. The thought made Aksenov even sadder.•• 26 years in prison made Aksenov a well grounded and God- fearing man. In spite the fact that his family has completely forgotten him, he still serves as a “Grandpa” to the other prisoners. Then came a new prisoner named Makar Semyonich.
  9. 9. • After months of knowing each other, Aksenov discovered that Makar is the one who killed the merchant whom he was told he murdered. He was furious with what he found out but didnt speak or uttered a word about it.•• Until one night, Aksenov heard some earth rolling under where the prisoners were sleeping. He went out and saw Makar. Makar told him not to tell a word about what he had witnessed or else he will kill him.•• When they were led out to work, a soldier noticed a prisoner took of some earth off his boots. The soldier searched for escaping plans and found the tunnel. Then, they asked each of them who knew about this but they denied for they knew they will be killed before the one who did it as Makar warned them. Finally, the governor asked Ivan for he knew he was a just man. But then Ivan said it wasnt his right or his will but Gods to tell such name.•
  10. 10. • Night fell and Makar went to Ivan. He thanked him and felt sorry for what he had done to him a long time ago that made Ivan suffer for all this years. He sobbed as well as Ivan and said that the Lord will forgive you. Makar said that he will confess to the governor so that Ivan would be sent free--back to his home.•• Ivan did not want to go out of prison for he has no family neither home to back to; rather, he waited for his last hour to come.•• In spite of what theyve talked about, Makar Semyonich confessed his guilt. But when the order for Ivan Dmitri Aksenovs release came, he was already dead.