Chapter03

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Chapter03

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Multimedia Hardware OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. state the importance of standardisation in the development of multimedia presentations; 2. name the basic hardware including the input and output devices and the existing storage mediums in a multimedia personal computer; and 3. list the specifications of multimedia computer that you wish to buy based on price, system performance and needs. INTRODUCTIONDo you know why it is important for us to know the hardware required for amultimedia computer system? This is because without the hardware, we will notbe able to enjoy interesting videos, animated graphics, texts or colourful picturesand etc. Besides that, knowledge about computer hardware is essential to enableus to work more confidently with multimedia elements. Therefore, this chapterwill explain about the basic hardware including input, output and storagedevices required by a multimedia computer. 3.1 MULTIMEDIA COMPUTER SYSTEM STANDARDSDo you know that standardisation is vital in a computer system? Perhaps youmay be wondering why this is necessary. Let us imagine that you area multimedia software developer and you are faced with the problem of how to
  2. 2. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 43determine a programs specifications that is being developed for the currentmarket. If there is standardisation for the multimedia computer system, then forsure your task will be much easier to be accomplished.To solve the above problem, in 1991, the Multimedia Marketing Councilannounced a standard of uniformity or guidelines for a personal computersystem. This standard was known as the Multimedia Personal Computer (MPC)specifications and targeted at personal computers operating on the Windowsoperating system. It was later known as Level l Specification. Personal computerhardware manufacturers who fulfilled the required specifications prescribed byMPC were allowed to use the MPC logo.In 1993, MPC Level 2 was introduced and two years later, in 1995, MPC Level 3was announced. This MPC Standards emphasised on speed and the systemscapacity, quality of the colour and resolution of the monitor, the speed of the CD-ROM and also the audio and video cards being used.The standard specifications became the main reference to avoid confusionamong manufacturers of hardware, software and also consumers. The followingdepicts a few minimum specification differences at each level. Table 3.1: Minimum Specifications of MPC Level 1, 2 and 3 Components MPC Level 1 MPC Level 2 MPC Level 3 Processor 386SX 16MHz 486SX 25 MHz Pentium 75 MHz Main memory 2 MB 4MB - 8MB 8MB - 16MB Hard-disk 30MB 160MB 540MB 150 Kbps rate of 300 Kbps rate of 600 Kbps rate of Hard-disk driver data transfer data transfer data transfer Audio 8 bit digital audio 640 X 480 pixel 16 bit quality CD 640 X 480 pixel 640 X 480 pixel 640 X 480 pixel Video display 6 colours 65,536 colours 16 million colours Exercise 3.1 In your opinion, why is uniformity or standardisation required in a personal computer system?
  3. 3. 44 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENT3.2 BASIC HARDWARE OF A MULTIMEDIA COMPUTER SYSTEMDuring the 1980s, computers comprised of a few basic components or hardware,which were the central processing unit (CPU), input device such as the keyboardand mouse, and output device such as the monitor and printer. Since multimediatechnology was introduced a few years ago, computer hardware that displaymultimedia characteristics, have increased. Among the hardware that emergedafter the introduction of multimedia technology were the compact disc read-only-memory (CD-ROM), sound card, speakers and video card.The rapid development of multimedia technology has pushed multimediahardware to be faster and more sophisticated. For example, in the past we onlyneed 4MB of RAM (Random Access Memory) for a multimedia system but nowwe need at least 64MB for a multimedia computer system. It is the same withother multimedia equipment. Just imagine if you were to use a Level 1multimedia computer for a multimedia display such as watching MPEG (MotionPicture Experts Group) films, this system will definitely not work. Figure 3.1: Multimedia computerThe following contain brief discussions on several basic hardware that arerequired in a multimedia computer system. Further information about thishardware is available in the Basic Concepts of Information Technology Module,Open University Malaysia.
  4. 4. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 45 Figure 3.2: Basic Hardware of a Multimedia Computer System REFERENCES If you wish to increase your knowledge regarding the central processing unit, input, output and storage devices, you can refer to Unit 1: Chapter 2, 3 and 4 in the Basic Concepts of Information Technology Module, Open University Malaysia.3.2.1 MicroprocessorThe microprocessor is the most important hardware in a multimedia computersystem. It is the "heart" of a multimedia computer. Without it, all data processingcannot be done and there would not be an output display. As you know, thecurrent file size of a multimedia computer can be very large, to the extent ofreaching hundreds of megabytes. This situation requires a fast and effectiveprocessor for multimedia data so that users do not have to wait long for theoutput display.The need for high capacity processor is more apparent nowadays as mostmultimedia software today are more orientated towards graphics and video thatrequire a powerful high speed processor. The increasingly powerfulmicroprocessor will enable you to view video displays, listen to MP3 songs andto play three dimensional video games on the computer. Figure 3.3 (a) and (b)shows the Intel and Motorola microprocessors.
  5. 5. 46 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENT Figure 3.3: (a) Intel chip and (b) Motorola chip Source: (a) http://www.pcworld.com/current_issue/graphics/1811/1811p121-1b.gif (b) http://www.glencoe.com/.../appendix_a/a_1993motorola_sm_1.jpj Intel is the main manufacturer of microprocessors. To know about this company, visit its website at http://www.intel.com3.2.2 Main MemoryThe size of the main memory is one of the significant factors that determine thepotential of a computer. The higher the size of the main memory, the bigger thecapacity of the computer. The size of the main memory also affects the speed ofthe system and the capacity of the computer system to operate more than onetask simultaneously.The main memory is usually measured in megabyte (MB). Multimediaapplications require a high main memory. Therefore, 16MB of main memory isconsidered as the minimum level, while 32MB, 64MB, 128MB and 256MB RAMare encouraged.3.2.3 Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM)CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only-Memory) is the basic hardware of amultimedia computer system. Compact disc technology has successfullyincreased the capacity of the computer for storing and retrieving data. Not toolong ago, floppy-disk was the main medium for the distribution of mediasoftware; now this has been replaced by the CD-ROM.
  6. 6. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 47CD-ROMs main advantage, besides its speed, is its ability to store more data.Usually a CD-ROM can store 650 megabytes of data on its single side. This makesit the main choice for software developing companies because of its ability totransfer a big amount of video, audio, graphics and animation data into theirsoftware. For example, the majority of multimedia files such as animation, audioand video exceed 3MB and thus, the 1.44MB floppy-disk are not capable ofstoring such data. Figure 3.4: ATAPI CD-ROM Source: http://www.livewarehouse.com/.../livewarehous e/MMSA20600.jpgThe CD-ROM drive is also measured in terms of speed. The rotational speed isimportant to determine the speed of the data being transferred from disk to thecomputer system.The speed of the CD-ROM drive is measured in "X" unit. An "X" (1X) means thespeed of data transfer is 150KB per second which is the basic speed of a CD-ROMdrive. CD-ROM drives with this basic speed are also known as Single Speed. Thesubsequent technology was known as Double Speed. CD-ROM drives at thisstage were able to transfer data at 300KB per second which was twice the speedof the basic CD-ROM drive. Today, the latest CD-ROM drive is 56X and is able totransfer data at 8.4MB per second. This is one of the main reasons why theinstallation of programs, especially multimedia software can be done quicklytoday. 1X 150KB per second 2X 300KB per second Figure 3.5: Calculations of CD-ROM speed 56X 8.4MB per second CD TECHNOLOGYCD Technology has advanced beyond read only and now there are CD read,write and re-write device. There are different CD standards available whichrelate to the type of data that could be recorded on the CD. These are: Red Bookused for audio CDs as well as data CDs, Orange Book format which is a formatrecordable CDs and White Book a format for video CDs. CD devices are often
  7. 7. 48 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENTreferred to as either single or multi session. A session on a CD includes a lead-inarea, a program area (data or audio tracks) and a lead-out area therefore a multisession disk is one, which has multiple sessions on one disk. Each session has itsown lead-in, content and lead-out area, and is linked with other sessions.(Source: Designing Interactive Multimedia Systems, Mohammad Dastbaz,2002:pg 46)3.2.4 Digital Versatile Disk (DVD)Digital Versatile Disk or DVD is relatively new and its format still evolving. Inthe beginning it was known as Digital Video Disk. However, since its technologywas not just focused on video but was more versatile and capable of storing datain various form, it was later known as Digital Versatile Disk.DVD drive was introduced in 1996 and started to become popular at the end of1997. DVD technology was said to be the successor of the CD-ROM technology. ADVD drive can store 4.7 gigabyte of data on a single surface of a DVD disk, whichis seven times the capacity of a CD. Moreover, many DVD drives can store dataon both sides of a DVD disk which doubles its storage capacity. In addition, thetransfer speed of a DVD drive is much faster than a CD-ROM drive.3.2.5 Video Capture CardIf your computer does not have a video capture card, you will not be able towatch videos on your computer. This is because the video data stored in a drivecannot be converted to video signals which are sent through the cable to themonitor. Video Capture Card is the hardware used to support multimedia applications especially video and graphic displays.There are two important issues which you need to consider pertaining to VideoCapture Card which are resolution or colour, and memory. Today, most VideoCapture card can display 800 X 600 pixels of resolution. There are also videocapture card that can display 1024 X 768 pixel and 1152 X 1024 pixels ofresolution.The colour display of video capture card is influenced by bits. The higher the bit,the more colour can be displayed. For example, a 24-bit video capture card can
  8. 8. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 49display 16.7 million types of colour whereas an 8-bit video capture card candisplay 256 types of colour only.The memory in the video capture card is used to keep video data which has beenprocessed by the microprocessor. It aims to ensure the smooth display of thevideo or graphics on the screen. After the video data has been processed by themicroprocessor, the data would be sent via the bus before reaching the videocapture card. Here, the data will be converted into video signals and is kept inmemory before it is displayed on the monitor screen. The larger the memory ofthe video capture card, the better the quality of the video or graphics displayed.Technology is progressing rapidly. Now, there is a video capture card which isknown as the Accelerated Graphic Port (AGP) that can display videos or graphicsmore effectively and at a very high speed. The memory of this card is currently128MB. This AGP card is suitable for three dimensional (3D) video games.3.2.6 Sound Card and SpeakersIf you wish to listen to music or songs on a multimedia computer, your computermust have a sound card and speakers.High quality sound cards enable your computer to produce various interestingsounds for your computer games software. One of the most important aspects ofa sound card is the bit rate. In the market currently, there are 8-bit, 16-bit and 24-bit sound cards. A 24-bit sound card can produce higher quality sound comparedto an 8-bit sound card because more audio information can be sent through it.There are many different types of sound cards with differentspecifications currently available in the market. Among the companies that arewell known for quality sound cards are SoundBlaster, Audigy and Creative.Figure 3.6 (a) below shows an example of a PCI sound card. Figure 3.6: (a) Sound Card (b) Speakers Source: (a) http://www.onair.co.il/sound%20card.jpg (b) http://www.calrad.com/calrad/cat-59page4.html
  9. 9. 50 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENTSpeakers used in a multimedia computer are more or less the same as otherspeakers. Figure 3.6 (b) shows an example of speakers normally found in themarket. Companies producing well known speakers are Klipsch and Altec-Lansing.The main function of speakers is to produce sounds such as music, voice andothers.Users will normally choose speakers based on their individual needs andtastes. If you only wish to listen to sounds or music then normal speakers aresufficient. However, to enjoy better quality sound, speakers that are equippedwith two front and two back satellite speakers and a subwoofer are required.3.2.7 Communication Device: ModemThe word modem is an abbreviation for modulation-demodulation. Modulationis the process of converting digital signals to analog. On the other hand, de-modulation is the process of converting analog signals to digital. Modems allowmicrocomputers (digital) to communicate with each other via telephonelines. Both voice and data communication can be conveyed through the sametelephone line.Modem is a hardware you need to have in order to access the Internet. Withoutthis hardware, multimedia technology would not have been able to progress sorapidly. This is because the information or multimedia data available on theInternet would not be able to be shared or referred to like today. THINK In your opinion, what is a modem? How does it work?Currently, modem speed is between 14.4kbps to 56kbps. Modems can bedivided into three categories which are internal modem, external modem andwireless modem.
  10. 10. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 51 Figure 3.7: (a) Internal Modem and (b) External Modem Source: (a) http://www.jumbonet.com/networking/modem/images/INTERNAL.gif (b) http://www.computerpartsusa.com/.../supraeexpress56kexternal.gifApart from modem, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), DigitalSubscribers Line (DSL), cable modem and satellite connections are othertechnologies that can be used for connection to the Internet. REFERENCES Refer to Chapter 9 of the book, "Discovering Computers 2003," by Shelly Cashman Vermaat, 2002 for further information regarding the latest communication technology. Exercise 3.2 1. Name FIVE basic hardware that is required in a multimedia computer and state ONE function of each hardware. 2. Name TWO main brands of sound cards that are available in the market currently. 3. Apart from modem, name two latest connection technologies and give a brief explanation about them.
  11. 11. 52 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENT 3.3 INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICESThe role of the input and output device are very important when you develop amultimedia presentation. Both devices are needed when you want to interactwith a computer. You require input devices such as keyboard, digital cameraand scanner to enter the multimedia elements such as sound, text, graphicdesigns and video, into the multimedia computer. This multimedia informationcan then be displayed at anytime using the output devices such as printer,monitor and speakers. 3.4 INPUT DEVICESInput devices collect data and programs that are readable or understandable byhumans and convert them into forms that can be processed by computers. Thereare many types of input devices such as keyboard, mouse, touch screen and voiceinput devices that can be used to develop and distribute a multimedia project.If you are developing a kiosk system, you are encouraged to use touch screen andkeyboard as the input devices so that users can interact with the system. On theother hand, if you are into computer graphics then you can use digitising tabletas the input device. Digitising tablet allows you to draw on the tablet using aspecial pen and the drawings will be displayed immediately on the computerscreen. (a) Joystick (b) Touch screen (c) Light pen Figure 3.8: Examples of Input Devices Source: (a) http://www.javascript-games.org/arcade/dkong/images/joystick.jpgInput devices that will be discussed in the subsequent sections are digitisingtablet, digital camera, digital video camera and voice input devices.For more information on other input devices, you are advised to refer to BasicConcepts of Information Technology Module, Open University Malaysia.
  12. 12. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 533.4.1 Digitising TabletThis input device is frequently used in the field of computer graphics. Digitisingtablet is a device that can be used to trace or copy a picture or a painting. Thematerial that you wished to copy is positioned on top of the tablet of thedigitiser. Then, a special stylus pen that is attached to the computer is used totrace the material. While the stylus moves from one position to another, thecomputer records its position through the digitising tablet. After the material hasbeen traced, its image will then be displayed on-screen, printed on paper or keptin the computer system for future use. Digitising tablet also provides goodcontrol during graphics editing because the elements require precision. Thisfeature is immensely useful to graphic and interface designers.3.4.2 Digital CameraThe introduction of digital camera brings multimedia technology into a new era.This technology enables images or graphics to be transferred directly fromthe digital camera to a computer with just a cable extension.It is far simpler than the conventional method whereby you have to capture thepicture or image on the camera first. Then the film needs to be processed toobtain the pictures before it can be scanned by a scanner.A few years ago, storing digital pictures in a digital camera was a problem. Atthat time, the storage capacity was only a few megabytes and it was only capableof storing a few digital images. Now with the advent of new technology such as,the secure digital card with its capacity of up to 128MB, this problem has beensolved. As a result, digital cameras are now widely used. Figure 3.9 shows anexample of a digital camera which is available in the market. Figure 3.9: Digital Camera Source: http://www.001abc.com/.../Olympus%20C30 00%20Digital%Camera.jpgWhen choosing a digital camera, make sure you get a digital camera that iscapable of producing clear quality displays and with a high resolution. However,
  13. 13. 54 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENTsuch high resolution digital cameras are far more expensive than low resolutiondigital cameras. YOUR IDEA In your opinion, is digital camera better than scanner in importing graphics or images? Why?3.4.3 Digital Video CameraDigital video cameras record movements digitally onto a disk or in the camerasmemory. Its image quality is far better but it is rather expensive compared to atraditional camera. A digital video camera can also be used as a digital camera totake still pictures. With the reduction in cost, the digital video camera isbecoming more popular for multimedia presentations.Digital cameras can also store data on digital video tapes which can then bedirectly read by the computer system with the help of digital video drive. Thistape is frequently known as Digital Video (DV).3.4.4 Voice Input DevicesThe voice input device converts human speeches to digital code. The most widelyused voice input device is the microphone. The microphone is thehardware needed to record sound or voice in a multimedia computer. It isusually used for online conversations or tele-consultations. Figure 3.10below shows two examples of ordinary microphones used by computer users. (a) (b) Figure 3.10: Microphone Source: http://www.mobiletechcomputer.com/store/images/microphone.jpg http://www.eaarmark.com/newpix/fc-41(2).jpg
  14. 14. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 55When the microphone is combined with the sound card and suitable software, asystem of voice recognition is formed. This system enables users to operate themicrocomputer and constructs document through instructions that are voiceactivated. Exercise 3.3 1. What does a voice input device do? 2. The THREE devices that are similar to the mouse are _________, __________ and ______________. 3. Briefly state the differences between the digital camera and the conventional camera. 3.5 OUTPUT DEVICESOutput device converts information that can be read by machines to a form thatcan be read by humans. The data entered and subsequently processed by thecomputer would remain in machine readable form until the output deviceconverts it to a form that is readable by humans. Similarly, like input devices,output devices also play an important role in the development of multimediapresentations.Output devices that are frequently used with your multimedia computers are themonitor, printer, plotter, projector and voice output device. However, only twooutput devices: the monitor and the projector will be discussed here. To knowmore about other output devices, please refer to the Basic Concepts ofInformation Technology Module, Open University Malaysia.3.5.1 MonitorThe monitor is used for display. It is one of the most important hardware in amultimedia computer system. Imagine that you have successfully completedyour final animation project and are looking forward to showing the results ofyour work to your friends. Unfortunately your monitor broke down.Definitely, without the monitor, you will not be able to present the result of yourwork to your friends.
  15. 15. 56 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENTThe monitor that is required to develop a multimedia project depends onthe nature of the multimedia application that you are developing and the type ofcomputer that you are using. Do you know that there are various kinds ofmonitors available in the market for both the PC computer and the Macintosh?Among them are the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor and the portable monitorcommonly known as the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitor. Figure 3.11shows the two types of monitors. (a) (b) Figure 3.11: (a) Cathode Ray Tube monitor (b) Liquid Crystal Display monitorThe two important features of a monitor are its size and clarity. Monitor size isdetermined by the diagonal length of the display area. Usually, monitors come inmany sizes. For example, 14, 15, 17 and 21 inches. The bigger the size of themonitor, the more expensive it is. However, a larger size is capable ofdisplaying more information at any one time.The clarity of the monitor is determined by its resolution which is measuredin pixels. Pixel is the dot or picture element that forms the image ona monitor. The resolution also indicates the density of the pixel on the monitorscreen. Generally speaking, the higher the density of the pixels or the larger thenumber of pixels, the better the quality and clarity of the image being displayed.Dot pitch is the empty space or the distance between each pixel. The lesser thevalue of the dot pitch, the sharper or clearer the quality of thepicture. Meanwhile, refresh rate represents the speed of the monitor to displayback or to refresh the image being displayed. The higher the value of refresh rate,the lower the disruption of the display on the screen.
  16. 16. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 57 NEC Technologies is the leading manufacturer of liquid crystal display monitors or flat screen monitors. To know more about this company, visit its website at http://www.nec.com3.5.2 ProjectorThe projector is a tool that enables a multimedia presentation to be displayed to alarge group of audience. Among the projectors available in the market are theLiquid Crystal Display Panel and the Three-Gun Video Projector. Liquid Crystal Display Panel projector has many interesting features such as a LCD panel, light source, computer and video input, and internal speakers that can operate computer signals and video. This type of portable projector is suitable for use because it is cheap and a high-quality. Three-Gun Video Projector is capable of displaying high-quality images and is usually used in large halls. However, such projectors are very expensive. Hewlett Packard is the leading manufacturer of printers and multi- functional devices that combine the printer, scanner and fax into a single product. To know more about this company, visit its website at http://www.hp.com Exercise 3.4 1. What is the special type of printer used for drawings and designs? 2. When do you need a plotter compared to a printer? 3.6 STORAGEAn important feature of every computer is its ability to store information.Computers can store information permanently even after the electrical supply is
  17. 17. 58 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENTstopped. Therefore, your work can be saved to be used later, to share informationwith others or to modify existing information.Each data or instructions that you want the computer to perform would be kepttemporarily in the computers main memory which is known as the primarystorage. However, it is not permanent and will disappear when the computer isswitched off. Therefore, a secondary storage or second storage medium isrequired. Secondary storage enables data, instructions or computer programs tobe kept permanently.To estimate the memory required for a multimedia project, meaning the storagespace that is required for the hard-disk, floppy-disk or CD-ROM, and not therandom access memory (RAM), you would require prior knowledge of thecontent and scope of the project that you are going to develop. Integration ofcoloured images, text, sound elements, graphics, animation, video-clipsand programming codes, would require storage space. The more the integrationof multimedia elements, the more storage space isrequired. Therefore, efficient multimedia developers need to know thedifferent kinds of secondary storage mediums that are available. They need toknow the limits, the capacity and the use of each secondary storage mediumssuch as the floppy-disk, hard-disk, optical discs and the magnetic tape.3.6.1 Hard-DiskBefore the existence of multimedia technology, the majority of information filecomprised only of text and tables. Therefore, large storage mediums were notrequired. However, after the introduction of multimedia technology, the demandfor large storage mediums increased. This was caused by file sizes that containedmultimedia information such as graphics, audio and video that could reachhundreds of megabytes. Hence they could not be stored in floppy-disks even ifthey were compressed (.zip). Thus, hard-disks play an important role in thestorage of multimedia data.There are three types of hard-disks namely the internal hard-disk, hard-diskcartridge and hard-disk pack. Figure 3.12: Hard-disk Source: (a) http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hddz_ibm_ult rastar36zx.jpg (b) http://www.kids- online.net/learn/click/details/hard.jpg
  18. 18. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 59(a) Internal Hard-DiskThe internal hard-disk is also known as the permanent disk because it is placed inthe systems unit. It is usually used to store almost all the programs and data ofthe systems file. For example, almost all microcomputers used the internal hard-disk to store their operating systems and major applications such as Word andExcel. Hard-disks with a capacity of 10 gigabytes has faster access. Seagate is one of the leading manufacturers of high capacity internal hard disks. To know more about this company, visit its website at http://www.seagate.com(b) Hard-Disk CartridgeHard-disk Cartridge is easily removable just like retrieving a cassette from avideo recorder. However, the total storage of the computer system is limited bythe number of cartridges. This differentiates the hard-disk cartridge from theinternal hard-disk. However, even though the internal hard-disk provides fasteraccess, it has a fixed storage and is not easily removed. Therefore, the hard-diskcartridge is more suitably used as a backup copy to store multimedia files such asaudio, video, animation and other important data.The capacity of an ordinary hard-disk cartridge is two gigabytes. Normally, hard-disk cartridge is used for transferring large size files such as desktop publicationsfiles that have graphics, colours and others. Among the hard disks cartridge thatare available in the market currently are the Iomegas Jaz and SyQuestsSparQ. Some time ago, the SyQuests SparQ hard-disk cartridge was the mostpopular portable medium used by multimedia developers andprofessionals. However, currently its place has been taken over by Iomegas Jazwhich is not only cheaper but has better storage capacity and faster access.(c) Hard-Disk PackHard-disk Pack is a portable storage medium. It is used to keep large batches ofinformation. Its capacity far exceeds other types of hard-disks. Microcomputersthat have access to the Internet, minicomputers or mainframes usually haveaccess to external hard-disk pack through communication lines. Banks and creditcard companies use it to record financial information.
  19. 19. 60 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENTIf you are interested to know more about secondary storage mediums such asfloppy-disks and optic disks, refer to the Basic Concepts of InformationTechnology Module, Open University Malaysia. (a) 3.5 inch floppy-disk (b) Zip disk (c) HiFD disk Figure 3.13: Examples of floppy disks Source: (a) http://www.cts.com/crash/yin/images/floppy%20disk.jpg (b) http://www.usbyte.com/images/Zip_disk.JPG (c) http://www.karbosguiode.com/images/hifd.jpg Iomega and Imation are the leading developers of high capacity floppy disks. To know more about these companies, visit their websites at http://www.iomega.com and http://www.superdisk.com Exercise 3.5 1. What is the difference between the internal hard-disk and the hard- disk cartridge? State the advantages and disadvantages. 2. List FOUR types of floppy-disks that are currently available.
  20. 20. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 613.7 GUIDELINES FOR CHOOSING A MULTIMEDIA COMPUTERHave you ever faced problems when planning to purchase a multimedia personalcomputer? Do you know the multimedia specifications that are compatible andsuitable for your needs?A normal situation that occurs is when you go to a computer store and thesalesperson proposes that you buy the most sophisticated and expensivecomputer available. The important issue here is, whether you need to own sucha sophisticated and expensive multimedia computer as proposed by thesalesperson?If you read a computer advertisement that explains the specifications of amultimedia computer as follows: THINK Processor Intel Pentium 4 1.8GHz 400MHz Bus speed Intel 845 chipset 256MB PC133up SDRAM 20.0GB Hard Drive 48xCD-ROM or 16xCD-RW 3.5", 1.44MB NVIDIA Vanta 16MB Graphics Card 56K ITU v.90 Modem PS/2 Standard Keyboard - 104-key (International) Do you know or understand the specifications given for the computer? What do the specifications mean?Could you answer the questions above? If not, read the descriptions in Table 3.2
  21. 21. 62 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENT Table 3.2: Multimedia Computer Specifications Descriptions Specifications Description Processor Intel States the microprocessor, which is the Intel Pentium Pentium 4 1.8GHz 4 chip with a speed of 1.8GHz. 400MHz Bus speed The systems bus speed which is 400MHz. This speed is among the fastest. Intel 845 chipset Main motherboard used for this model is the Intel 845 chipset which is suitable for use with the Intel Pentium chip. 256MB PC133up Random Access Memory (RAM) used is the SDRAM SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM). It has a storage capacity of 256MB and speed of 133MHz. 20.0GB Hard Drive. The hard-disk capacity is 20.0GB. 48x CD-ROM or 16x CD-ROM device or CD-RW device with 48X and 16X CD-RW respectively. 3.5", 1.44MB States the standard floppy-disk drive NVIDIA Vanta 16MB The graphic card with a capacity of 16MB. It is Graphics Card suitable for 3-dimensional graphics and video display. 56K ITU v.90 Modem The modems specifications. It has a maximum data delivery speed (56kbps). ITU is an organisation that determines the communication standard that is the International Telegraphic Union. V.90 is the latest standard for the modem. PS/2 Standard The standard keyboard with 104 keys Keyboard - 104-key (International)Apart from the computers specifications as stated above, what are the othercriteria which need to be considered when you want to purchase a multimediacomputer? When you have decided to purchase a multimedia computer for yourdaily use, you need not follow the latest trend but on the other hand, youshould consider the following criteria:-
  22. 22. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 63 Price SystemÊs performance and Needs3.7.1 PricePrice is the foremost criteria when choosing a multimedia computer. If you wantto buy a computer, you must decide on the estimated amount of money to beused in the first place. If you require a sophisticated and modern computer suchas a 2.2GHz microprocessor and Intel ATX main-board, then you should set asidemore money because these products are quite expensive.The price of computer hardware will decline when more sophisticated and fasterhardware is marketed. The most obvious example is the Pentium 3microprocessor. When this chip was marketed, its price exceeded One ThousandRinggit; currently, you can purchase it for approximately five hundredsMalaysian Ringgit only. Therefore, if you are planning to purchase a multimediacomputer, you can get one at a reasonable price. You need not waste moneyunnecessarily by purchasing a sophisticated multimedia computer.3.7.2 System’s PerformanceYou might feel cheated if the multimedia computer that you purchased did notperform according to your satisfaction. For example a low quality videodisplays.A computerÊs system performance can be influenced by the hardware orsoftware but the core factor in determining its performance is the computerhardware. The systemÊs performance is very important for a multimedia computer,especially if you always use it to display video or online games. Therefore, youshould consider this criteria when you want to purchase a multimedia computer.The computer hardware that you select must be suitable with the systemperformance you require. For example, you can choose a random access memory(RAM) with a capacity of 128MB or 256MB, or an AGPs graphic card with ahigher speed for a better performance when processing multimedia applications.
  23. 23. 64 UNIT 1 MULTIMEDIA AND ITS ENVIRONMENT3.7.3 NeedsMost consumers do not consider their actual needs when buying a multimediacomputer. They always choose the most sophisticated and expensive computers.For example, there are consumers who buy sophisticated multimedia computersjust to type word documents, and there are also consumers who buy multimediacomputers that are equipped with the fastest modem even though he or she hasno intention of browsing the Internet.Remember! You should know your real needs when planning to purchase amultimedia computer so that you can get a computer that not only meet yourrequirements and taste, but also one with a reasonable price. YOUR IDEA After the above explanations, it is hoped that it has given you some ideas and guidelines when you need to purchase a multimedia computer. Now, try to list the computer’s specifications that you require based on your affordability and need of usage. Exercise 3.7 1. Name THREE hardware that you think can influence a systemÊs performance. 2. Name TWO types of microprocessors that are available in the market and their TWO distinguishing features. 3. List some examples where voice outputs are available. 4. State the importance of the internal communication modem in multimedia.
  24. 24. CHAPTER 3 MULTIMEDIA HARDWARE 65 SUMMARYTo summarise, this chapter explains the importance of computer hardwareincluding input and output devices, and storage that is required for multimediadevelopment. Although there are many kinds of computer hardware in themarket, you as the multimedia developer, should choose the hardware thatcorresponds with the concept and scope of the multimedia project that you aredeveloping. Choosing the right input and output devices, and storage whichmeet the requirement of your project will help to contribute towards the successof your multimedia project. Finally, several guidelines are given at the end of thischapter to help you choose the most suitable multimedia computer. Do not forgetto use these guidelines when purchasing a multimedia computer.

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