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INTRODUCTION
The word personality has been derived from
the latin word ‘persona’, it means a mask
worn by a person. Personality is the total
quality of an individual behavior as it is shown
in the habits, thinking, attitudes, interests, the
manner of acting and the personal philosophy
of life.
Topic presentation on
personality
sub.- mental health nursing
Submitted to submitted by
Dr. s. bhoskar Nisha singour
Dr. m. sharma msc nursing
previous year
DEFINITION
Personality is the sum of activities
that can be discovered by actual
observations over a long enough
period of time to give reliable
information".
(Watson)
DEFINITION
Personality refers to deeply ingrained
patterns of behavior, which include the
way one relates to, perceives and thinks
about the environment and one self.
(American Psychiatric Association-1987)
TOPOGRAPHY OF PERSONALITY
personality is a product of heredity and
environment. A child though not born with a
personality, develops the same in course of
continuous interaction with his environment.
Personality includes the cognitive, affective
and psychomotor behaviors and covers all
the conscious, subconscious and
unconscious also.
It is specific and unique for each and
every individual.It is not static, but
dynamic in nature.
Personality of an individual keeps
adjusting itself to the environment on a
continuous basis.
TYPES OF PERSONALITIES
Hippocratic classification
1. Sanguine
2. Phlegmatic
3. Melancholic
4. Choleric
Kretschmer classification
1. Pyknic
2. Athletic
3. Leptosomatic
SHELDONS CLASSIFICATION
Jung’s classification
Introverted
extroverted
Allport’s classification
1. Ascendant
2. Descendant
a
MAJOR THEORIES OF PERSONALITIES
1. Dynamic personalities theory
2. Humanistic theories
3. Type and trait theories of
personality
4. Learning and behavioral theories of
persoality
Dynamic personality theory
Sigmund freud’s Psychoanalytic
theories
Jung’s analytical psychology
Horney’s psychoanalytical interpersonal
theories
Ericson’s Psychosocial theory
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
Theory of psychosocial development
Eric Ericson (1902-1994)
Humanistic approach
Roger’s person centered approach
Maslaw hierarchy of needs
Carl rogers person centered approaach
Self actualization
Personality development
Carl rogers person centered approaach
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Trait and type theories of personality
Two major themes underlie trait and type
theories of personality:
No two individuals are alike. People possess
broad predispositions or traits to respond in
certain ways in diverse situations; what this
suggests is that people display consistency
in their actions, thoughts and emotions
across time, events and experiences.
Gordon Allport’S Theory 1937
Allport’s theory asserts that no two individuals
are alike. Allport regarded 'traits' as being
responsible for these individual differences.
Allport distinguished between common traits
and individual traits. Common traits are shared
by several people within a given culture.
Individual traits are peculiar to the person and
do not permit comparisons among people.
Gordon Allport's Theory (1937)
 Raymond Cattell's Theory (1965)
Hans Eysenck's Theory
(Trait type theory of Personality)
Raymond cattel’s theory
Hans Eysenck’s theory
Learning theory of personality
1. Dollard and Miller's Learning Theory of
Personality
This theory emphasizes the development of
personality on the basis of the responses
and behavior learnt through the process of
motivation and reward. This theory stressed
the habit formation through learning as a
key factor in the development of personality.
Bandura and Walter's Social Learning
Theory
Alben Bandura and Richard Walters (1963) came
out with an innovative approach to personality in
the form of their social learning theory. They
advanced the view that what an individual presents
to the world at large as his personality, is acquired
through a continuous process of structuring and
restructuring of experiences, gathered by means of
social learning and later imitated in corresponding
situations
PSYCOMETRIC ASSESSMENT
The following methods are commonly
used for evaluation and measurement
of personality traits:
Interview method
Observation method
Personality inventories
(rating scales and questionnaires)
Projective techniques
Situational tests
Projective technique
The most commonly used projective technique
are:-
Rorschach inkblot test
Thematic apperception test
Word association or free association test
Sentence completion tests
Rorschach ink block test
Thematic apperception test
Sentence completion test
ALTERATION IN PERSONALITY DUE TO
SICKNESS
Illness is a highly personal state in which the persons
physical, emotional, intellectual, social,
developmental or spiritual functioning is thought tor
be diminished or impaired compared with previous
experience. How people behave when they are ill is
highly individualized and affected by many variables
such as age, sex, occupation, socio-economic status
religion, ethnic origin, psychological stability
personality and mode of coping.
Common Behavioral Changes due to illness
Withdrawn behavior
Changes in self-concept, body image and
lifestyle
•Self-centeredness
Demanding and dependent behavior
Uncooperativenes
 Hostility
Shame and guilt feeling
Nursing intervention
Convey an enthusiastic readiness to care
forthe patient. Failure to do so often
aggravates dependent or demanding behavior.
Patient's negative feelings must be replaced
by feelings of hope, courage and willingness
to cooperate.
Nurses have to build-up healthy personal
relationships that are the relationship of
confidence and cooperation with the patient.
Patient should not be allowed to
regress but should be encouraged to
participate in recreational activities
individually and in groups.
 The nurse can help the patient
verbalize his feelings and perceptions
about his problems. With
verbalization anxiety subsides and
behavioral problems reduce.
Nurses need to help patients express their thoughts
and feelings and to provide care that. helps the
patient effectively cope with change.
Feelings of insecurity can be lesser by straight
forward explanations of hospital conditions an
procedures including details of routine by being
warm and reassuring
Withdrawn patients need gentle encouragemen to
talk, to express feelings and relate to the nurse
Nurse should spend time with these patients P
Alteration in personality due to
personality disorder.
Personality disorders result
disorders result when personality
traits become abnormal, i.e.
become inflexible and
maladaptive and cause significant
social or occupational distress.
Classification of Personality
disorder
 Paranoid personality disorder
 Schizoid personality disorder
 Dissocial (Antisocial) personality
disorder
 Histrionic personality disorder
 Borderline personality disorder
 Anxious personality disorder
 Dependent personality disorder
 Obsessive compulsive (Anankastic)
personality disorder.
 Narcissitic personality disorder.
CONCLUTION
An understanding of personality will help the
nurse to predict her behavior as well as the
behavior of others. Major decisions in life depend
upon this knowledge. For example, selection of a
career, spouse, etc. her relationship with friends
and relatives depend upon her expectations of
their behavior by understanding their
personalities.The nurse should not only acquire
skills and knowledge, but also develop a pleasing
and strong personality.

Thank you

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ppt personality.pptx

  • 1. INTRODUCTION The word personality has been derived from the latin word ‘persona’, it means a mask worn by a person. Personality is the total quality of an individual behavior as it is shown in the habits, thinking, attitudes, interests, the manner of acting and the personal philosophy of life.
  • 2. Topic presentation on personality sub.- mental health nursing Submitted to submitted by Dr. s. bhoskar Nisha singour Dr. m. sharma msc nursing previous year
  • 3. DEFINITION Personality is the sum of activities that can be discovered by actual observations over a long enough period of time to give reliable information". (Watson)
  • 4. DEFINITION Personality refers to deeply ingrained patterns of behavior, which include the way one relates to, perceives and thinks about the environment and one self. (American Psychiatric Association-1987)
  • 5. TOPOGRAPHY OF PERSONALITY personality is a product of heredity and environment. A child though not born with a personality, develops the same in course of continuous interaction with his environment. Personality includes the cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviors and covers all the conscious, subconscious and unconscious also.
  • 6. It is specific and unique for each and every individual.It is not static, but dynamic in nature. Personality of an individual keeps adjusting itself to the environment on a continuous basis.
  • 7. TYPES OF PERSONALITIES Hippocratic classification 1. Sanguine 2. Phlegmatic 3. Melancholic 4. Choleric
  • 8.
  • 9. Kretschmer classification 1. Pyknic 2. Athletic 3. Leptosomatic
  • 10.
  • 12.
  • 14.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. MAJOR THEORIES OF PERSONALITIES 1. Dynamic personalities theory 2. Humanistic theories 3. Type and trait theories of personality 4. Learning and behavioral theories of persoality
  • 20. Dynamic personality theory Sigmund freud’s Psychoanalytic theories Jung’s analytical psychology Horney’s psychoanalytical interpersonal theories Ericson’s Psychosocial theory
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Theory of psychosocial development Eric Ericson (1902-1994)
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Humanistic approach Roger’s person centered approach Maslaw hierarchy of needs
  • 30. Carl rogers person centered approaach Self actualization Personality development
  • 31. Carl rogers person centered approaach
  • 33. Trait and type theories of personality Two major themes underlie trait and type theories of personality: No two individuals are alike. People possess broad predispositions or traits to respond in certain ways in diverse situations; what this suggests is that people display consistency in their actions, thoughts and emotions across time, events and experiences.
  • 34. Gordon Allport’S Theory 1937 Allport’s theory asserts that no two individuals are alike. Allport regarded 'traits' as being responsible for these individual differences. Allport distinguished between common traits and individual traits. Common traits are shared by several people within a given culture. Individual traits are peculiar to the person and do not permit comparisons among people.
  • 35. Gordon Allport's Theory (1937)  Raymond Cattell's Theory (1965) Hans Eysenck's Theory (Trait type theory of Personality)
  • 36.
  • 39. Learning theory of personality 1. Dollard and Miller's Learning Theory of Personality This theory emphasizes the development of personality on the basis of the responses and behavior learnt through the process of motivation and reward. This theory stressed the habit formation through learning as a key factor in the development of personality.
  • 40. Bandura and Walter's Social Learning Theory Alben Bandura and Richard Walters (1963) came out with an innovative approach to personality in the form of their social learning theory. They advanced the view that what an individual presents to the world at large as his personality, is acquired through a continuous process of structuring and restructuring of experiences, gathered by means of social learning and later imitated in corresponding situations
  • 41. PSYCOMETRIC ASSESSMENT The following methods are commonly used for evaluation and measurement of personality traits: Interview method Observation method
  • 42. Personality inventories (rating scales and questionnaires) Projective techniques Situational tests
  • 43. Projective technique The most commonly used projective technique are:- Rorschach inkblot test Thematic apperception test Word association or free association test Sentence completion tests
  • 47. ALTERATION IN PERSONALITY DUE TO SICKNESS Illness is a highly personal state in which the persons physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental or spiritual functioning is thought tor be diminished or impaired compared with previous experience. How people behave when they are ill is highly individualized and affected by many variables such as age, sex, occupation, socio-economic status religion, ethnic origin, psychological stability personality and mode of coping.
  • 48. Common Behavioral Changes due to illness Withdrawn behavior Changes in self-concept, body image and lifestyle •Self-centeredness Demanding and dependent behavior Uncooperativenes  Hostility Shame and guilt feeling
  • 49. Nursing intervention Convey an enthusiastic readiness to care forthe patient. Failure to do so often aggravates dependent or demanding behavior. Patient's negative feelings must be replaced by feelings of hope, courage and willingness to cooperate. Nurses have to build-up healthy personal relationships that are the relationship of confidence and cooperation with the patient.
  • 50. Patient should not be allowed to regress but should be encouraged to participate in recreational activities individually and in groups.  The nurse can help the patient verbalize his feelings and perceptions about his problems. With verbalization anxiety subsides and behavioral problems reduce.
  • 51. Nurses need to help patients express their thoughts and feelings and to provide care that. helps the patient effectively cope with change. Feelings of insecurity can be lesser by straight forward explanations of hospital conditions an procedures including details of routine by being warm and reassuring Withdrawn patients need gentle encouragemen to talk, to express feelings and relate to the nurse Nurse should spend time with these patients P
  • 52. Alteration in personality due to personality disorder. Personality disorders result disorders result when personality traits become abnormal, i.e. become inflexible and maladaptive and cause significant social or occupational distress.
  • 53. Classification of Personality disorder  Paranoid personality disorder  Schizoid personality disorder  Dissocial (Antisocial) personality disorder  Histrionic personality disorder
  • 54.  Borderline personality disorder  Anxious personality disorder  Dependent personality disorder  Obsessive compulsive (Anankastic) personality disorder.  Narcissitic personality disorder.
  • 55. CONCLUTION An understanding of personality will help the nurse to predict her behavior as well as the behavior of others. Major decisions in life depend upon this knowledge. For example, selection of a career, spouse, etc. her relationship with friends and relatives depend upon her expectations of their behavior by understanding their personalities.The nurse should not only acquire skills and knowledge, but also develop a pleasing and strong personality.