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 What is IOT?
 Anatomy of an Embedded System
 Anatomy of an IOT device
 Sample IoT Device(s)
 Difference between Microcontroller and Microprocessor
 IoT Device Platforms (Hardware)
 IoT Categories
 Consumer IoT-Models/Approaches
 IoT vs Web protocol stack
 IoT Open Source Software frameworks
 IoT Development Tools
 Cloud based IoT Platforms
 The IoT Technology Landscape
 IoT Reference Architecture
 IOT stands for “Internet of Things”.
 Term was first coined by Kevin Ashton in year 1999.
 Refers to connectivity amongst various things and with the internet.
 Things here refer to a physical object containing an embedded system(electronic circuit)
within it.
 Things with ability to communicate with other things or with the internet can be termed as
an IOT device.
 Plethora of IoT devices available in the market like apple watch, activity trackers
 The most ubiquitous of them is the SMARTPHONE
 Smartphone has internet connectivity and it contains the following sensors built within.
 Accelerometer – Able to measure the speed of the device.
 Gyroscope – Provides orientation/rotation information
 Magnetometer – Detects magnetic fields, compass applications uses it.
 Light Sensor – Measure how bright light is
 Barometer – Measures pressure
 Proximity Sensor
 Camera
 Microphone
 GPS Receiver
 Many apps use this sensor information for ex:-
 Compass app uses magnetometer to give the direction of the north pole.
 App could adjust the brightness of the screen automatically based on the light sensor.
Microcontroller Microprocessor
An IC with Processor, RAM, ROM and I/O ports
on a single chip. It is a low cost computer.
An IC with only processor within it.
Cheaper Expensive
Can be used for standalone. Cannot be used as standalone. Need RAM,ROM
and I/O ports.
Designed for specific tasks where input and
output is clearly defined. Ex: Washing Machine,
Oven
Designed for tasks like developing software,
games, websites, photo editing, creating
documents.
Hardware Software
Programming
Category Operatin
g System
IDE
Arduino Arduino Language Microcontroller No OS Arduino IDE
Raspberry Pi Python/JavaScript Single Board Computer
containing a
microprocessor.
Linux
based
Beaglebone Python/JavaScript Single Board Computer
containing a
microprocessor
Linux
based
Intel Edison Python/JavaScript/
Java
Single Board Computer
containing a
microprocessor
Linux
based
Intel Galileo Arduino Language Microcontroller No OS Arduino IDE
 Is an open-source electronics platform based on easy to use hardware and software.
 Typically, these boards are microcontroller boards which means that it has no OS running
on top of it and will be able to run a minimalistic program.
 Arduino board can be connected to a PC through USB port.
 Programs a.k.a sketches are written using Arduino Language, which is merely a set of
C/C++ functions.
 Arduino Software(IDE): It is a text editor which can be used to write sketches and enables
us to upload sketches onto the Arduino board. Arduino IDE is cross platform and can run
on either Windows/Mac/Linux as it is Java based.
 Arduino shields are smaller add-on boards that connect to the Arduino board to perform
functions such as sensing heat, light, GPS tracking, etc..
 Used if our application is core hardware centric(using sensors and actuators).
 It is a low-cost, credit card size single board computer(SBC) primarily intended for
teaching computer science in schools.
 It runs a Linux distro.
 Mostly Python/JavaScript programming is used and Java to a certain extent.
 Industrial IoT
 Used is large scale industries to provide insights into the functioning of an enterprise and help to
take appropriate decisions.
 Machines take decisions, Real-time.
 Sub-Categories: Manufacturing, Logistics and Supply Chain industries
 Commercial/Consumer IoT
 Characterized by human interacting with a device.
 Usage: By individuals to enhance their life and style.
 Sub-Categories: Wearables, Home Automation, Smart Appliances
Category Examples Connection Power
Wearables Pebble Watch,
Misfit Shine
BLE(Bluetooth Low
Energy)
Battery based
Home Automation Apple Homekit
Samsung SmartThings
Google Brillo +Weave
Wi-Fi
Zigbee
Z-Wave
Mains and Battery
Smart Appliances CloudWash Wi-Fi Mains
Media Chromecast
Apple TV
Sonos
Wi-Fi Mains
 Consists of a smartphone and an IoT device which can communicate using wireless
communication technologies like Bluetooth,
 Details
 A android/iOS phone could have an app installed on it.
 This app will communicate with the Bluetooth enabled IoT Device using the respective API.
 Typical example could be a Bluetooth key finder.
 Usage
 Users will have to install the app on their device and keep it open.
 The Bluetooth IoT device can be tagged to a bunch of keys/or any physical device and Bluetooth
should be enabled on that device by pressing a button.
 Register this Bluetooth device in the mobile app.
 On click of a button in the app, it will send a signal to the Bluetooth device which will start
beeping.
 The main components are
 Smartphone
 Hub
 One or more IoT Device(s)
 Cloud
 Smartphone: A mobile app is installed on the Smartphone.
 Hub: A Hub is a gateway device which acts an interconnection medium for all the IoT
devices. It communicates with the IoT devices via various protocols namely
ZigBee/Bluetooth Low Energy /Z-Wave. It also has capability for storing and sending data
to the cloud.
 Cloud: Used for storing data for analytics.
 Examples of such systems in the home automation space namely
Apple HomeKit / Samsung SmartThings / Google Brillo +Weave.
 Uses:
 IoT devices can be invoked via the smartphone app which communicates with the hub which in
turn communicates with the IoT device.
 Hub can push notifications to the app in case of any anomalies in the IoT device.
 Hub could also send data periodically to the cloud to analyze and monitor the IoT devices.
 CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol)
 Client/Server Protocol, Runs over UDP.
 Light Weight compared to HTTP
 Specifically designed for devices operating in constrained environment(Low power, Low
bandwidth)
 CoAP server would be running on a IoT device at a particular port.
 CoAP client from another device could connect to the server to fetch details.
 CoAP provides GET,PUT,POST,DELETE on lines of REST.
 CoAP implementations
 Erbium,lipcoap which are C based implementations
 Californium which is Java based
 More details at http://coap.technology/impls.html
 MQTT Protocol (Message Queue Telemetry Transport)
 Based on Pub/Sub Model on top of TCP/IP protocol.
 System consists of publishers and subscribers. Publishers push information to the broker and
subscribers fetch information from the broker
 Light Weight, suitable for constrained devices.
 MQTT brokers
 HiveMQ
 IBM MessageSight
 ActiveMQ
 RabbitMQ
 Bluetooth Low Energy (a.k.a BLE)
 NFC
 Zigbee
 Z-Wave
 Wi-Fi
 Cellular
 Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
 Short range wireless communication protocol.
 A variant of classic Bluetooth.
 Suited for constrained devices with low power and low bandwidth
 Typically, used for communication between wearables/peripherals and mobile(through apps).
 Ex:- Beacon, Tracking device
 ZigBee
 Industry stand wireless networking technology based on IEEE 802.15.4
 Low power, High security and high scalability with high node counts.
 Typically used in home automation, Industrial control
 Z-Wave
 Low power RF(Radio Frequency) technology
 Primarily designed for home automation.
 Wi-Fi
 Fast data transfer.
 Ability to handle large quantities of data.
 Cellular
 Can leverage existing smartphone infrastructure.
 3G/4G data transfer is quite fast.
 Platform.io
 Cross platform(Windows/Mac/Linux) IDE for building code and packaging which is microcontroller
agnostic.
 Could be used instead of Arduino IDE which caters only to Arduino.
 Integrates with popular IDEs like Eclipse, Visual Studio, Clion and SublimeText.
 Ability to create starter projects for various MCUs like Arduino and mBed
 Each device comes with its own app hence, proliferation of apps on the smartphone.
 Integration is difficult.
 Different devices speak different language
 If there a multitude of devices which have to communicate with each other then we would
need a consistent software framework instead of writing code from scratch.
 The below are open source software which will get us started if we want to build an app on
the Hub Centric Architecture.
 AllJoyn
 IoTivity
 The above frameworks are analogous to the Spring, Struts in the web development space.
 Open source IoT software framework sponsored by Open Interconnect Consortium(OIC)
which consists of companies like Samsung and Intel.
 Common IoT base framework that can span across various industry segments like
automotive, enterprise, consumer, health, etc..
 Core functionality has been written in C.
 Currently it supports Java, C++ bindings for developing application code.
 Supports the following platforms namely Android,Linux,Tizen and Arduino.
 The IoTivity SDK has to be installed on the IoT devices and then we could start using their
APIs.
 An open source framework for IoT developed by AllSeen Alliance consisting of Qualcomm,
Cisco, Panasonic, etc.…
 Core framework has been written in C++.
 Supports Java, Objective-C, JavaScript, C bindings.
 Each device describe their capabilities via service interfaces on a virtual bus.
 Supports the following platforms like Android, Linux, iOS, Windows and Arduino
 It works as a mesh network instead of a central hub.
 There are typically three aspects to implement an IoT application end to end.
 The myriad physical devices, gateway have to be connected to the internet. These devices have
embedded s
 Ingestion Tier: The software and the infrastructure required to gather data from the devices and
organize it accordingly.
 Analytics Tier: Takes the organized data and processes it appropriately.
 End User App: Web App or Mobile App provides visual dashboards which provide us with
insights.
 If no IoT platform is used, we have to develop the entire ecosystem which takes lot of
effort
 If we leverage on IoT platforms, we only have to take care of the last two tiers. The
devices, their connectivity and the ingestion is taken care of by the IoT cloud platform.
 Xively
 ThingWorx
 Buglabs
 Carriots
 SeeControl
 IBM IoT Foundation
 http://www.slideshare.net/AllSeenAlliance/intro-to-alliance2252015?qid=043152d5-1918-
4269-8247-763130641e07&v=&b=&from_search=12
 http://www.slideshare.net/AllSeenAlliance/internet-of-everything-development-using-
alljoyn
 https://stanfy.com/blog/3-types-of-software-architecture-for-connected-devices/
An Introduction to IoT Concepts, Devices, Protocols and Frameworks

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An Introduction to IoT Concepts, Devices, Protocols and Frameworks

  • 1.
  • 2.  What is IOT?  Anatomy of an Embedded System  Anatomy of an IOT device  Sample IoT Device(s)  Difference between Microcontroller and Microprocessor  IoT Device Platforms (Hardware)  IoT Categories  Consumer IoT-Models/Approaches  IoT vs Web protocol stack  IoT Open Source Software frameworks  IoT Development Tools  Cloud based IoT Platforms  The IoT Technology Landscape  IoT Reference Architecture
  • 3.  IOT stands for “Internet of Things”.  Term was first coined by Kevin Ashton in year 1999.  Refers to connectivity amongst various things and with the internet.  Things here refer to a physical object containing an embedded system(electronic circuit) within it.  Things with ability to communicate with other things or with the internet can be termed as an IOT device.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.  Plethora of IoT devices available in the market like apple watch, activity trackers  The most ubiquitous of them is the SMARTPHONE  Smartphone has internet connectivity and it contains the following sensors built within.  Accelerometer – Able to measure the speed of the device.  Gyroscope – Provides orientation/rotation information  Magnetometer – Detects magnetic fields, compass applications uses it.  Light Sensor – Measure how bright light is  Barometer – Measures pressure  Proximity Sensor  Camera  Microphone  GPS Receiver  Many apps use this sensor information for ex:-  Compass app uses magnetometer to give the direction of the north pole.  App could adjust the brightness of the screen automatically based on the light sensor.
  • 7. Microcontroller Microprocessor An IC with Processor, RAM, ROM and I/O ports on a single chip. It is a low cost computer. An IC with only processor within it. Cheaper Expensive Can be used for standalone. Cannot be used as standalone. Need RAM,ROM and I/O ports. Designed for specific tasks where input and output is clearly defined. Ex: Washing Machine, Oven Designed for tasks like developing software, games, websites, photo editing, creating documents.
  • 8. Hardware Software Programming Category Operatin g System IDE Arduino Arduino Language Microcontroller No OS Arduino IDE Raspberry Pi Python/JavaScript Single Board Computer containing a microprocessor. Linux based Beaglebone Python/JavaScript Single Board Computer containing a microprocessor Linux based Intel Edison Python/JavaScript/ Java Single Board Computer containing a microprocessor Linux based Intel Galileo Arduino Language Microcontroller No OS Arduino IDE
  • 9.  Is an open-source electronics platform based on easy to use hardware and software.  Typically, these boards are microcontroller boards which means that it has no OS running on top of it and will be able to run a minimalistic program.  Arduino board can be connected to a PC through USB port.  Programs a.k.a sketches are written using Arduino Language, which is merely a set of C/C++ functions.  Arduino Software(IDE): It is a text editor which can be used to write sketches and enables us to upload sketches onto the Arduino board. Arduino IDE is cross platform and can run on either Windows/Mac/Linux as it is Java based.  Arduino shields are smaller add-on boards that connect to the Arduino board to perform functions such as sensing heat, light, GPS tracking, etc..  Used if our application is core hardware centric(using sensors and actuators).
  • 10.  It is a low-cost, credit card size single board computer(SBC) primarily intended for teaching computer science in schools.  It runs a Linux distro.  Mostly Python/JavaScript programming is used and Java to a certain extent.
  • 11.  Industrial IoT  Used is large scale industries to provide insights into the functioning of an enterprise and help to take appropriate decisions.  Machines take decisions, Real-time.  Sub-Categories: Manufacturing, Logistics and Supply Chain industries  Commercial/Consumer IoT  Characterized by human interacting with a device.  Usage: By individuals to enhance their life and style.  Sub-Categories: Wearables, Home Automation, Smart Appliances
  • 12. Category Examples Connection Power Wearables Pebble Watch, Misfit Shine BLE(Bluetooth Low Energy) Battery based Home Automation Apple Homekit Samsung SmartThings Google Brillo +Weave Wi-Fi Zigbee Z-Wave Mains and Battery Smart Appliances CloudWash Wi-Fi Mains Media Chromecast Apple TV Sonos Wi-Fi Mains
  • 13.
  • 14.  Consists of a smartphone and an IoT device which can communicate using wireless communication technologies like Bluetooth,
  • 15.  Details  A android/iOS phone could have an app installed on it.  This app will communicate with the Bluetooth enabled IoT Device using the respective API.  Typical example could be a Bluetooth key finder.  Usage  Users will have to install the app on their device and keep it open.  The Bluetooth IoT device can be tagged to a bunch of keys/or any physical device and Bluetooth should be enabled on that device by pressing a button.  Register this Bluetooth device in the mobile app.  On click of a button in the app, it will send a signal to the Bluetooth device which will start beeping.
  • 16.  The main components are  Smartphone  Hub  One or more IoT Device(s)  Cloud
  • 17.  Smartphone: A mobile app is installed on the Smartphone.  Hub: A Hub is a gateway device which acts an interconnection medium for all the IoT devices. It communicates with the IoT devices via various protocols namely ZigBee/Bluetooth Low Energy /Z-Wave. It also has capability for storing and sending data to the cloud.  Cloud: Used for storing data for analytics.  Examples of such systems in the home automation space namely Apple HomeKit / Samsung SmartThings / Google Brillo +Weave.  Uses:  IoT devices can be invoked via the smartphone app which communicates with the hub which in turn communicates with the IoT device.  Hub can push notifications to the app in case of any anomalies in the IoT device.  Hub could also send data periodically to the cloud to analyze and monitor the IoT devices.
  • 18.
  • 19.  CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol)  Client/Server Protocol, Runs over UDP.  Light Weight compared to HTTP  Specifically designed for devices operating in constrained environment(Low power, Low bandwidth)  CoAP server would be running on a IoT device at a particular port.  CoAP client from another device could connect to the server to fetch details.  CoAP provides GET,PUT,POST,DELETE on lines of REST.  CoAP implementations  Erbium,lipcoap which are C based implementations  Californium which is Java based  More details at http://coap.technology/impls.html
  • 20.
  • 21.  MQTT Protocol (Message Queue Telemetry Transport)  Based on Pub/Sub Model on top of TCP/IP protocol.  System consists of publishers and subscribers. Publishers push information to the broker and subscribers fetch information from the broker  Light Weight, suitable for constrained devices.  MQTT brokers  HiveMQ  IBM MessageSight  ActiveMQ  RabbitMQ
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.  Bluetooth Low Energy (a.k.a BLE)  NFC  Zigbee  Z-Wave  Wi-Fi  Cellular
  • 25.  Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)  Short range wireless communication protocol.  A variant of classic Bluetooth.  Suited for constrained devices with low power and low bandwidth  Typically, used for communication between wearables/peripherals and mobile(through apps).  Ex:- Beacon, Tracking device  ZigBee  Industry stand wireless networking technology based on IEEE 802.15.4  Low power, High security and high scalability with high node counts.  Typically used in home automation, Industrial control
  • 26.  Z-Wave  Low power RF(Radio Frequency) technology  Primarily designed for home automation.  Wi-Fi  Fast data transfer.  Ability to handle large quantities of data.  Cellular  Can leverage existing smartphone infrastructure.  3G/4G data transfer is quite fast.
  • 27.  Platform.io  Cross platform(Windows/Mac/Linux) IDE for building code and packaging which is microcontroller agnostic.  Could be used instead of Arduino IDE which caters only to Arduino.  Integrates with popular IDEs like Eclipse, Visual Studio, Clion and SublimeText.  Ability to create starter projects for various MCUs like Arduino and mBed
  • 28.  Each device comes with its own app hence, proliferation of apps on the smartphone.  Integration is difficult.  Different devices speak different language
  • 29.  If there a multitude of devices which have to communicate with each other then we would need a consistent software framework instead of writing code from scratch.  The below are open source software which will get us started if we want to build an app on the Hub Centric Architecture.  AllJoyn  IoTivity  The above frameworks are analogous to the Spring, Struts in the web development space.
  • 30.  Open source IoT software framework sponsored by Open Interconnect Consortium(OIC) which consists of companies like Samsung and Intel.  Common IoT base framework that can span across various industry segments like automotive, enterprise, consumer, health, etc..  Core functionality has been written in C.  Currently it supports Java, C++ bindings for developing application code.  Supports the following platforms namely Android,Linux,Tizen and Arduino.  The IoTivity SDK has to be installed on the IoT devices and then we could start using their APIs.
  • 31.  An open source framework for IoT developed by AllSeen Alliance consisting of Qualcomm, Cisco, Panasonic, etc.…  Core framework has been written in C++.  Supports Java, Objective-C, JavaScript, C bindings.  Each device describe their capabilities via service interfaces on a virtual bus.  Supports the following platforms like Android, Linux, iOS, Windows and Arduino  It works as a mesh network instead of a central hub.
  • 32.  There are typically three aspects to implement an IoT application end to end.  The myriad physical devices, gateway have to be connected to the internet. These devices have embedded s  Ingestion Tier: The software and the infrastructure required to gather data from the devices and organize it accordingly.  Analytics Tier: Takes the organized data and processes it appropriately.  End User App: Web App or Mobile App provides visual dashboards which provide us with insights.  If no IoT platform is used, we have to develop the entire ecosystem which takes lot of effort  If we leverage on IoT platforms, we only have to take care of the last two tiers. The devices, their connectivity and the ingestion is taken care of by the IoT cloud platform.
  • 33.  Xively  ThingWorx  Buglabs  Carriots  SeeControl  IBM IoT Foundation
  • 34.
  • 35.