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Note01 extra3


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Note01 extra3

  1. 1. Chapter 3
  2. 2. Chapter Module 3A System Software Module 3B Programming Languages System Software and Software Development 3
  3. 3. System Software <ul><li>Operating Systems (OS): The Computer’s Traffic Cop </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring Popular Operating Systems: A Guided Tour </li></ul><ul><li>System Utilities: Tools for Housekeeping </li></ul>Module A
  4. 4. Operating Systems The OS is much like a computerized version of a traffic cop, standing at the intersection of the computer’s hardware, application programs, and the user. System Software Module A <ul><li>kernal/supervising program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memory resident </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Operating Systems <ul><li>Managing Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single-tasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreground application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>background application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiprocessing </li></ul></ul>System Software Module A
  6. 6. Operating Systems System Software Module A The OS manages programs, parcels out memory, deals with input and output devices, and provides means of interacting with the user
  7. 7. Operating Systems <ul><li>Managing Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>partition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>virtual memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>swap file </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handling Input and Output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>device drivers </li></ul></ul>System Software Module A
  8. 8. User Interface <ul><li>Types of User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>command-line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>menu driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphical user interface (GUIs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User Interface functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gain access (log on) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start (launch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage disks and files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shut down safely </li></ul></ul>System Software Module A
  9. 9. Exploring Popular OS <ul><li>Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox PARC & the first GUI </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows 3.x </li></ul>Module A System Software
  10. 10. Exploring Popular OS <ul><li>Microsoft Windows 95 and 98 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows CE </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul>Module A System Software For the latest on Linux, visit Linux online
  11. 11. System Utilities: Tools for Housekeeping <ul><li>Backup utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Antivirus software </li></ul><ul><li>File compression utilities </li></ul><ul><li>File defragmentation programs </li></ul>Module A System Software
  12. 12. Antivirus Software System Software Module A Norton AntiVirus is a utility that works by examining all the files on a disk, looking for the tell-tale &quot;signatures&quot; of virus code
  13. 13. Programming Languages <ul><li>First Generation : 1s and 0s </li></ul><ul><li>Second Generation: A little Easier </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation: Programming Comes of Age </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Generation: Getting away from Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Object Oriented: A Revolution in the Making? </li></ul><ul><li>A Guide to Programming Languages: One Size doesn’t Fit All </li></ul>Module B
  14. 14. Programming Languages <ul><li>First Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>machine language: 1s and 0s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>machine dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assembly language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low-level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mnemonics </li></ul></ul>Programming Languages Module B
  15. 15. Third-Generation Languages (3GL) <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high-level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compilers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>source code/object code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low-level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpreters </li></ul>Programming Languages Module B
  16. 16. Third-Generation Languages (3GL) <ul><li>Spaghetti Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>software crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure Programming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pascal/Algol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low-level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modular Programming </li></ul>Programming Languages Module B
  17. 17. Fourth-Generation Languages (4GL) <ul><li>report generators </li></ul><ul><li>query languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Query Language (SQL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>natural language </li></ul>Programming Languages Module B
  18. 18. Object-Oriented Programming: A revolution in the making <ul><li>Eliminating the program vs data distinction </li></ul><ul><li>What is an object? </li></ul><ul><li>Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Application Development (RAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Middleware </li></ul>Programming Languages Module B
  19. 19. A Guide to Programming Languages <ul><li>COBOL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>business programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Y2K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fortran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific/mathematical/engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good for complex problems </li></ul></ul>Programming Languages Module B Learn more about COBOL by reading the FAQ located on the Oxford University Library Automation Service
  20. 20. Structured & Modular Languages <ul><li>Ada </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Basic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>event-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vbscript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ActiveX controls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pascal </li></ul>Programming Languages Module B
  21. 21. Object Oriented Languages <ul><li>Smalltalk </li></ul><ul><li>C and C++ </li></ul>Programming Languages Module B A simple C++ program that prints Hello World to the screen If you’re thinking about a career in computer science, C++ is the language to learn. For more information see the C++ Virtual Library and C++ FAQ Lite # include <iostream.h> void main () { cout <<“Hello World!”;
  22. 22. Object Oriented Languages <ul><li>Java </li></ul><ul><li>JavaScript </li></ul>Programming Languages Module B Simple Java code To learn more about Java, visit Java’s home page at Sun Microsystems class Hello World { public static void main (String args { } ) { System.out.println (“Hello World!”) }