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component 1 defining the act of project management.pdf

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component 1 defining the act of project management.pdf

  1. 1. Project management for Masters students DS 13th June- 29 Juin 2014) By MASENGESHO KAMUZINZI (PhD) UR/CASS
  2. 2. Components to be discussed • Component1: Defining the concept of project management • Component 2 . Theorizing Act of Project Management • Component 3: Project management as an applied science : a practical framework • Component 4: Project initiation process • Component 5: Brief discussion on project planning and implementation, monitoring and evaluation
  3. 3. COMPONENT1: DEFINING THE CONCEPT OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT
  4. 4. Indicative content - What is a Project? - Why is the concept of project important? - Characteristics of a Project; - Project Levels - Classification of Project
  5. 5. 1. what is a Project? • 1. Introduction : • The first objective of this component is to develop a common understanding on the concept of “project management”. • As you move on ahead in your career, you will likely face (most of you have yet faced) more complex managerial challenges. • In your daily activities as public or private servants, you always deal with challenging cases implying complex decision making, dealing with diversified issues and some time with exceptional cases, using predefined (and even unconventional) resources... • As far as the management of project is concerned, these challenges may involve:
  6. 6. • The coordination of different people with different specialties; • The completion of many tasks in precise sequences of time; • The expenditure of a predefined budget (sometimes with “rigid” items); • The respect of diversified external standards set up by different institutions; • The respect of challenging deadlines, etc; • At the end, these challenges can create uncertainty while a project is supposed to run according to a predefined rational plan.
  7. 7. • 2. Some definitions • Economists , bankers and other fund suppliers define generally a project as “the smallest unit of investment composed by well defined activities to be considered in the case of programming.” (see for example PPBS initiated by military organizations); • Project is any item of investment: • (1) aiming at achieving well defined objectives; • (2) Involving well defined activities to be implemented in a specific period of time; • (3) Using predefined resources to attain well defined outputs that can be evaluated separately.
  8. 8. • A project can be also understood in terms of economic development behavior as a purposeful and minimum sized unit of activities, implemented in a specific location, with a specific budget and that set in motion a sequence of further development moves. • In public sector, a project can be understood as an instrument/a practical intervention designed to link policy and programme objectives to a specific problem faced by a particular group of beneficiaries of these policies. It is designed to deliver measurable benefits to this specified targeted group. • New projects usually contain a great deal of risk, uncertainty, and complexity that need to be managed carefully. • Finally, we can define the project as a well defined work-plan devised to use specific resources to achieve specific objective(s) within a specified period of time.
  9. 9. • In sum, the four basic attributes of a project are: • a course of action-work-plan; • specific resources; • specific objectives and activities; • definite time perspective. • Discussion: what is the link between project management and classical management as defined by F.W. Taylor (1911)?
  10. 10. 3. Why is the concept of projects important? • Poor implementation of development programmes can be traced to poor preparation, implementation and monitoring of projects. • The coordination of many different people, the completion of many tasks in precise time, and the distribution of scarce financial resources to realize targeted activities require deep understanding of the concept of project and its implication in practice. • Projects are catalytic agents of economic development. In that sense, they initiate the process of development, production, employment and income generation.
  11. 11. • In a context dominated by new public management philosophy, where efficiency, effectiveness and accountability are becoming keys values highly legitimated in public institutions, public management based on programmes that are “operationalized” in well defined projects (with long term objectives) are good way of organizing complex activities, setting substantial objectives, rationalizing resources and orienting the implementation, monitoring and evaluation in order to attain the expected outcomes. • In this perspective, well defined projects contribute to improve the management of existing units as their provide the framework of the future activities of the organization . • In a context of dependence on external resources, projects are good way of clarifying the needs (rational diagnosis), defining the objectives, costing the activities to be done, etc. • In this perspective, well defined projects are good instruments of negotiation of external funds.
  12. 12. 4. Characteristics of a Project • Though, various connotations have been given to the concept of a project, most of them have four basic characteristics: a. Investment pattern; b. Benefits or gains; c. Time limit; and d. Location. • In short, “the project is an economic activity with well-defined objectives and having a specific beginning and end.” • It should be amenable to planning, financing and implementation as a unit where both costs and returns are measurable.
  13. 13. • From the point of view of resource allocation, a project can be considered as: “A proposal involving capital investment for the purpose of developing facilities to provide goods and services”. • The goods or services, which the project seeks to provide, differ widely. A project may involve: - The establishment of one stop center providing medical, psychological, legal support to victims of sexual or domestic violence; - The development of a traffic police software enabling UR or te Mineduc to collect and analyze the statistics on a number of issues (finance, admission rate, dropout, etc). - The provision of additional training facilities to a particular group of beneficiaries; - The provision of additional of specialized medical services in the CHUB, etc
  14. 14. 5. Project Levels • Project work in its broadest sense takes place at three levels: • At the national level, where national investment plans are formulated, priorities among sectors are established, and the Macroeconomic framework of policies for economic growth is put in place ( in Rwanda we use to say inkingi za politiki ya Leta). • At the sector level, where priorities for investment within each sector are determined and the issues and problems affecting the development of the sector are addressed. • At the project level, where individual projects are identified, prepared, and implemented and attention is given to their technical, economic, financial, social, institutional, and other dimensions.
  15. 15. 6. Some classification of projects • There is different types of classification of projects • 6.1. Classification based on the possibility of rational quantification • Quantifiable projects: e.g. industrial development, power generation, road construction; • Non-quantifiable project: e. g projects involving for example psychological wellbeing, quality of education, • 6.2. “Sectoral” classification based • Security services • Agriculture & agriculture related sector • Irrigation and Power sector • Industry and Mining sector • Transport and Communication sector • Social Service Sector • Miscellaneous..
  16. 16. 6.3. Classification based on techno-economic characteristics: • Projects are sometimes classified on the basis of their techno- economic characteristics, useful in facilitating the process of feasibility appraisal: • Capital intensive or labour intensive projects ; • Balance of investment in machinery and in human resources; • Human resources based or raw materials based projects depending on the availability or none-availability of certain goods, services, skills, etc. 6.4. Classification based on size: Large –scale, medium scale, or small-scale projects depending on size of total project investment.
  17. 17. 6.5. Classification based age and experience: e.g. - New Projects - Expansion Projects - Modernization Projects - Diversification Projects 6.6. Services based classification : e.g. - Welfare Projects - ICT Service improvement projects - Research and Development Projects - Educational Projects, etc.
  18. 18. 7. Some keys aspects used to evaluate the relevancy of a project 7.1. Preliminary aspect: • 7.1.1. Product/service characteristics • i. Choice of a product/service • ii. Technical characteristics of the product/service • iii. Uses of the product/service • 7.1.2. Human aspects (preferences) • i. Consumer /stakeholder preferences • ii. Nature of competition/ contestation • iii. Potential demand
  19. 19. • 7.1.4. Technical aspects • i. Location • ii. Scale of operation • iii. Manufacturing process • iv. Plant and machinery • v. Plant layout • vi. Work schedule • 7.1.4.Financial aspects • i. Expenditure on fixed assets • ii. Current assets • iii. Working capital • iv. Short and long-term finance
  20. 20. • 7.1.5. Economic • i. Utility to society • ii. Employment generation • iii. Additional development • iv. Social benefits
  21. 21. 7.2. Feasibility Aspect • 7.2.1.Financial viability • i. Costs and benefits • ii. Risk characteristics • iii. Viability • 7.2.2 Profitability • i. Short term Profits • ii. Medium term profits • iii. Long term profits • 7.2.3.Financial Projections: • I. Sources and use of funds
  22. 22. • 7.2. Socio-economic desirability • i. Social goals • ii. Desirability of the project from the larger social angle • iii. Returns. • Conclusion on point 7: The evaluation of the relevancy of a project needs the combination of multiples competencies from different department and even from external expertise.
  23. 23. 8. General principals of project management • 1. Ideally, a project management should satisfy three conditions. First it should complete all project objectives within due date/time. Second, a project should be completed within original budget. Third, it should maintain a standard of quality that satisfies stakeholders. • 2. Project management should be based on good planning. A detailed and precise plan is the essential factor for successfully managing a project. Planning should also accommodate changes in environment. A person in charge of the project should continuously update his/her plan in line with recent changes. • 3. Project team members should share a sense of planned work. As managing a project is an endeavor against limited time and budget, team members should make concerted efforts to complete a project. A system should be in place to continuously remind team members of deadlines and objectives.
  24. 24. • 4. Transparent communication is indispensable. A project manager and team members should be crystal clear about the expected final outcomes of a project and this is impossible without good communication. Any hint of vagueness about project objectives should be eliminated through good communication. • 5. Balanced responsibility and authority is a must for a successful project manager. A project manager with many responsibilities but not sufficient authority or a project manager with little responsibilities but with too much mandate both negatively impacts upon project outcome. • 6. Successful management of a project cannot be guaranteed without the best staff. A project manager should be allowed to let go less than average people from project team members. Presence of the good workforce can compensate for lack of time or money. Needless to say, a project manager should foster an environment where team members have necessary tools and training.
  25. 25. • 7. The project status should be closely followed and shared among project team members. Important issues, progress and assumptions should be recorded and shared. Poor documentation is the same as no progress has been made with the project. Regular reviews of project status can enhance project quality and pin down problems before they get out of hand.
  26. 26. Individual work • Reading carefully the article “Leveraging Coordination in Project- Based Activities: What Can We Learn From Military Teamwork? “ • Summarize in 10 points lessons

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