“ Kazakhstan – An overview of the country, people, business, culture and politics”
Terrain: Extends east to west from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oasis and desert of Central Asia. Climate: Continental, cold winters and hot summers; arid and semi-arid. Steppes in the north and center, lowlands in the west, hills and forests in the east, desert and northern tian shian in the south. The terrain in Kazakhstan varies from low-lying plains to mountainous regions high above sea level. The lowlands lie in the north, where they form the southern part of the West Siberian Plain, in the northwest and in the south. They make up one third of the territory of Kazakhstan. More than half of Kazakhstan territory is taken up by plateaus and hills 300 to 400 meters in height. The chains of Altai Mountains and Dzhungarski Ala-Tau reach a height of 4,000 to 5,000 meters and more in Kazakhstan.
It was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence. Relationships and ties with the Russian Federations are very close and significant the same as with the Republic of China. Kazakhstan was for many decades used as a raw materials base of the Soviet Union, the country eagerly participated in the II World War – the Famous 28 Phanfilov Heroes Park with eternal flames – is a grand memorial, devoted to 28 Kazakhstani Tank men headed by Panfilov, who gave their lives for the freedom of the whole Soviet Union. This Memorial of Glory shows the famous words by Panfilov: “The Russia is vast, but there is no where to retreat, Moscow is behind us!” Kazakhstan was the farthest point of the Union to be reached by the Fascists, so all the plants, factories, theaters and even famous Russian balett were relocated to this safe location. Due to this fact, the II World War for Kazakhstan became the period of ravishing development and renewal, as for many other countries around the world. Also it is worth to mention the Stalin regime. In 1937–38, a campaign against alleged enemies of the Stalinist regime culminated in the Great Purge , a period of mass repression against the population in which hundreds of thousands of people were executed. During this period many people from various republics who did not support the regime were exiled to Kazakhstan, far away from the Moscow, being the capital of the whole Soviet Union to explore the Kazakhstan resources. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the Russian Revolution in 1917, Stalin held the position of General Secretary of the party's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 5 March 1953. Before the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, researchers who attempted to count the number of people killed under Stalin's regime produced estimates ranging from 3 to 60 million. After the Soviet Union dissolved (December 25, 1991), evidence from the Soviet archives also became available, containing official records of the execution of approximately 800,000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses, around 1.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390,000 deaths during kulak forced resettlement – with a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories.
Kazakhstan is very ethnically diverse, with only a slight majority of Kazakhstanis being ethnic Kazakh. Other ethnic groups include Russian, Ukrainian, Uzbek, German, and Uyghur. Religions are Sunni Muslim, Russian Orthodox, Protestant, and other.
Charyn Canyon is very large canyon in southeastern Kazakhstan, 193 kilometers east of Almaty, near the Chinese border stretching for a distance of 154 km NE-SW along the Charyn River, one of the deepest rivers of the northern Tyan-Shan. The steep canyon slopes, columns and arches rise to heights of 150-300 m forming whimsical shapes. The 154 kilometer-long canyon is sometimes referred to “ Valley of the Castles ” because some of the oddly shaped rock formations look like battlements and towers. Turgen Waterfalls, Koryaksky waterfall – all in almaty region. tamgaly petroglyphs- Tamgaly is located 120 km to northwest of Almaty . The majority of the 5000 petroglyphs are in the main canyon, but there are a number in the many side canyons. The petroglyphs are mostly Bronze Age , but in some cases from the Iron Age and the Medieval . Tamgaly became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004. Saiga - endemic to central asian steppies anthelope, endangered species Snow leopard (Irbis or puma) also endangered. - became symbol of the winter olympiad for winter sports, called Asiada, held in Astana in 2011! Asiatic Wild Dog and European mink
In imaginative mountains of Zaili Alatau there are hidden several alpine lakes that like a shining mirrors reflecting the sky and mountains on their surface, surrounded on all sides by magnificent mountain peaks. The lakes changes colour depending on the season, from pale green to turquoise blue. Issyk Lake, Koyandy Lake, Kolsay lakes (2 lakes), Bif Almaty Lake, Borovoye Resort, Mangystau region! City of Turkestan is filled with ancient history, monuments, ancient mosques and finest architecture! South Kazakhstan is well known for its ski resorts in the mountains and also foliage in Autumn all over the country – as in New England area of USA. BETPACK Dala – desert in Karaganda region! Ustyurt Platou - The Ustiurtis a undulating structural table plateau. It placed between the peninsula Mangishlak and the gulf Kara-Bogaz-Gol (the Caspien Sea) in the west, the Aral Sea and the delta of the Amu Darya in the east, in Kazakhstan and in Uzbekistan. The area is about 200000 sq.km. The height is to 370 m. The region includes the whole higher step of the plain part of Central Asia and joining it small lowlying plots of the see coasts of the Caspian Sea and the gilf of the Kara-Bogaz-Gol. The plateau is sharply limited by the steep precipices-chinky (a height is 150 m and more) from the adjoining plain spaces. Last image – Zerenda close to Astana, Akmola region! The Aral Caracums is a sandy desert in Kazakhstan to the north-east of the Aral Sea. Its area is 35 ths.sq.km. The relief is plain - undulating, hollow-unlevel and barhan-unlevel alternating small lakes and salines ("sory") in the lowering of the river-beds. Bared and half-overgrown sands are mainly in this district. Sandy soils are the result of weathering an ancient alluvium. The climate is sharply continental. Annual precipitation is from 100 mm to 150 mm. Vegetation is erkekovo-white-wormwood and erkekovo-green-wormwood on the weak-undulating plains. Vegetation is psammofil on the inleven and sandy-unleven sandy soils (a juzgun, a kiyak, wormwood and the oth). In the lowerings, where fresh underground water is near, there are next grasses: a curtiny loha, iv withmezofil grasses (a reed and the oth). There are pastures for small and neat cattles: camels, horses. Water-supply takes place at the expense of the wells and the artesian chinks. Koyamndy lake – high in the mountains, the water is close to freezing temperatures, the lake is very deep, not advised to swim there. Zhosaly - an oasis surrounded by vast steppes, 150 km from Karaganda, center of the country – has mineral springs rich with Iron and other minerals, close Korasor lake and marshes provide “muds” for medical treatment of liver, skin, skeleton and bone problems, etc. The territory has a mineral lake saturated with various elements positively effecting the skin condition, swimming in the lake is very relaxing as the waters are naturally warm. The lake doesn’t have any life in it, as the water is too saturated with Iron and other micro and macro elements, but the water is cristal clear so you can the bottom of it.
Kazakhstan declared itself an independent country on December 16, 1991, the last Soviet republic to do so. Its communist-era leader, Nursultan Nazarbayev , became the country's first president, a position he retains today. President Nazarbayev maintains strict control over the country's politics . Since independence, Kazakhstan has pursued a balanced foreign policy and worked to develop its economy , especially its hydrocarbon industry.  The post-Soviet era has also been characterized by increased involvement with many international organizations, including the United Nations , the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council , the Commonwealth of Independent States , and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation . Kazakhstan is also one of six post-Soviet states who have implemented an Individual Partnership Action Plan with NATO. Kazakhstan is ethnically and culturally diverse, in part due to mass deportations of many ethnic groups to the country during Iosiph Stalin 's rule. Kazakhstan has a population of 16.6 million, with 131 ethnicities, including Kazakh , Russian , Uyghur , Ukrainian , Uzbek , Tatar , and German . Around 63% percent of the population are Kazakhs.  Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion , and many different beliefs are represented in the country. Islam is the religion of more than 70% of the population, while Christianity is practiced by almost all of the remainder. The Kazakh language is the state language , while Russian is also officially used as an equal language to Kazakh in Kazakhstan's public institutions Single mandate districts popularly elect 107 seats in the Majilis; there also are 10 members elected by party-list vote rather than by single mandate districts. The Senate has 47 members. Two senators are selected by each of the elected assemblies (Maslikhats) of Kazakhstan's 16 principal administrative divisions (14 provinces, plus the cities of Astana and Almaty). The president appoints the remaining 7 senators. Majilis deputies and the government both have the right of legislative initiative, though the government proposes most legislation considered by the Parliament. In accordance with the report on the country dated 2008 by Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor under the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights (http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100615.htm) Kazakhstan is very far from being a democratic country, many things still remain to be improved: The Republic of Kazakhstan, with a population of approximately 15.3 million, has a parliamentary system dominated by President Nazarbayev's Nur Otan Party. According to official results, Nur Otan received 88 percent of the vote in the August 18 national elections for the lower house of parliament, winning every seat in the chamber. Local and international observers noted some improvements in the electoral process over past national elections but criticized the elections as falling short of a number of international standards, particularly with respect to the legislative framework and the integrity of the vote counting and tabulation process. The constitution concentrates power in the presidency, permitting the president to control regional and local governments and to exercise significant influence over the legislature and judiciary. Changes or amendments to the constitution require presidential consent. The civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security forces. There were the following human rights problems: severe limits on citizens’ rights to change their government; military hazing that led to deaths; detainee and prisoner abuse; unhealthy prison conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention; lack of an independent judiciary; restrictions on freedom of speech, the press, assembly, and association; pervasive corruption, especially in law enforcement and the judicial system; prohibitive political party registration requirements; restrictions on the activities of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); discrimination and violence against women; trafficking in persons; and societal discrimination.
Akmola was proclaimed the capital of Kazakhstan on 10th December 1997 by the President of Kazakhstan and the Parliament. The international presentation of Astana, as the new capital of Kazakhstan, was held on 10th June 1998. Today the city's territory is over 200 sq. km. Akmola was proclaimed the capital of Kazakhstan on 10th December 1997 by the President of Kazakhstan and the Parliament. The international presentation of Astana, as the new capital of Kazakhstan, was held on 10th June 1998. Today the city's territory is over 200 sq. km. In 1999 Astana was awarded with the medal and title of City of Peace by UNESCO. The first capital of Kazakhstan was Orenburg (now in the Russian Federation) in 1920 then it was moved to Kyzylorda in 1925. The construction of the Turkish railway was the main reason for transferring the capital to Alma-Ata in 1929. The capital was moved from Almaty to Akmola for economic, ecological and geographical reasons. Almaty is too far from the actual geographic center of the country. The population in Almaty is close to 2 million with no further prospects for accommodation. In fact the city is fairly overbuilt, densely populated and has no spare areas for development. Transport is also a problem. Year in year out the ecological condition of the 'southern capital' deteriorates dramatically. It is one of the most polluted cities in Kazakhstan. Akmola was chosen as the best alternative, based on a nation-wide study taking into account 32 parameters including socioeconomic indices, climate, landscape, seismic condition, natural environment, engineering and transport infrastructure, construction facilities and work force. The old buildings that remained from the Soviet era are now being removed and replaced with totally new structures resulting in significant construction work throughout the city. President Nazarbayev has paid particular attention to Astana's architecture; most of the recently completed structures had been accredited to internationally acclaimed architects and designers such as Kisho Kurokawa or Norman Foster .. Foster;s purple Khan Shatyr shopping mall has an indoor sand beach and wave pool on the top floor. DUMAN: The Aquarium of the Entertainment Centre "Duman" is the first and the only in the CIS. This is the only Aquarium over the world, which is located over 3,000 km away from the ocean. The volume of water in our Aquarium is 3 million litres and we needed 120 tons of special sea salt to produce this water. More than 2,000 of sea inhabitants, the representatives of 100 species of sea fauna from different parts of the world, live there. Climatically, Astana is the second coldest capital in the world after Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia , a position formerly held by Canada's capital, Ottawa , until Astana became the capital. Astana is also the coldest place ever recorded in the country of Kazakhstan . Temperatures of −35 °C (−31 °F) to −40 °C (−40 °F) are common in the early winter. The new city is also known to regularly freeze for around six months every year.
Symbol of Astana, the 318-foot monument – Baiterek. According to the legend, Baiterek is the tree of life, the destination of the sacred bird, Samruk. It takes refuge in the tree’s high crown to lay a golden egg - the sun - giving life and hope. According to the legend, Baiterek is the tree of life, the destination of the sacred bird, Samruk. It takes refuge in the tree’s high crown to lay a golden egg - the sun - giving life and hope.
Kazakhstan natural resources Kazakhstan natural resources : The world’s largest reserves of barite, lead, tungsten, and uranium; second largest reserves of chromite, silver, and zinc; third largest of manganese, significant deposits of copper, gold, and iron ore. Kazakhstan current oil reserves: 35 billion barrels (twice as much as the North Sea). Kazakhstan projected oil reserves: 100-110 billion barrels by 2015 (would be in top 3 of the world). Kazakhstan current natural gas reserves: 2 trillion cubic meters. Kazakhstan projected natural gas reserves: 5 trillion cubic metres by 2015.
"the largest oil and gas reserves in the Caspian Sea basin, and is producing 1.5 million barrels of oil a day today. It is projected to produce 2.5-3.5 million barrels of oil a day by 2015. Kazakhstan's combined onshore and offshore proven hydrocarbon reserves have been estimated between 9 and 17.6 billion barrels General religions in Kazakstan The Republic of Kazakhstan is often called the crossroads of civilizations. Since ancient times various religions were formed and developed on the territory of Kazakhstan. Archeologists have found here traces of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism and Tengrism. Modern Kazakhstan, which is a secular state, has more than 4200 active religious associations and communities, belonging to 46 religious teachings. Today there are more than 3,200 churches, mosques ands other houses of worship. In Kazakhstan, there are followers of almost all world religions: Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism as well as ancient polytheistic cultures and modern new religious teachings. Despite the large number of different religions on the territory of Kazakhstan, major part of population is divided into Sunni Muslims and adherents of Russian Orthodox Christianity.
Today Kazakh meal is something different from the old one but still it is imbued with ancient laws of hospitability. On the contrary the hospitability is larger then ever for now because not only Kazakhs but people of various nations (Kazakhstan is a multinational country) have a meal around the dastarkhan: Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Germans, Uigurs, Koreans and more. All these nations made their contribution on Kazakhs cookery. Kazakhstan cuisine includes not only traditional national Kazakhstan dishes but the best dishes of Uzbek, Russian, Tatar, Korean and other cookeries. That’s why Kazakh cuisine saving its national characteristic features has some international features. Mostly Kazakhstan food is made from meat and milk, above all, delicacies made from horse meat such as: shuzhuk (sausage made of finely chopped meat); kazy (sausage from ribs); karta (sausage from the belly); zhaya (boiled rump); zhal (from urthers); steaming kuirdak (from freshly killed sheep); zhaubuirek (a whole carcass of a ram broiled on a spit); syrbaz (a suckling lamb stewed in its own juice); srneh (a whole deep-fried year-old lamb); burmeh (a whole carcass of a ram stewed in its own skin in a hole dug in the earth with a fire made on top of it); beshbarmak (a dressed carcass of a ram or a foal boiled in a cauldron). Kumys – fermented mear’s milk Shubat - fermented camel’s milk
Kazakhs eat at a low table called a "dastarkhan" and the most popular dish has always been the national meat dish, "beshparmak" ("five fingers" because of the manner in which it is eaten). The ancient plates and dishes were made from leather, wood, ceramics. Every family had cast-iron cauldron (kazan) for cooking. The tea was boiled in cast-iron jugs, later in samovars.
Steamed Manti – came from China, stuffing is usually minced or finely cut meat with or without pumpkin! Kuirdak – national dish, made of finely cut internal cow’s gizzards. And samsy , came to Kazakhstan and to Central Asia from India: samosa can have different filling, but usually it is potatoes and meat. Samosa is also a national dish of Uzbekistan.
Lagman – came from Uigurs, that sort of dwelled as nomads between the lands of Kazakhstan and China. Plov – is Uzbek national dish which is very popular within all Central Asia, something like Paelia in Spain but the rice should be non-sticky, raisins and dried apricots are added for flavor. Chack Chack – is the national desert. Sweetened dough is rolled into thin threads that are fried in oil, honey holds the pieces of it together glued to raisins and walnuts.
The traditional Kazakh dwelling is the yurt , a tent consisting of a flexible framework of willow wood covered with varying thicknesses of felt . The open top Shanyrak permits smoke from the central hearth to escape; temperature and draft can be controlled by a flap that increases or decreases the size of the opening. A properly constructed yurt can be cooled in summer and warmed in winter, and it can be disassembled or set up in less than an hour. The interior of the yurt has ritual significance; the right side generally is reserved for men and the left for women. Yurts are also frequently used as a decorative motif in restaurants and other public buildings. Rare movie clip from real life on dastarkhans and yurta installation, and life of the nomads: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FC1SbuNVLcE&feature=related
Flanked by traditional Kazakh dancers, a bride awaits her formal unveiling at an opulent wedding palace, where she has just been married in a ceremony capped by the release of two white doves. The revelry begins when the veil is lifted. National clothes is varied depending on the region people live in. Nowadays of course national clothes is worn on holidays and at parades, although some old people wear simple national clothing also. Last image: The daily wear of young men comprises of the headgear borik , a suede coat, zhargak shapan , decorative belt beldik , suede trousers zhargak shalbar , and high-boots made from suede.
1. "the Gold warrior" has been found out in 1969-70 at excavation of Issyk barrow near Almaty city. This most valuable artifact is dated V-IV centuries B.C. 2. Some decorations. 3. Antique Kazakh Jewelry box, 19th, Western Kazakhstan, silver, gilt, turquoise, chrisoprase 4. Kazakh bride's wedding headdress, 19th, Mangistau Region, Western Kazakhstan, silver, gilt, cornelian, turquoise. It is one of the most valuable 5. Antique Kazakh bracelet, 19th, Kazakhstan, silver, gilt, glass. 6. Antique Kazakh head decoration, 19th, Mangistau Region, Western Kazakhstan. 7. Kazakh Mulla Ritual Knife, it is intended for trimming children. 19th, Mangistau Region, Western Kazakhstan, silver, gilt, cornelian, glass, turquoise. 8. Kazakh tobacco box, 19th, Western Kazakhstan, pumpkin, silver, gilt, turquoise. 9. Kazakh belt ornament, 19th, Western Kazakhstan, silver, gilt, turquoise, cornelian, garnet.
There are four types of Kazakh ornaments: vegetable, animal, geometrical and astrological. Every one has its own meaning. Color is an important part of the ornament. Bright colors are for cheerful mood and prosperity; pale colors for depression and anxiety. White color is dominating in Kazakh ornaments meaning truth and happiness. Clothes decorated with tuyietaban (“camel foot”) ornament is used for distant journey. Kazakh people wishing happiness and independence present things with kus kanat (bird’s wings) . Kempyr kosak (“rainbow”) ornament consists of several colors in rainbow order. The blue color is the symbol of sky (Tengry worship), red - fire and sun, yellow - mind, green - spring and youth. Orkesh (meaning “camel hump”) ornament is used for wishing prosperity and reproduction. Tumarsha ornament is looking like an amulet. It is protecting its bearer from evil eye. Tumarsha ornament is painted on clothes, yurtas and things of everyday life. Oyushy (“master of ornaments”) “ Ornament” in Kazakh people language is named “oyu-ornek” (“oyu” - pattern, “ornek” - tracery). The master of making ornaments is called “oyushy”. Kazakh people respect oyushy very much. Last picture: This 19th-century Star Kazakh carpet was sold for US$188,000 in 2009
http://kazakhrugs.com/history.html Livestock is a very important part of the Kazakh people's life. When two Kazakhs meet, the first thing they customarily say to each other is "Мал-жан аман ба?" which means "Are the livestock and the people all right?." Kazakhs used animal wool in making clothing, carpets, and other everyday accessories. One finds the livestock theme in Kazakh art as well. Ouy-ornek (patterns or ornaments) portray rams' horn, camels' soles, and others. Traditionally, it has been important for women to learn to make folk patterns. Nowadays, although it is not common for any Kazakh woman to know how to make the patterns, it is taught in elementary schools as part of a syllabus. The Kazakh folk patterns symbolize herding, earth, water, and a legacy of nomadic culture. One of the many applications of Kazakh folk patterns can be found in Kazakh carpets. Different colors and shades in carpets have a variety of meanings. Blue indicates the sky, freedom; white: truth, fact, happiness; yellow: knowledge, wisdom, sadness; red: fire, sun ray; green: youth, spring; black: earth, peace. Traditionally, sirmakhs (handmade felt carpets) had white and black colors; later, as the craft developed, bright colors were intergrated. Sirmakhs have been used on the floor as carpets. When Kazakhs moved from place to place, they covered their possessions with sirmakhs on a camel. When the daughter of a family gets married, a sirmakh is given as part of her dowry. It takes one or two months to make such a sirmakh, or any sirmakh, the length of time depending on the complexity. Usually, other women of the family or neighbors assist in making the sirmakh. The whole process consists of several steps, such as refining the wool, dying the wool, and pressing the wool. Several women get together to make the sirmakh, bring their little children to play with other children, have tea, talk, etc. Where does the word sirmakh come from? Sirmakh (сырмақ) – "siru" (сыру): a way of sewing, with very close stitches. In the past, Kazakhs wanted to make sure that the felt carpets they made would last a very long time. Therefore, they used close sewing, as well as pressing the felt after it had been made wet. A well-made sirmakh will last over fifty years. Types of sirmakh Көш сырмақ – was placed on top of a load to be transported when nomadic Kazakhs moved from place to places. Its length was usually three to four meters. Төсеніш сырмақ - was placed on a floor (or on a place of honor), the length being three to three-and-a-half meters. Depending on the size of yurt, this length could be changed. Оталды сырмақ - was the small sirmakh placed before the fire place; two to two-and-a-half meters. (One can easily find smaller sirmakhs than those listed above.)
January 1,2 - New Year March 8 - International Women's Day March 22 - Nauryz Meyramy May 1 - Kazakhstan National Unity Day May 9 - Victory Day July 6 - Day of the Capital August 30 - Constitution Day December 16 - Independence Day There are other religious holidays with varying dates: Ramadan Khait Kurban Khait
Kus-salu - о хота с беркутом – hunting with hawks Kokpar http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9KUgcwEh_cI - show the movie in English about nomads and their games!
Dombra The most popular kazakh musical instrument is the dombra – a two-stringed instrument with an oval or more rarely triangle body. The strings are made from twisted sheep’s intestines. It appeared first when Kazakhs were nomads and thus is hardy and simple in design. It can be played sitting, standing or on horseback. Kobyz Another popular instrument is the kobyz – a bowed instrument with a concave neck and a big dipper-like body with an open upper side, and the lower side of which is tightened with camel leather. A carved stand for strings, which do not touch the neck, is placed on the lower side. For strings and bow (shaped like a bow) people use horsehair. In the past the shamans also used this instrument for making nasal, gloomy and penetrating sounds. The favorite wind instrument was the sybyzgy . It had the shape of a longitudinal flute. It was made of hollow cane or soft kinds of trees by cleaning the inside part. Narkobyz is the largest for of kylkobyz used by shaman Percussion - dabyl , dangyra , kepshik , dauylpaz , shyndauyl http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_QpkcqjZD0&feature=related – music, dombra. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jOr5RQHXXXk&feature=related
Almaty ( Russian / Kazakh : Алматы / Almatı , i.e. "city of apples" or "city of apple trees", under the Russian Empire from 1867 to 1921 known by the Russian name of Верный , Verniy , i.e. "faithful," and under the Soviet Union from 1921 to 1993 known as Alma-Ata ( Russian : Алма́-Ата́ , from the Kazakh : алма alma , i.e. "apple", and ата/ata , i.e. "grandfather"), is the former capital of Kazakhstan and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,348,500 (at 1 September 2008).  This represents approximately 9% of the country's population. Almaty was the capital of the Kazakh SSR from 1929 to 1991 and of independent Kazakhstan from 1991 to 1997. Despite losing its status as the capital to Astana in 1997, Almaty remains the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan. The city is located in a mountainous area of southern Kazakhstan, near the border with Kyrgyzstan . During 1000–900 BC in the Bronze Age the first farmers and cattle-breeders established settlements on the territory of Almaty. During the Saka’s period (from 700 BC to the beginning of the Common Era), these lands were chosen for residence by Saka tribes and later Uisun tribes inhabiting the territory north of the Tian Shan mountain range. The evidences of these times are numerous burial tumuli and ancient settlements, especially giant burial mounds of Saka tsars. The most famous archaeological finds are the Golden man from the Issyk Kurgan , Zhalauly treasure, Kargaly diadem, Zhetysu arts bronze (boilers, lamps and altars). During the period of Saka and uisun governance, Almaty became the early education center. In the 15th–18th centuries, the city was on the way to degradation as trade activities were decreasing on this part of the Silk Road . Notwithstanding, this period was saturated with very important political events that had significant impact on the history of Almaty and Kazakhstan as a whole. It was a period of crucial ethnic and political transformations. The Kazakh state and nation were founded here, close to Almaty. These lands also witnessed the tragic developments related to the Dzungar intervention and rigorous efforts of the Kazakh to protect their land and preserve independence. In 1730 the Kazakh defeated the Dzungar in the Anyrakay mountains, 70 km to north-west from Almaty. It was a critical moment of the Patriotic War between Kazakhs and Dzungars. On 4 February 1854 the modern history of the city began with the strengthening of the Russian piedmont Fort Verniy nearby the Zailiysky Alatau mountain range between Bolshaya and Malaya Almatinka rivers. The construction of the Verniy Fort was almost finished by autumn 1854. It was a fenced pentagon and one of its sides was built along the Malaya Almatinka. Later, wood fence was replaced with the wall of brick with embrasures. Main facilities were erected around the big square for training and parading.  In 1855 the first displaced Kazakh appeared in Verniy. Since 1856, Verniy started accepting Russian peasants. They founded the Bolshaya Almatinskaya Stanitsa (Cossack village) nearby the fortification. The inflow of migrants was increasing and led to construction of the Malaya Almatinskaya Stanitsa and Tatarskaya (Tashkentskaya) sloboda. It was the place of settlement for Tatar mechants and craftsmen. In 1867 the Verniy Fort was transformed into the town and called Almatinsk . However, the population did not like the new name of the town and soon the town was renamed as Verniy.
Kazakhstan anatoliy solnyshkin
The Republic of KazakhstanBy Anatoliy Solnyshkin, E. Muskie Scholarship holder, UMASS-Amherst, MA CPPA
Kazakhstan Map North Centre East West South Territory - 1,053,000 sq. mi – 4xTexas, 23xPA 9th largest country in the world by territory World’s largest landlocked country: bordered by Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan Source: National Statistics Agency
The country history in brief Native Kazakhs are a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. In the end of 18th century Kazakhstan became a province of the Russian Empire and in 20th a Soviet Republic, following the October Revolution initiated by Vladimir LENIN and his Bolsheviks (Communist Party in future). During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstans northern pastures. A lot of immigrants from other Soviet republics came to Kazakhstan. In 1991 Kazakhstan became independent.
People Population: 16.6 million Urban: 52.8%; Rural 47.2% Density – 15 people per sq.mile Life Expectancy: 68 years Literacy Rate: 99.5% Ethnic groups: Kazakhs 63%, Russians 22%, other 15% (131 in total) Religion: Muslim (70.2%), Russian Orthodox (26.6%), other (3.2%)
Baikonur Cosmodromeis the worlds first and largest operational space launch facility It was originally built in the Soviet Union in late 1950s as the base of operations for its space program. It remains a busy space port, with numerous commercial, military and scientific missions being launched annually.
Hockey in KazakhstanHockey players raised in Ust-Kamenogorsk hockey school : Vitaliy Yeremeyev – New York Rangers Nikolay Antropov – Atlanta Thrashers Vitaliy Kolesnik – Colorado Avalanche Yevgeniy Nabokov – New York Islanders Konstantin Shafranov – Fort Wane Comets