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Research problem presentation



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Research problem presentation

  1. 1. RESEARCH PROBLEM ANAMIKA RAMAWAT M.Sc. NURSING Prev. Batch – 2017-18 GCON, Jodhpur
  3. 3. Definition ■ According to Kerlinger, ‘A problem is an interrogative sentence or statement that asks what relation exists between two or more variable.The answer to question will provide what is having sought in the research. ■ R.S. Woodworth defines problem as ‘a situation for which we have no ready & successful response by instinct or by previous acquired habit. We must find out what to do’, i.e. the solution can be found out only after an investigation. ■ In other words, ‘a research problem is an area of concern where there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for professional practices.
  4. 4. Research Question ■ Research questions are those that the researcher would like to answer or address in the study. ■ Depending on the complexity and breadth of the study, there could be more than one research questions. ■ Identifying a research question will provide greater focus to the research. ■ It will clarify the direction of the search may it be a descriptive or experimental in nature. ■ A well-written research question will also shed light on appropriate research methods.
  5. 5. ■ There are certain characteristics of a research question. ■ Each question should be clear and specific. ■ It should refer to the problem or phenomenon under study. ■ It should reflect an intervention in experimental work. ■ To formulate a focused clinical question "PICOT" format is used in the following table.
  6. 6. P I C O T Patient Problem Population Intervention OR Exposure Comparison Outcome Time Who are the patients? What is the problems? What do we do to them? What are they exposed to? What do we compare? The intervention within patients in a particular population. What is the outcome? What happens? Span of time Example: Patients on ventilators as patient population Foot massage and Reflexology Routine care Changes in physiological parameters 3 days
  7. 7. ELEMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM ■ There are five distinct elements (components) of a research problem.These are also denoted by "5W’s" i.e.Why,What,When,Where, Who/from whom of a research study.
  8. 8. 1. Objective or aim of the problem to be explored  This answers the question "Why" of a research problem.  This means why there is a need of carrying out this study.
  9. 9. 2.The topic or theme which needs to be investigated ■ This answers the question "What".What is to be studied?"
  10. 10. 3.The time dimension  The period or time of the study when the data are to be gathered.  This answers the question "When?"When is the research to be performed?
  11. 11. 4.The area or location where the study is to be conducted  This answers the question "Where?"Where we need to conduct the study?
  12. 12. 5. Population or universe from whom the data needs to be gathered ■ This answers the question "Who?" or "from whom?" ■ Who are the respondents? From whom the data to ■ be collected?"These may include persons, groups of persons, wound dressings, syringes, each activity etc.
  13. 13. ■ FOR EXAMPLE: Consider a research problem ■ "To assess the effectiveness of a structured exercise protocol on back pain among the nurses working in intensive care units of MDM, Jodhpur". ■ All the elements of this research problem are depicted in Figure 1.
  15. 15. ■ One commonly used acronym to define the criteria for a good research problem or question is  FINER, where  F stands for feasible,  I for interesting,  N for novel,  E for ethical, and  R relevant. ■ However, there are many factors that should be considered while deciding credibility of a particular research question for a scientific investigation.
  16. 16. ■ Significance to nursing profession:A problem that a researcher is selecting should ha significance to nursing profession or it will not serve any purpose. A research problem is a significant for nursing profession when it is directed to develop or refine the body of professional knowledge. ■ A research problem could be considered significant for nursing profession if it fulfils the following criteria:
  17. 17. Benefits nursing profession and patients, nurses, and health care fraternity through the study. Improves clinical nursing practices through the results. Promotes nursing theory development or testing. Provides solutions of current nursing practice needs. Generates information to get practical implications for nursing profession.
  18. 18. The following are certain important factors which should be taken into considerations while selecting a research topic.
  20. 20. There are numerous sources for generating the appropriate nursing research problem. However, the following are certain important sources which could be helpful in selecting a research topic.
  21. 21. 1. Previous research 2. Personal Experience 3. Consumer feedback 4. Literature
  22. 22. 5. NursingTheories 6. Databases 7. Social issues 8. Intuition
  23. 23. 9. Brainstorming sessions 10. Folklores 11. Consultation with the experts 12. Social issues
  24. 24. PHASES OF ESTABLISHING A PROBLEM STATEMENT ■ Formulation of research problem is a complex and long process, which includes following steps (Steps for formulation of research problem along with specific example are also illustrated in Fig):-
  25. 25. Selection of a research area Reviewing literature and theories Delimiting the research topic Evaluating the research problem Formulating the final statement of the research problem
  26. 26. Example ofWell-Formulated Research Problem ‘A descriptive study on the prevalence of pin site infection among patients with external skeletal fixation admitted in orthopedic wards of MDM Hospital, Jodhpur’ It is an example of declarative form of the statement of problem, where it is precisely and concisely stated and includes most of the required components of a research statement. ■ Some of these components are listed below: • Research study design: Descriptive •Variable(s): It has only one research variables ‘prevalence of pin site infection’ • Population: Patients with external skeletal • Research setting: Orthopedic wards of MDM Hospital, Jodhpur.
  27. 27. SUMMARY