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Note01 extra1

  1. 1. Chapter 1
  2. 2. Chapter Module 1A Computer & Information Literacy Module 1B A History of Computer Technology 1
  3. 3. <ul><li>Why study Computer & Information Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing Personal Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding What Computers do </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Computers </li></ul><ul><li>The World of Computer Software </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing Information Systems </li></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  4. 4. Think about what you’ve done today, and see how many activities you can name that involve a computer in one way or another. Why Study Computer & Information Literacy Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  5. 5. Computer Literacy Computer & Information Literacy Module A An information-literate person Knows how to gather information, evaluate this information, and make an informed decision Knowledge of computer and Internet use
  6. 6. Information Literacy Computer & Information Literacy Module A Businesses have gone far beyond the stage of putting computers on everyone’s desk. They are now building advanced computer information systems.
  7. 7. Information Literacy Computer & Information Literacy Module A <ul><li>Individual responsibility has increased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pension plan decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doctors let patients decide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>managed health care decisions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Need for Critical Thinking Information literacy requires critical thinking, the capacity to evaluate the quality of the information you’re getting. Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  9. 9. What Is a Computer? <ul><li>electronic devices that, under a program’s direction and control, perform four basic operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  10. 10. Computer Program Computer & Information Literacy Module A A list of instructions, written in a programming language, that tells the computer what to do.
  11. 11. Computer System <ul><li>Hardware: The physical components of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Software: The programs that run on the computer. </li></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  12. 12. Personal Computers Computer & Information Literacy Components of a typical microcomputer system Module A
  13. 13. Understanding What Computers Do Computer & Information Literacy IPOS cycle: input, processing, output, and storage Module A
  14. 14. Connectivity Computer & Information Literacy Much of what’s happened in computing during the last decade can be summed up with this one word, connectivity. The World Wide Web (WWW) has millions of Web sites. Module A
  15. 15. Types of Computers <ul><li>Computers for individuals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional workstations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network computers (NCs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notebook computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subnotebooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistants (PDA) or handheld computer </li></ul></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  16. 16. Types of Computers <ul><li>Computers for Organizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supercomputer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mainframe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minicomputer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>server </li></ul></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A Server
  17. 17. The World of Computer Software <ul><li>System Software: all the programs that help the computer function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operating system (OS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application Software: all the programs you can use to perform a task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>productivity software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>special-purpose programs </li></ul></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  18. 18. Computer System <ul><li>Hardware: The physical components of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Software: The programs that run on the computer. </li></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  19. 19. Introducing Information Systems <ul><li>Information Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>customized hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data central to company’s mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trained users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>procedures </li></ul></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A These managers are reviewing the information system at the Memphis FedEx facility
  20. 20. Information Systems <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making it happen The challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving customers needed information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushing order entry out of the enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring quality service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding technology and marketing </li></ul></ul>Computer & Information Literacy Module A
  21. 21. <ul><li>The First Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of Modern Computing </li></ul><ul><li>The First Generation </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Generation </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Generation </li></ul><ul><li>The Fourth Generation </li></ul><ul><li>A Fifth Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul>A History of Computer Technology Module B
  22. 22. The First Computers Module B A Historical Perspective The abacus, known to have existed in ancient Babylonia and Egypt, remained in widespread use in the Far East until recently.
  23. 23. The First Computers <ul><li>Jacquard’s Loom: programmed a loom </li></ul><ul><li>“ Babbage’s Folly”: first fully modern computer design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference Engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical Engine </li></ul></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective
  24. 24. The First Computers Module B A Historical Perspective Augusta Ada Byron, the world’s first computer programmer, played a key role in formulating the notion of programming the Analytical Engine.
  25. 25. The First Computers Module B A Historical Perspective In 1991, the London Science Museum built the Difference Engine using Babbage's plans, as shown in this woodcut. It worked perfectly.
  26. 26. The First Computers <ul><li>Hollerith & the Automated Census Bureau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invented an electronic punching device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>founded Tabulating Machine Co. which became IBM </li></ul></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective Hollerith’s punched-card tabulating machines are the predecessors of today’s business machines.
  27. 27. Foundations of Modern Computing Module B A Historical Perspective ENIAC , created by Dr. John Mauchly & J. Presper Eckert, for use in the war but was not completed in time. It was mainly used to solve math problems
  28. 28. The Stored Program Concept Module B A Historical Perspective The computer program, as well as the data, is stored in the computer’s memory.
  29. 29. The First Generation 1950s Module B A Historical Perspective The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes. Vacuum tubes failed frequently so first generation computers did not work most of the time.
  30. 30. Module B A Historical Perspective Eckert and Mauchly delivered the first UNIVAC to the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951. UNIVAC gained fame when it predicted Eisenhower as the winner of the 1952 U.S. presidential election.
  31. 31. The First Generation <ul><li>Features of UNIVAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easier to use (than ENIAC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer vacuum tubes (more reliable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stored program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>general-purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used machine language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IBM 701 </li></ul><ul><li>IBM 650 </li></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective
  32. 32. The Second Generation Early1960s Module B A Historical Perspective The transistor heralded the second generation of computers
  33. 33. The Second Generation <ul><li>Features and Advancements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>still use punch cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used printers, tape storage, & disk storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used high-level programming languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COBOL & FORTRAN introduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IBM 1401 </li></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective
  34. 34. The Second Generation <ul><li>Electronic Recording Machine -- Accounting (ERMA) </li></ul><ul><li>American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) </li></ul><ul><li>IBM System/360 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>line of compatible computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instruction set enabled to be used for both business and science </li></ul></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective
  35. 35. The Third Generation (Mid 1960s to Mid 1970s) <ul><li>Advancements and Milestones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used timesharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accessed remotely by terminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used integrated circuits (small, medium, to large-scale integration) resulting in lower cost </li></ul></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective Integrated chips
  36. 36. The Third Generation <ul><li>More Advancements and Milestones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEC’s minicomputer, the PDP-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many different programming languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM “unbundled” its systems </li></ul></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective
  37. 37. <ul><li>Still More Advancements and Milestones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide-area networks (WAN) developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARPANET implemented Internet protocols (TCPIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local area networks (LAN) developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframes (proprietary)/minicomputers (open architecture) </li></ul></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective
  38. 38. The Fourth Generation (1975-1991) <ul><li>Advancements and Milestones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employed very-large-scale integration (VLSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developed Intel 4004, first microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Computer founded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM introduced the Personal Computer (PC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM compatibles or clones introduced </li></ul></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective
  39. 39. The Fourth Generation Module B A Historical Perspective The first IBM PC was released in 1981. Intel provided the microprocessor chip and Microsoft Corporation provided the operating system
  40. 40. The Fourth Generation Module B A Historical Perspective Apple Computer IBM Interfaces Intel Motorola Macintosh PC The first GUI was developed at Xerox Corporation’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)
  41. 41. Module B A Historical Perspective Apple Computer IBM Macintosh was the first commercial personal computer to offer a user interface Microsoft’s Windows 98 is a popular GUI designed for IBM-compatible microcomputers
  42. 42. A Fifth Generation? Module B A Historical Perspective Experts have forecast that the hallmark of the fifth generation will be artificial intelligence (AI), in which computers exhibit characteristics of human intelligence. AI has been slow in coming.
  43. 43. A Fifth Generation? Module B A Historical Perspective Technologically, we’re still in the fourth generation, in which engineers are pushing to see how many transistors they can pack on chip. This effort alone will bring some of the trappings of AI.
  44. 44. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Purposes served by technologies cannot be foreseen by designers </li></ul><ul><li>Developing faster hardware is easier than developing good software </li></ul><ul><li>A company is wise to create products that conform to published, non-proprietary standards </li></ul>Module B A Historical Perspective