The report isabout the differentinvestmentsectorsinIndia,factorsaffecting
the investmenttrendsinthe respectiveinvestmentsectors,andthe three
Source of Information: FTKMC knowledge books.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDIAN ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
AN INTRODUCTION TO INVESTMENT SECTOR
o BANK FIXED DEPOSITS
o LIFE INSURANCE
o REAL ESTATE/PROPERTY
o POSTAL SAVING SCHEMES
o SHARES AND MUTUAL FUNDS
o NSC AND PPF
o BONDS, CHIT FUNDS AND COMPANY FD’S
o FACTORS IMPACTING DEBT MARKET
o FACTORS IMPACTING EQUITY MARKET
o FACTORS IMPACTING CURRENCY MARKET
MUTUAL FUND INDUSTRY
o FACTORS IMPACTING MUTUAL FUND INDUSTRY
o FACTORS IMPACTING COMMODITY MARKET
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
o An overview
o Determinants of foreign direct investments
MAJOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN INDIA
o VIRGIN INDIA
o RELIANCE POWER PROJECT
o BHARTI WALMART
Indian Economic Overview
India’s financial market has been one on the centre stage since a decade with
it being one of the fastest growing economies in the world.
The last decade has witnessed a large evolution of the Indian market
becoming one of the strongest economies, standing head high even in the
times of global crisis.
India has been one of the best performers in the world economy in recent
years, but rapidly rising inflation and the complexities of running the world’s
biggest democracy are proving challenging.
India’s economy has been one of the stars of global economics in recent years,
growing 9.2% in 2007 and 9.6% in 2006. Growth had been supported by
markets reforms, huge inflows of FDI, rising foreign exchange reserves, both
an IT and real estate boom, and a flourishing capital market.
Introduction to INVESTMENT SECTORS in India
Investment has been a tool for the individuals or groups to convert their static
money into a dynamic asset, giving them returns higher than the principle or
n times the principle.
In today’s market scenario it has become mandatory to invest your money
purposefully in the market in order to get high returns.
Investing wisely is an important part of financial security. Invest money as
early as possible so that the money will grow accordingly in your lifetime.
Today Indian youths are well paid compared to last decades thanks to
Information Technology, ITES like BPO, Call Center and overall strong
economy. So people are able to save more money.
Choosing a wise investment is very crucial because there has to be a balance
between the risks and returns. For example many people invest private firms
which offer very high interest rate but they may vanish after some time
loosing all the invested money.
Savings have been on the Indian blood since decades and to make this saving
dynamic, benefiting the economy, giving it the impetus to grow, investment
was given the right robust during 80’s in India by the then finance minister
Mr.Manmohan Singh,letting the citizens an opportunity to get the tax
benefits(subsequently a chance to convert the black money into white
money), thus creating mobilization in the economy and since then India has
never looked back.
Here are some major investment options popular in India.
Bank Fixed Deposits
This is a very common investment method. Risk is very less compared to
other type of investments but return also not very high. Interest rate varies
from bank to bank and depends on the scheme you choose. Tenure can be
anything between 15 days to 5 years. All leading nationalized, private and co-
operative banks offer fixed deposits. Different banks have different schemes
and features like easy FD, cash certificate, auto renewal, free credit card with
This is another important investment option in India. Life insurance
Corporation of India, a Government of India undertaking is the market leader
followed by private players like ICICI Prudential Life Insurance, Bajaj Alliance
Life Insurance, HDFC Standard Life, Birla Sunlife, Kotak Mahindra, Reliance
Life Insurance, Tata AIG Life, Aviva Life Insurance etc.
The life insurance/insurance sector is yet to see the robust growth in its
market as the current scenario suggests that more than 60%(approx) of the
Indian population is still untouched by this particular kind of investment.
Property prices in major Indian cities are doubling in every 2-3 years so
investing in property is a good idea. Investing in property is also a safe
investment with good returns. Buy a flat, property or individual house is a
prime area or suburbs of main cities and it will appreciate well in another few
years. Getting a housingloan is not very difficultthese days. Investin property
in main cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Calcutta,
India is viewed by many as having great potential for real estate investment,
with both domestic and international firms raising private equity real estate
funds targeting the region.
Postal Saving Schemes
Apartfrom postal services like delivering letters, registers, parcels and money
orders Postal department of India offers financial services like recurring
deposit, postal life insurance, saving account and national saving certificate.
The past generation had a strong belief in this kind of low dynamicinvestment
and they had a view that their money is safe in this investment than nowhere
Investing in gold is another good option for long term. Normally gold
appreciate about 17% per year. It is a very good return when inflation is about
4 to 6%. When investing in gold it is better to invest in gold coins or gold
mutual funds. When you buy gold as ornaments you will loose money as
making charges and wastage.
But in the present market scenario the gold is traded as a commodity and it
was, is and will be seen and recognized as a major sector of investment by
Shares and Mutual Funds
Investing in Shares and Mutual Funds are risky options but return is more.
You will have to study about the company well before investing. To invest in
shares you have to start a demat account first. If you have enough time to
spend they study about the companies and invest wisely otherwise invest in
National Saving Certificate and Public Provident Fund
NSCs and PPFs are safe and secure investment method but return is less
compared to current bank interest rates and share market returns.
Bonds, Chit Funds and Company FDs
Other possible investment options are bonds, chit funds and company FDs.
Some chit funds and company FDs offer high interest rates but may vanish
after some times. So be careful while investing in such firms.
These are the few investment sectors which have been in the lime light a half
decade ago. Now the investment scenario has changed its position globally,
with drastic change in investment trend and shift from the primitive
investment tools to the novice global financial instruments, for instance the
derivatives, futures and options and commodity exchange market.
As the global media transformed from black & white to colours, the
financial(investment) market has changed its facet to distinguished
CURRENCY MARKET, COMMODITY MARKET, DEBT MARKET, EQUITY
MARKET and EQUITY DERIVATIVES MARKET and new terminologies.
Let’s have a brief look on these markets and the factors impacting the
investment in each of these markets.
The Debt Market
The debt marketin India, the governmentsecurities marketin particular,
dates back to 1859 when the British govt. took over the East IndiaCompany.
The governmenthasbeen issuing debt instrumentsboth before and after
independence. Corporatebonds, mainly debentures, werebeingissued by
companiesof good standingin the pre-war and post-war years. Lending
institutions wereset up during196-70asthere was a decline in corporate
bond issues duringthe period. These institutions supplied the bulk of the
medium-term and long-term fundingrequirementsof the privatesector. The
corporate bond marketrevived in 1980’sand, today, there is a well-
segmented debt market in Indiacomprisingthe governmentsecurities(G-
secs) market, corporate bond marketand money market.
The debt marketplays a pivotalrole in the economy as it helps in efficient
mobilization and allocation of resourcesin the economy, besidesfinancingthe
developmentactivities of the govt. It transmits signals for implementation of
the monetary policy and facilitates liquidity managementin tune with the
overall short-term and long-term objectives. The securities are used as an
instrumentfor raising debt.
The returnson g-secs are normally taken as the benchmark rates of returns
and are referred to as the risk-free return in financial theory.
Factors Impacting the Debt Market
so many factors influencethe debt market and the followingare the most
Sound fiscal and monetary policy
Effective legal, taxation and regulatory infrastructure
Competitive market structure
Low transaction cost
Low levelsof fragmentations
High level of heterogeneity amongmarket participants
Liberalized financialsystem with competing intermediaries
Diversified investor base-the more investors, the moretradingactivity
Availability of hedging instrumentssuchas interest rate futuresand
Reliable benchmark yield curveto pricelong term risk
Robust clearing and settlement system
Availability of publicinformation to assess credit quality
Bond Market (exchange traded)
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
India 209,097 141,269.6
46,378.80 59,960.80 68,619.70 24.31
The history of Indian stock markets dates back to nearly 200 years. Stock
exchanges spread their roots in Indiain 1875 when 318 tradersjointly formed
the Native Share and Stock BrokersAssociation, which later came to be known
as Bombay Stock Exchange(BSE), the oldest stock exchange in India.
The Stock Exchange provides the means by which finance can be raised by the
sales of shares to investors. Companies are legal entities that produce goods
and services in a modern economy and in the process provide employment to
a large number of people. Exchange encourage the creation of companies and
provide a totally transparent mechanism for the valuation of companies
through the process of price discovery. Trading platforms on various
exchanges disseminate price information and price is discovered through free
The stock market is known to be the barometer of an economy and reflects
how a country’s economy is performing at the macro level.
Factors impacting the Equity Market
Various factors impact the equity markets, which includes
GDP growth rate
Balance of trade and balance of payments
The Foreign Exchange market is the largest and the most liquid market in the
world. The roots of trading of foreign currencies can be traced back to the
middle ages with the development of bills of exchange by international
merchant bankers. These bills of exchange represented transferable third-
party payments, which facilitated both flexibility and growth in international
trade that included foreign exchange.
The origin of the foreign exchange market in India could be traced back to
1978 when banks in India were permitted to undertake intra-day trade in
foreign exchange. The Forex market in Indiawas given a boost by setting up of
the Expert Group on Foreign Exchange Markets in India.
The economic liberalization of the early 1990’s facilitated the introduction of
derivatives based on interest rates and foreign exchange. The Internal
Technical Group on Foreign Exchange Market(2005) was constituted to
undertake a comprehensive review of the measures initiated by the Reserve
Bank Of India(RBI)and identify areasfor further liberalization or relaxation of
publicissues rightissues bonusissues
restrictions in medium-term framework. Since then, foreign exchange market
has acquired immense participation, depth, and liquidity.
The corporate uses the Forex market for hedging against currency
depreciation to protect future transactions and buying/selling currencies to
pay international employees. Changes in the exchange rate due to changes in
the value of each currency relative to the other in the pair, and are measured
in points in percentage, or pips.
Factors impacting ForeignExchange Market
Economicgrowth and trends
Balance of payment
Balance of trade
New tax laws
Internationalpolitical and economic developments
4,404 6,571 12,305
2.6:1 2.7:1 2.5:1
50.5 51.9 49.7
19.0 17.9 19.3
30.5 31.1 31.1
source:ftkmc 3, RBI
MUTUAL FUND INDUSTRY
Indian mutualfundsin Indiacommenced operationsin 1964 as an initiative of
the Indian government and Reserve Bank of India(RBI).
Phase I (1964-87) - establishment of UTI
Phase II (1987-93) – entry of public sector funds
Phase III(1993-96) – entry of private sector funds
Phase IV (1996-99) – growth and SEBI regulations
Phase V (1999-2004) –emergence of a large & uniform industry
Phase VI (from 2004) – consolidation and growth
Mutual funds are simply a pool of investments. The fund is organized as a
trust that collects funds from investors and collectively invests them in
different asset classes such as equity, debt, commodity, real estate, etc. as per
the pre-defined investment objectives. The trust manages these investments
to achieve the returns as set by the scheme objectives. Once the funds are
collected from the investors, units are allotted to the investors depending
upon the investment made by them and returns made by the fund are
distributed to the investors.
Various factors impact investmentsin mutualfunds
Performanceof fund investments
Units sold or redeemed
Personalexperience with a mutualfund company
Currenteventsin the financial markets
Mediacoverage about fund companies
RETURNS ARE PASSED
History of trading in commodities in India dates back to several centuries. But
organized futures market in India emerged in 1875 when Bombay Cotton
Trade Association was established. In the post-liberalization era of Indian
economy, it was the Kabra Committee and the World bank-UNCTAD study
that finally assessed the scope for forward and futurestrading in commodities
markets in India and recommended steps to revitalize futures trading.
Futures market facilitates discovery of prices at a future date on the basis of
information collected by many stakeholders. Efficient functioning of future
markets results in many benefits for optimal decision making and resource
allocation by price discovery, risk reduction and risk sharing. Thus, futures
markets promote more efficient production planning, storage, marketing and
better margins for producers by providing a mechanism for risk management
and price discovery.
FACTORS IMPACTINGTHE COMMODITYMARKET
Commodity pricesare susceptible to a multitudeof factors and the major
factors are enumerated below
2006 2007 2008
Global 1,13,383.3 131695 167134.4 21.41%
India (mcx) 10204.5 7901.70 15042.1 21.41%
Global 1431771.91 1614694.74 1875003.81 14.44%
India (mcx) 300672.1 306792 393750.80 14.44%
Global 529396400 768775300 713889800 16.12%
India (mcx) 5293964 15375506 14277796 64.23%
Global 147472967741.9 23626088813.6 256333425000 31.84%
India (mcx) 457166200 1393934524 2050667400 111.70%
166.509 184.964 117.244 -11.85%
2200.78 2373.16 1788.05 -1.11%
Foreign Direct Investment
FDI or Foreign Direct Investmentis any form of investment that earns interest
in enterprises which function outside of the domestic territory of
FDIs require a business relationship between a parent company and its
foreign subsidiary. Foreign direct business relationships give rise to
multinational corporations. For an investment to be regarded as an FDI, the
parent firm needs to have at least 10% of the ordinary shares of its foreign
affiliates. The investing firm may also qualify for an FDI if it owns voting
power in a business enterprise operating in a foreign country.
Types of Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview
FDIs can be broadly classified into two types: outward FDIs and inward FDIs.
This classification is based on the types of restrictions imposed, and the
various prerequisites required for these investments.
Movement of Foreign Direct Investment across countries in the world in the
last coupleof years presentsan interesting phenomenon. FDIincreased by 5%
worldwide in the year 2007.
In 2007 China succeeded in retaining its 2006 ranking as the country in the
world, which attracted the highest level of multinational investment. The
number of FDI related projectsstood at 1,171. Thelevelof investmentin 2007
stood at US$90 billion in comparison to the US$116 billion that was registered
in 2006. China also recorded substantial job creation in 2007. Out of an
estimated 1.2 million jobs created in the Asia-Pacific region, 366,000 were
credited to China.
Determinants of ForeignDirect Investment
One of the most important determinants of foreign direct investment is the
size as well as the growth prospects of the economy of the country where
the foreign direct investment is being made.
It is normally assumed that if the country has a big market, it can grow quickly
from an economic point of view and it is concluded that the investors would
be able to make the most of their investments in that country.
In case of foreign direct investments that are based on export, the dimensions
of the host country are important as there are opportunities for bigger
economies of scale, as well as spill-over effects.
The population of a country plays an important role in attracting foreign
direct investors to a country. In such cases the investors are lured by the
prospects of a huge customer base.
Now if the country has a high per capita income or if the citizens have
reasonably good spending capabilities then it would offer the foreign direct
investors with the scope of excellent performances.
he status of the human resources in a country is also instrumental in
attracting direct investment from overseas. There are certain countries like
China that have taken an active interest in increasing the quality of their
They have made it compulsory for every Chinese citizen to receive at least
nine years of education. This has helped in enhancing the standards of the
laborers in China.
If a particular country has plenty of naturalresourcesit alwaysfinds investors
willing to puttheir money in them. A good examplewould be SaudiArabia and
other oil rich countries that have had overseas companies investing in them in
order to tap the unlimited oil resources at their disposal.
Inexpensive labor force is also an important determinant of attracting foreign
direct investment. The BPO revolution, as well as the boom of the Information
Technology companies in countries like India has been a proof of the fact that
inexpensive labor force has played an important part in attracting overseas
Infrastructuralfactorslike the status of telecommunicationsand railways play
an important part in having the foreign direct investors come into a particular
It has been observed that if the infrastructural facilities are properly in place
in a country then that country receives a substantial amount offoreign direct
investment. If a country has extended its arms to overseas investors and is
also able to get access to the international markets then it stands a better
chance of getting higher amounts of foreign direct investment.
It has been observed in the recent years that a couple of countries have
altered their stance vis-a-vis overseas investment. They have reset their
economic policies in order to suit the interests of the overseas investors.
These companies have increased the transparency of the legal frameworks in
place. This has been done so that the overseas companies can understand the
implications of their investment in a particular country and take the
CUMULATIVE FDI EQUITY INFLOWS
Cumulative amount ofFDI inflows (From
April 2000 to March2009)
Amount of FDI inflows during 2008-9
(From April 2008 to January 2009)
105,673 23, 885
Cumulative amount ofFDI Inflows (Upto
SOURCE:DIPP, Federal Ministry of Commerce & Industry,
Government of India
FDI Equity Inflows (2008-09)
MONTHS In Rs crore
April 2008 15005 3749
May 2008 16563 3932
June 2008 10244 2392
July 2008 9627 2247
August 2008 9995 2328
September 2008 11676 2562
October 2008 7284 1497
November 2008 5305 1083
December 2008 6626 1362
January 2009 13347 2733
Year 2008-09 (Upto January 2009) 105673 23885
Year 2007-08 (Upto January 2008) 58203 14466
YOY Growth(%) (+) 81 (+) 65
SOURCE:DIPP, Federal Ministry of Commerce & Industry,
Government of India
Major Investment Projects in India
Now since the investment market has grown many foldsthan what it was a
decadeago, it would be good have an overview of a few major projects
currently runningin India.
VirginMobile is a brand used by many mobile phone service providers based
in the United Kingdom and operating in India, Australia, Canada, South Africa,
the United States and France; the brand survived only briefly in Singapore.
The international Virgin Mobile businesses each act as independent entities,
usually in a partnership between Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Group and an
existing phone company. Virgin Group provides the brand, and the phone
company operates the network infrastructure.
Virgin Mobile India Limited is a cellular telephone service provider
company which is a joint venture between Tata Teleservices and Richard
Branson's Virgin Group. Currently, thecompany uses Tata's CDMA network to
offer its services under the brand name Virgin Mobile, but it has also
announced plans to foray into the GSM space as well.
RELIANCE POWER PROJECTS
The Reliance Power Projects provide detailed overview of the several
assignments undertaken by the Reliance Energy Limited. Instituted in the year
of 1929, RelianceEnergy Limited has become one of the pioneer companies in
the present era, in the field of generating, transmitting and distributing
A part of the Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, the Reliance Energy Limited
Company supplies 28 billion voltage of electricity to more than 25 million
customers of India. The company has its power stations in Kerala,
Maharashtra, Goa, AndhraPradeshand Karnataka that produces a total of 941
MW of electrical energy.
Projects of Reliance Energy Limited
At present, Reliance Energy Limited is engaged in several projects in the area
of Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) section of power
generation. Apart from the EPC project, the companies under Reliance Energy
Limited are involved in other power generating projects through the use of
wind energy, hydro-power, coal energy and natural gas. The company has its
bases in Arunachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttarkhand and Uttar Pradesh.
Reliance Energy Limited has also invested in several projects related to the
development of infrastructure that comprises the ambitious Mumbai metro
rail project and many other assignments of the National Highways Authority
Some of the important projects that were undertaken by the Engineering,
Procurement and Construction (EPC) section of power generation in the past
few years are:
Establishment of Reliance Energy Limited- Samalkot Power Station at
Thermal Power Station in Dahanu in Maharashtra
Co- generation Power Plant on behalf of Godavari Sugar Mills Limited in
Sameerwadi at Karnataka
Bharti Enterprisesand Wal-Martjoin handsin wholesale cash-and-carry to
servesmall retailers, manufacturersand farmers.
Business-to-businesswholesale cash-and-carry joint ventureto set up
world-classmodern supply chain and back-end logistics infrastructure
Drivingefficiencies across the supply chain will help minimizewastage
and providesmallretailers quality merchandise at competitive
Bharti Enterprises and Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. have signed an agreement to
establish Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited, a joint venture for wholesale cash-
and-carry and back-end supply chain management operations in India, in line
with Government of India guidelines. Under the agreement, Bharti and Wal-
Mart will hold a 50:50 stake in Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited.
Wholesale cash-and-carry operations provide small retailers and business
owners a wide range of quality products at competitive wholesale prices that
help them enhance their businesses and profitability. The Bharti Wal-Mart
business-to-business (B2B) wholesale cash-and-carry joint venture will serve
kirana stores, fruit and vegetable resellers, restaurants and other business
owners. It also will serve other retailers such as Bharti Retail, which is setting
up a chain of stores in India that are 100 percent owned and operated by
The wholesale cash-and-carry venture will invest in setting up an efficient
supply chain. This will link farmers and small manufacturers directly to
retailers, thereby maximizingvaluefor farmers and manufacturers on the one
end and retailers, and in turn, consumers on the other. The venture will
support farmers and small manufacturers who have limited infrastructure
and distribution strength, and the supply chain will enable minimum wastage,
particularly of fresh foods and vegetables.
Overall the investment in different sectors shows an uprising trend, thus
implying the growth in economy. The investors now are more comprehensive
of the current scenario of the financial market and are coming forth to invest
extensively with the help of different financial tools to enhance growth and
maximize profit and generating unimaginable bottom-line.