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Consent,
Crypto and
Information
Infrastructures
What this talk is about?
Introduction to Digital
Infrastructure. (5 Minutes)
Use of Crypto in Digital
Infrastructures (20 ...
Introduction to
Digital
Infrastructure
Physical
Infrastructure
Financial Infrastructure
Digital Infrastructure
 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
 Software as a Service (SaaS)
 Platform as a Service (PaaS)
“
”
Digital Infrastructures are
Information processing
Infrastructures.
Atomic Operations in Data-Verse
Store
AnalyseCreate
Use of Crypto
in Digital
Infrastructures
First came the Data Storage
Then came the Processing
And then you bring your data
Atomic Operations in Data-Verse
Store
AnalyseCreate
S3EBS
EC2 Compute
AWS Revenues
Year Revenue Loss
2006 $20M $13M
2008 $60M $8M
Bring Your Own Keys
*5 Years later after S3
EBS Encryption
*6 Years later after EBS Announcement
Full Fledged Key Management
Bring your own Keys
Atomic Operations in Data-Verse
Crypto
Analyse
StoreCreate
Why is Crypto important?
Whoever controls the data is
the owner of the data.
1
Where data is stored is
irrelevant if contr...
Dis-trust is an Emergent Property
Distrust
Control
StorageOwnership
Crypto Can mediate Trust
CRYPTO
Control
StorageOwnership
Crypto Key
management
used to be hard
problem
But not anymore
Everyone manages their own Keys
And 100s of
them every
single day
OSS and Information Infra-Stacks
 Crypto Protocols are OSS.
 Storage Protocols are OSS. (S3, Block Storage, NFS, Ceph, G...
Public Locker
But I want to
”Share
Information”
Sharing Information means you “lose control” of it
technically.
The fiction of consent i...
Property Preserving
Encryption
 If Plain Text (A) < Plain Text (B), then
 Encrypted (A) < Encrypted (B).
 If Plain Text...
PPE Applicability
 A Document (X) can be thought of to have “N” Fields
 Secret ID
 Name
 Date of Birth
 Address
 Dif...
What PPE
offers
Informational self-
determination.
I share not just
fields but can also
determine the PPE
on some fields.
...
Extraction attacks on PPE
Extraction attacks on PPE
Differential Privacy
 Strong Mathematical foundation that allows balancing
utility and privacy and guarantees
 No access...
ε-differential privacy
 An inference is released from a statistical database and it
should not compromise the individual’...
Multiple
successful
real-world
cases
Windows Telemetry
Linked-in Advertiser queries
US Census for commuting
patterns.
Case Study: US Census Bureau
Privacy Pie
Crypto Key
Management
Storage
Management
Privacy Services
Utility Layers
Why is
Consent
broken?
How not to
break
Consent?
Consent , crypto and information infrastructure systems
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Consent , crypto and information infrastructure systems

Digital and information infrastructures are the new business layers to interact with consumers as part of regulatory requirements. How secure are these systems? How do businesses connect with these infrastructures to provide over-the-top services to citizens/consumers/users?

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Consent , crypto and information infrastructure systems

  1. 1. Consent, Crypto and Information Infrastructures
  2. 2. What this talk is about? Introduction to Digital Infrastructure. (5 Minutes) Use of Crypto in Digital Infrastructures (20 Minutes). Relationship between Crypto and Consent. (15 Minutes)
  3. 3. Introduction to Digital Infrastructure
  4. 4. Physical Infrastructure
  5. 5. Financial Infrastructure
  6. 6. Digital Infrastructure  Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)  Software as a Service (SaaS)  Platform as a Service (PaaS)
  7. 7. “ ” Digital Infrastructures are Information processing Infrastructures.
  8. 8. Atomic Operations in Data-Verse Store AnalyseCreate
  9. 9. Use of Crypto in Digital Infrastructures
  10. 10. First came the Data Storage
  11. 11. Then came the Processing
  12. 12. And then you bring your data
  13. 13. Atomic Operations in Data-Verse Store AnalyseCreate S3EBS EC2 Compute
  14. 14. AWS Revenues Year Revenue Loss 2006 $20M $13M 2008 $60M $8M
  15. 15. Bring Your Own Keys *5 Years later after S3
  16. 16. EBS Encryption *6 Years later after EBS Announcement
  17. 17. Full Fledged Key Management
  18. 18. Bring your own Keys
  19. 19. Atomic Operations in Data-Verse Crypto Analyse StoreCreate
  20. 20. Why is Crypto important? Whoever controls the data is the owner of the data. 1 Where data is stored is irrelevant if control is yours. 2 Unlike “physical things, in information infrastructures, control, storage and ownership are “different things” 3
  21. 21. Dis-trust is an Emergent Property Distrust Control StorageOwnership
  22. 22. Crypto Can mediate Trust CRYPTO Control StorageOwnership
  23. 23. Crypto Key management used to be hard problem
  24. 24. But not anymore
  25. 25. Everyone manages their own Keys
  26. 26. And 100s of them every single day
  27. 27. OSS and Information Infra-Stacks  Crypto Protocols are OSS.  Storage Protocols are OSS. (S3, Block Storage, NFS, Ceph, Gluster FS, ZFS, LVM)  Storage Services (DynamoDB, Cassandra etc.)  So how do Digital infrastructures make money? – Efficiency, Optionality and Trust (provided by Crypto)
  28. 28. Public Locker
  29. 29. But I want to ”Share Information” Sharing Information means you “lose control” of it technically. The fiction of consent is then created by Legal principles and through policy. Multiple schemes exist that allow Limited sharing but with Bring your own Cryptography algorithms and Bring your own keys approach.
  30. 30. Property Preserving Encryption  If Plain Text (A) < Plain Text (B), then  Encrypted (A) < Encrypted (B).  If Plain Text(A) OPERATOR Plain Text (B)  Encrypted (A) OPERATOR Encrypted (B)  Leaks some information and is vulnerable to repeated queries.  Combined with transformation to apply anonymization offers better protection
  31. 31. PPE Applicability  A Document (X) can be thought of to have “N” Fields  Secret ID  Name  Date of Birth  Address  Different PPE algorithms can be applied to different fields based on what the “Sharer” wants to.  Secret ID (Full encryption)  Name (No Encryption)  Date of Birth (PPE that transforms into Age number and then applies algorithm that preserves < and > operations)  Address (Encrypt everything)
  32. 32. What PPE offers Informational self- determination. I share not just fields but can also determine the PPE on some fields. Composable with Other Anonymization functions – PPE(T(X)) Allows T(X) to be built for fields which can be normalized to PPE fields
  33. 33. Extraction attacks on PPE
  34. 34. Extraction attacks on PPE
  35. 35. Differential Privacy  Strong Mathematical foundation that allows balancing utility and privacy and guarantees  No access to raw data.  Resilience to post-processing.  Resilience to de-anonymization techniques via constant querying.  Allows aggregation but evades statistical inference.
  36. 36. ε-differential privacy  An inference is released from a statistical database and it should not compromise the individual’s privacy.  A perfect privacy score would only be possible when the individual’s data is not in the DB.  Goal of Differential Privacy = Roughly same privacy to individual as if their data is not in the DB.
  37. 37. Multiple successful real-world cases Windows Telemetry Linked-in Advertiser queries US Census for commuting patterns.
  38. 38. Case Study: US Census Bureau
  39. 39. Privacy Pie Crypto Key Management Storage Management Privacy Services Utility Layers
  40. 40. Why is Consent broken?
  41. 41. How not to break Consent?

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