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Structure of human cell &
functions
• 5. Provides a framework for the arrangement of an
ordered sequence of protein molecules e.g.
enzymes,pumps,receptors,ions,channels, in a
functionally meaningful pattern.
• 6.Links adjacent cells together by junctional
complexes to form tissues.
Tight junction
• In this membranes of two cells become opposed & outer
layers of membranes fuse strongly,thus obliterating the space
between the cells.
• Seen along the apical margins of cells in epithelium like
intestinal mucosa,walls of renal tubules.
• Forms barrier to the movement of ions and other solutes from
one side of epithelium to other.
Desmosomes or Adherens junction
• Here two membranes are separated by 15-20nm space.
• There is dense accumulation of proteins on both
surfaces of membrane with fibers extending from
cytoplasmic surface of each membrane into the cell.
• Transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherins joins
the cells.
• This holds adjacent cells firmly together in areas that
are subjected to stretching like skin.
• Also resist separation during various contractile
activities such as when food moves through the GIT.
Gap junctions or Nexus
• There is 2-20nm space between the opposing membranes.
• This gap is filled with densly packed particles through each
of which there appears to be a channel(tiny fluid filled
tunnels) that connects the two cells.
• The diameter of each channel is regulated by ca++,PH,and
voltage.
• Permits rapid propagation of electrical potential changes
from one cell to another e.g cardiac & smooth muscle cells.
• Also permits the direct transfer of ions and other small
molecules up to MW1000 e.g sugars,amino acids between
the cells without traversing the extracellular space.
Functions of CAM”S
• Role in embryonic development.
• Formation of nervous system.
• Holding tissues together.
• Inflammation & wound healing.
• Metastasis of tumours.
• Cells with abnormal CAMs have a higher rate
of apoptosis.
• Abnormal apoptosis occurs in autoimmune
diseases,degenerative diseases and cancers.
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human cell.pptx

  • 1. Structure of human cell & functions
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. • 5. Provides a framework for the arrangement of an ordered sequence of protein molecules e.g. enzymes,pumps,receptors,ions,channels, in a functionally meaningful pattern. • 6.Links adjacent cells together by junctional complexes to form tissues.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. Tight junction • In this membranes of two cells become opposed & outer layers of membranes fuse strongly,thus obliterating the space between the cells. • Seen along the apical margins of cells in epithelium like intestinal mucosa,walls of renal tubules. • Forms barrier to the movement of ions and other solutes from one side of epithelium to other.
  • 33. Desmosomes or Adherens junction • Here two membranes are separated by 15-20nm space. • There is dense accumulation of proteins on both surfaces of membrane with fibers extending from cytoplasmic surface of each membrane into the cell. • Transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherins joins the cells. • This holds adjacent cells firmly together in areas that are subjected to stretching like skin. • Also resist separation during various contractile activities such as when food moves through the GIT.
  • 34. Gap junctions or Nexus • There is 2-20nm space between the opposing membranes. • This gap is filled with densly packed particles through each of which there appears to be a channel(tiny fluid filled tunnels) that connects the two cells. • The diameter of each channel is regulated by ca++,PH,and voltage. • Permits rapid propagation of electrical potential changes from one cell to another e.g cardiac & smooth muscle cells. • Also permits the direct transfer of ions and other small molecules up to MW1000 e.g sugars,amino acids between the cells without traversing the extracellular space.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. Functions of CAM”S • Role in embryonic development. • Formation of nervous system. • Holding tissues together. • Inflammation & wound healing. • Metastasis of tumours. • Cells with abnormal CAMs have a higher rate of apoptosis.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. • Abnormal apoptosis occurs in autoimmune diseases,degenerative diseases and cancers.