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CULTURAL & LINGUISTICS
ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION
BY – ANANT ARUN
UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT OF ASLP
CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
CULTURAL ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION
LINGUISTICS ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION
INTRODUCTION
COMMUNICATION is the process of passing information (sending) and
understanding (receiving) the same from one person to another through
verbal and non verbal means.
CULTURE is the pattern of taken-for-granted assumptions about how a
given collection of people should think, act, and feel as they go about their
daily affairs.
LINGUICTICS is the scientific or systematic study of language.
CULTURAL ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION
Culture is all socially transmitted behavior, arts, architectures, languages, signs,
symbols, ideas, beliefs, norms, traditions, rituals, etc. which is learnt and shared
in a particular social group of the same nationality, ethnicity, religion, etc.
Causes of Cultural Barriers -
Language
There are billions of people in the world who do not understand English or
cannot communicate in English properly. Not speaking properly can cause
various misunderstandings and be a barrier to communication.
Different cultures have developed their own language as a part of their
heritage. People are comfortable communicating in their own language whereas
have to work hard to learn new languages.
For example, separation of East and West Germany for 40 years caused the
language to differ a lot. The dialect became very different as people of East
Germany had an influence of Russian language whereas West Germany had
influence of English. They had a barrier in communicating with each other for
decades.
Even when people try to express in their own language, many
misunderstandings arise. It becomes more profound in people speaking
different languages.
Semantics
Non-verbal communication cannot be relied upon in communication between
people from different cultures as that is also different like language. Signs,
symbols and gestures varies in different cultures.
For example, the sign “thumbs up” is taken as a sign of approval and wishing
luck in most of the cultures but is taken as an insult in Bangladesh. Similarly, the
“V” hand gesture with palm faced outside or inside means victory and peace in
US, but back of hand facing someone showing the sign is taken as insulting in
many cultures.
The culture sets some meanings of signs like the ones mentioned above, which
might not be the same in other culture.
OVERCOMING CULTURAL BARRIER
It is important to avoid or overcome any kind of barrier for any successful and
effective communication. Especially in context of cross-cultural communication,
it is important to avoid all types of cultural barriers. It will create tension
between different cultural contexts. The reasons for wars between two
countries, business revelry are may be due to cultural barriers between
communications.
The following are the points which we need to keep in mind to avoid cultural
barriers in communication:
Avoid frame of reference
Use mutual language and signs
Ask questions when in doubt
Provide space for mutual respect
Open to new ideas
Accepting and adapting the different culture
Understand the context of communication
Avoid Stereotyped notions
Promote positive reception of cultural divergences
Learn about other cultures and their norms
CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON LANGUAGE
ACQUISITION
Culture influences language acquisition from the very early stage through the
entire developmental process.
Culture influences all aspects of language.
It is through use of language the an individual is transformed into agent of
culture.
Culture has a powerful influence on verbal and nonverbal encoding and
decoding processes.
Culture affects not only language lexicons, but also the function and/or
pragmatics.
LANGUAGE DIFFERENCES ACROSS CULTURES
Culture and Lexicons
◦ Self-Other Referents
◦ In U.S., the use of “I”, “we”, is prevalent, but in Japan there are cultural rules
governing how to refer self and other. It is dependent largely on the status
relationship between you and the other person.
◦ This reflects importance of status and group differentiation in Japan.
◦ Counting Systems
◦ Different objects counted by different suffix in Japan.
◦ Basis for number
◦ In Japanese (and many languages, including Spanish), cultural meanings of
numbers based on the words for one through ten.
Culture and Pragmatics
◦ Drop of pronouns
◦ The dropping of pronouns occurs Less in individualistic than in
collectivistic cultures.
◦ Language use and communication styles
◦ Collectivistic cultures use principle of equity involving greater social
penetration when communicating with in groups
◦ Cultural differences in apology, self-disclosure
High vs. Low Context Cultures
This has to do with the extend to which the specific contents of messages are spelled
out.
In Low Context Cultures, everything is made crystal clear; no need to read between
the lines. “What part of ‘NO’ don’t you understand” mode of communicating.
The opposite is true for High context Cultures. If you don’t read between the lines
and understand the cultural context of the words used, you won’t get the meaning of
what was said.
1. In-group vs. out-group communication,
2. Use of apologies, 3. Self-disclosure,
4. Compliments, and 5. Interpersonal criticism.
LINGUISTICS ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION
(LANGUAGE)
Language is needed for any kind of communication, even people with speech
impairments communicate with sign language and brail. Communication
becomes difficult in situations where people don’t understand each others’
language. The inability to communicate using a language is known as language
barrier to communication.
Language barriers are the most common communication barriers which cause
misunderstandings and misinterpretations between people.
Causes of Language Barriers-
Difference in Language
Difference in language is the most obvious barrier to communication as two
people speaking two different languages cannot communicate with each other.
For example, an American goes to China. The person does not understand
Chinese and most people in China do not understand English. So, when the
person speaks, the communication is worthless as the other Chinese person
doesn’t understand it.
Regional Accents, Dialects and Pidgin
The accents and dialect (use of words) of people belonging to different places
differs even if their language is same. Though the languages are technically the
same in people using different dialects and accents, the meanings, implications
and interpretations of words are different, which may lead to various kinds of
conflicts.
For example, if a Scottish farmer talks to a person from London, they do not
understand most of the words the other says even though they both speak
English. The word ham and bacon can be used interchangeably in Scotland but
they are different in England.
Similarly, pidgin is the simplified language used between people who do not
speak common language. The implications of words and phrases can create
misunderstandings.
For example, the abbreviation “LOL” used in chat language used to mean Lots
of Love before, which changed to Laugh Out Loud. If a person says LOL, the
second person can interpret the meaning in any way they want or from their
understanding. People use both the abbreviations according to the context and
need.
No Clear Speech
People who speak soft or in a small voice cannot be understood. The sender
might be saying something whereas the receiver might understand something
else. Though speaking common language, people might have difficulty
understanding the meaning of the message and the feedbacks. This might also
be a cause of obstacle in communication.
Use of Jargons and Slang
Jargons are the technical words used in communication. It might be different
according to different professions, specialty and technical field of a person.
For example, technical words used by doctors and lawyers are extremely
different. If they start talking, both of them will not get what the other is talking
about.
Some jargons like adjournment (jargon used by lawyers and police used for
delaying a trial for defendant), BP (medical jargon for Blood pressure), etc. are
only used by people in similar profession which might be a cause for language
barrier.
Similarly, the use of slang also makes communication ineffective. For example,
the use of word “grass” to describe marijuana can act as a barrier for the people
who do not know the slang meaning.
Literacy and Linguistic Ability
Some people have low vocabulary in a particular language whereas some very
high. Though literacy and education increases the need to learn new words, it
might not be the only reason. People can increase their vocabulary by reading
and with their own interest too. Vocabulary is also less if a person uses the
language as their unofficial language.
Likewise, linguistic ability is the capability of a person in a particular language.
If a person with high vocabulary and linguistic ability talks with another with low
ability, the second person will not understand the words used leading to
miscommunication of whole message.
Grammar and Spelling
Grammar and spelling becomes a barrier in communication as people from
different parts of the world can be using it differently even in a particular word.
Similarly, grammar and spelling mistakes create a huge communication barrier in
written communication.
For example, a person makes a mistake of typing done as don. The spelling and
grammar checker of the computer does not label it as wrong as don is also a
correct word. But, the word can change the whole meaning of the sentence or
make the sentence not understandable.
These are some of the most common causes of language barriers in
communication. There are many other causes too like language disabilities,
noise, distance or use of metaphors or similes which can be included in other
barriers like physiological and physical.
Some language barriers can be overcome with practice or other ways like
translation, interpreter, language classes, visual methods, etc. whereas some
barriers act as problems in a person’s whole life. These barriers must not be
present to make the communication effective.
LINGUISTIC INTERFERENCE
“…those instances of deviation from the norms of either language which occur in
the speech of bilinguals as a results of familiarity with more than one language.”
Types of linguistic interference
1. Semantic
2. Syntactic
3. Lexical
4. Phonological
THE END
THANK YOU
FOR ANY SUGGESTION
MAIL = anantarun27@gmail.com
Instagram = anant_arun27

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Cultural & linguistics issues in communication

  • 1. CULTURAL & LINGUISTICS ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION BY – ANANT ARUN UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT OF ASLP
  • 2.
  • 3. CONTENT INTRODUCTION CULTURAL ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION LINGUISTICS ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION
  • 4. INTRODUCTION COMMUNICATION is the process of passing information (sending) and understanding (receiving) the same from one person to another through verbal and non verbal means. CULTURE is the pattern of taken-for-granted assumptions about how a given collection of people should think, act, and feel as they go about their daily affairs. LINGUICTICS is the scientific or systematic study of language.
  • 5. CULTURAL ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION Culture is all socially transmitted behavior, arts, architectures, languages, signs, symbols, ideas, beliefs, norms, traditions, rituals, etc. which is learnt and shared in a particular social group of the same nationality, ethnicity, religion, etc. Causes of Cultural Barriers - Language There are billions of people in the world who do not understand English or cannot communicate in English properly. Not speaking properly can cause various misunderstandings and be a barrier to communication.
  • 6. Different cultures have developed their own language as a part of their heritage. People are comfortable communicating in their own language whereas have to work hard to learn new languages. For example, separation of East and West Germany for 40 years caused the language to differ a lot. The dialect became very different as people of East Germany had an influence of Russian language whereas West Germany had influence of English. They had a barrier in communicating with each other for decades. Even when people try to express in their own language, many misunderstandings arise. It becomes more profound in people speaking different languages.
  • 7. Semantics Non-verbal communication cannot be relied upon in communication between people from different cultures as that is also different like language. Signs, symbols and gestures varies in different cultures. For example, the sign “thumbs up” is taken as a sign of approval and wishing luck in most of the cultures but is taken as an insult in Bangladesh. Similarly, the “V” hand gesture with palm faced outside or inside means victory and peace in US, but back of hand facing someone showing the sign is taken as insulting in many cultures. The culture sets some meanings of signs like the ones mentioned above, which might not be the same in other culture.
  • 8. OVERCOMING CULTURAL BARRIER It is important to avoid or overcome any kind of barrier for any successful and effective communication. Especially in context of cross-cultural communication, it is important to avoid all types of cultural barriers. It will create tension between different cultural contexts. The reasons for wars between two countries, business revelry are may be due to cultural barriers between communications. The following are the points which we need to keep in mind to avoid cultural barriers in communication: Avoid frame of reference Use mutual language and signs
  • 9. Ask questions when in doubt Provide space for mutual respect Open to new ideas Accepting and adapting the different culture Understand the context of communication Avoid Stereotyped notions Promote positive reception of cultural divergences Learn about other cultures and their norms
  • 10. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Culture influences language acquisition from the very early stage through the entire developmental process. Culture influences all aspects of language. It is through use of language the an individual is transformed into agent of culture. Culture has a powerful influence on verbal and nonverbal encoding and decoding processes. Culture affects not only language lexicons, but also the function and/or pragmatics.
  • 11. LANGUAGE DIFFERENCES ACROSS CULTURES Culture and Lexicons ◦ Self-Other Referents ◦ In U.S., the use of “I”, “we”, is prevalent, but in Japan there are cultural rules governing how to refer self and other. It is dependent largely on the status relationship between you and the other person. ◦ This reflects importance of status and group differentiation in Japan. ◦ Counting Systems ◦ Different objects counted by different suffix in Japan. ◦ Basis for number ◦ In Japanese (and many languages, including Spanish), cultural meanings of numbers based on the words for one through ten.
  • 12. Culture and Pragmatics ◦ Drop of pronouns ◦ The dropping of pronouns occurs Less in individualistic than in collectivistic cultures. ◦ Language use and communication styles ◦ Collectivistic cultures use principle of equity involving greater social penetration when communicating with in groups ◦ Cultural differences in apology, self-disclosure
  • 13. High vs. Low Context Cultures This has to do with the extend to which the specific contents of messages are spelled out. In Low Context Cultures, everything is made crystal clear; no need to read between the lines. “What part of ‘NO’ don’t you understand” mode of communicating. The opposite is true for High context Cultures. If you don’t read between the lines and understand the cultural context of the words used, you won’t get the meaning of what was said. 1. In-group vs. out-group communication, 2. Use of apologies, 3. Self-disclosure, 4. Compliments, and 5. Interpersonal criticism.
  • 14. LINGUISTICS ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION (LANGUAGE) Language is needed for any kind of communication, even people with speech impairments communicate with sign language and brail. Communication becomes difficult in situations where people don’t understand each others’ language. The inability to communicate using a language is known as language barrier to communication. Language barriers are the most common communication barriers which cause misunderstandings and misinterpretations between people.
  • 15. Causes of Language Barriers- Difference in Language Difference in language is the most obvious barrier to communication as two people speaking two different languages cannot communicate with each other. For example, an American goes to China. The person does not understand Chinese and most people in China do not understand English. So, when the person speaks, the communication is worthless as the other Chinese person doesn’t understand it.
  • 16. Regional Accents, Dialects and Pidgin The accents and dialect (use of words) of people belonging to different places differs even if their language is same. Though the languages are technically the same in people using different dialects and accents, the meanings, implications and interpretations of words are different, which may lead to various kinds of conflicts. For example, if a Scottish farmer talks to a person from London, they do not understand most of the words the other says even though they both speak English. The word ham and bacon can be used interchangeably in Scotland but they are different in England.
  • 17. Similarly, pidgin is the simplified language used between people who do not speak common language. The implications of words and phrases can create misunderstandings. For example, the abbreviation “LOL” used in chat language used to mean Lots of Love before, which changed to Laugh Out Loud. If a person says LOL, the second person can interpret the meaning in any way they want or from their understanding. People use both the abbreviations according to the context and need.
  • 18. No Clear Speech People who speak soft or in a small voice cannot be understood. The sender might be saying something whereas the receiver might understand something else. Though speaking common language, people might have difficulty understanding the meaning of the message and the feedbacks. This might also be a cause of obstacle in communication.
  • 19. Use of Jargons and Slang Jargons are the technical words used in communication. It might be different according to different professions, specialty and technical field of a person. For example, technical words used by doctors and lawyers are extremely different. If they start talking, both of them will not get what the other is talking about.
  • 20. Some jargons like adjournment (jargon used by lawyers and police used for delaying a trial for defendant), BP (medical jargon for Blood pressure), etc. are only used by people in similar profession which might be a cause for language barrier. Similarly, the use of slang also makes communication ineffective. For example, the use of word “grass” to describe marijuana can act as a barrier for the people who do not know the slang meaning.
  • 21. Literacy and Linguistic Ability Some people have low vocabulary in a particular language whereas some very high. Though literacy and education increases the need to learn new words, it might not be the only reason. People can increase their vocabulary by reading and with their own interest too. Vocabulary is also less if a person uses the language as their unofficial language. Likewise, linguistic ability is the capability of a person in a particular language. If a person with high vocabulary and linguistic ability talks with another with low ability, the second person will not understand the words used leading to miscommunication of whole message.
  • 22. Grammar and Spelling Grammar and spelling becomes a barrier in communication as people from different parts of the world can be using it differently even in a particular word. Similarly, grammar and spelling mistakes create a huge communication barrier in written communication. For example, a person makes a mistake of typing done as don. The spelling and grammar checker of the computer does not label it as wrong as don is also a correct word. But, the word can change the whole meaning of the sentence or make the sentence not understandable.
  • 23. These are some of the most common causes of language barriers in communication. There are many other causes too like language disabilities, noise, distance or use of metaphors or similes which can be included in other barriers like physiological and physical. Some language barriers can be overcome with practice or other ways like translation, interpreter, language classes, visual methods, etc. whereas some barriers act as problems in a person’s whole life. These barriers must not be present to make the communication effective.
  • 24. LINGUISTIC INTERFERENCE “…those instances of deviation from the norms of either language which occur in the speech of bilinguals as a results of familiarity with more than one language.” Types of linguistic interference 1. Semantic 2. Syntactic 3. Lexical 4. Phonological
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