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 Social processes are the ways in which
individuals and groups interact, adjust and
readjust and establish relationships and pattern
of behavior which are again modified through
social interactions.
 The concept of social process refers to some of the
general and recurrent forms that social interaction
may take. The interaction or mutual activity is the
essence of social life. Interaction between individuals
and groups occurs in the form of social process. Social
processes refers to forms of social interaction that
occur again and again.
 Let us discuss social interaction in order to have an understanding
of social process.
Meaning of Social Interaction:
Man is a social animal. It is difficult for him to live in isolation.
They always live in groups. As members of these groups they
act in a certain manner. Their behavior is mutually affected.
This interaction or mutual activity is the essence of social life.
Social life is not possible without interactions.
Social interactions are reciprocal relationships which not only
influence the interacting individuals but also the quality of
relationships. According to Gillin and Gillin, “By social
interaction we refer to social relations of all sorts in functions
– dynamic social relations of all kinds – whether such relations
exist between individual and individual, between group and
group and group and individual, as the case may be”.
• Social interaction usually takes place in the forms of
cooperation’s, competition, conflict, accommodation and
assimilation. These forms of social interaction are called
“social processes”.
Meaning of Social Process:
Social processes refer to forms of social interaction that
occur repeatedly. By social processes we mean those ways in
which individuals and groups interact and establish social
relationships. There are various of forms of social interaction
such as cooperation, conflict, competition and
accommodation etc. According to Maclver, “Social process is
the manner in which the relations of the members of a group,
once brought together, acquire a distinctive character”.
Types of Social Processes:
There are hundreds of social processes. But we find some fundamental social
processes that are found to appear repeatedly in society. These fundamental
processes are socialization, cooperation, conflict, competition, accommodation,
acculturation and assimilation etc. Loomis classified social processes into two
categories; the elemental and the comprehensive or master processes.
He describes elemental processes are those by which the separate elements of the
social system are articulated and comprehensive processes are those by which
several or all of the elements are articulated or involved. These elements are beliefs
(knowledge), sentiment, end or goal, norm, status-role (position), rank, power,
sanction, and facility.
The elemental process are (1) Cognitive mapping and validation, (2) Tension
management and communication of sentiment, (3) Goal attaining and concomitant
‘latent’ activity, (4) Evaluation, (5) Status-role performance, (6) evaluation of actors
and Allocation of status-roles, (7) Decision-making and initiation of action (8)
Application of sanctions, (9) Utilization of facilities. The comprehensive or master
processes are (1) Communication, (2) Boundary maintenance, (3) System linkage, (4)
Social control, (5) Socialization and (6) Institutionalization.
Social process can be positive or negative. Accordingly, social process have been
classified into two broad categories, variously entitled ‘conjunctive and disjunctive,
‘associative and dissociative’.
Associative Process:
The associative or conjunctive social processes are positive. These social processes
work for the solidarity and benefit of society. This category of social processes include
cooperation, accommodation, assimilation and acculturation etc. Three major social
processes such as cooperation, accommodation and assimilation are discussed below.
1. Cooperation:
Cooperation is one of fundamental processes of social life. It is a form of social process
in which two or more individuals or groups work together jointly to achieve common
goals. Cooperation is the form of social interaction in which all participants benefit by
attaining their goals.
Cooperation permeates all aspects of social organization from the maintenance of
personal friendships to the successful operation of international programmers. The
struggle for exists forces the human beings not only to form groups but also to
cooperate with each other.
The term ‘cooperation’ has been derived from two Latin words – ‘Co’ meaning
‘together and Operary meaning ‘to work’. Hence, cooperation means working together
for the achievement of a common goal or goals. When two or more persons work
together to gain common goal, it is called cooperation. Boys cooperate in games, men
in business, workers in production, and public officials in community controls and so
on, in an endless variety of beneficial activities that make possible an integrated social
life.
Co-operation means working together in the pursuit of like or common interests. It is
defined by Green as “the continuous and common Endeavour of two or more persons to
perform a task or to reach a goal that is commonly cherished.
Characteristics:
Following are the important characteristics of cooperation:
1. Cooperation is an associative process of social interaction which takes
place between two or more individuals or groups.
2. Cooperation is a conscious process in which individuals or groups have to
work consciously.
3. Cooperation is a personal process in which individuals and groups
personally meet and work together for a common objective.
4. Cooperation is a continuous process. There is continuity in the collective
efforts in cooperation.
5. Cooperation is a universal process which is found in all groups, societies
and nations.
6. Cooperation is based upon two elements such as common end and
organized effort.
7. Common ends can be better achieved by cooperation and it is necessary
for the progress of individual as well as society.
Presentation1.pptx maj

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Presentation1.pptx maj

  • 2.  Social processes are the ways in which individuals and groups interact, adjust and readjust and establish relationships and pattern of behavior which are again modified through social interactions.  The concept of social process refers to some of the general and recurrent forms that social interaction may take. The interaction or mutual activity is the essence of social life. Interaction between individuals and groups occurs in the form of social process. Social processes refers to forms of social interaction that occur again and again.
  • 3.  Let us discuss social interaction in order to have an understanding of social process. Meaning of Social Interaction: Man is a social animal. It is difficult for him to live in isolation. They always live in groups. As members of these groups they act in a certain manner. Their behavior is mutually affected. This interaction or mutual activity is the essence of social life. Social life is not possible without interactions. Social interactions are reciprocal relationships which not only influence the interacting individuals but also the quality of relationships. According to Gillin and Gillin, “By social interaction we refer to social relations of all sorts in functions – dynamic social relations of all kinds – whether such relations exist between individual and individual, between group and group and group and individual, as the case may be”.
  • 4. • Social interaction usually takes place in the forms of cooperation’s, competition, conflict, accommodation and assimilation. These forms of social interaction are called “social processes”. Meaning of Social Process: Social processes refer to forms of social interaction that occur repeatedly. By social processes we mean those ways in which individuals and groups interact and establish social relationships. There are various of forms of social interaction such as cooperation, conflict, competition and accommodation etc. According to Maclver, “Social process is the manner in which the relations of the members of a group, once brought together, acquire a distinctive character”.
  • 5. Types of Social Processes: There are hundreds of social processes. But we find some fundamental social processes that are found to appear repeatedly in society. These fundamental processes are socialization, cooperation, conflict, competition, accommodation, acculturation and assimilation etc. Loomis classified social processes into two categories; the elemental and the comprehensive or master processes. He describes elemental processes are those by which the separate elements of the social system are articulated and comprehensive processes are those by which several or all of the elements are articulated or involved. These elements are beliefs (knowledge), sentiment, end or goal, norm, status-role (position), rank, power, sanction, and facility. The elemental process are (1) Cognitive mapping and validation, (2) Tension management and communication of sentiment, (3) Goal attaining and concomitant ‘latent’ activity, (4) Evaluation, (5) Status-role performance, (6) evaluation of actors and Allocation of status-roles, (7) Decision-making and initiation of action (8) Application of sanctions, (9) Utilization of facilities. The comprehensive or master processes are (1) Communication, (2) Boundary maintenance, (3) System linkage, (4) Social control, (5) Socialization and (6) Institutionalization. Social process can be positive or negative. Accordingly, social process have been classified into two broad categories, variously entitled ‘conjunctive and disjunctive, ‘associative and dissociative’.
  • 6. Associative Process: The associative or conjunctive social processes are positive. These social processes work for the solidarity and benefit of society. This category of social processes include cooperation, accommodation, assimilation and acculturation etc. Three major social processes such as cooperation, accommodation and assimilation are discussed below. 1. Cooperation: Cooperation is one of fundamental processes of social life. It is a form of social process in which two or more individuals or groups work together jointly to achieve common goals. Cooperation is the form of social interaction in which all participants benefit by attaining their goals. Cooperation permeates all aspects of social organization from the maintenance of personal friendships to the successful operation of international programmers. The struggle for exists forces the human beings not only to form groups but also to cooperate with each other. The term ‘cooperation’ has been derived from two Latin words – ‘Co’ meaning ‘together and Operary meaning ‘to work’. Hence, cooperation means working together for the achievement of a common goal or goals. When two or more persons work together to gain common goal, it is called cooperation. Boys cooperate in games, men in business, workers in production, and public officials in community controls and so on, in an endless variety of beneficial activities that make possible an integrated social life. Co-operation means working together in the pursuit of like or common interests. It is defined by Green as “the continuous and common Endeavour of two or more persons to perform a task or to reach a goal that is commonly cherished.
  • 7. Characteristics: Following are the important characteristics of cooperation: 1. Cooperation is an associative process of social interaction which takes place between two or more individuals or groups. 2. Cooperation is a conscious process in which individuals or groups have to work consciously. 3. Cooperation is a personal process in which individuals and groups personally meet and work together for a common objective. 4. Cooperation is a continuous process. There is continuity in the collective efforts in cooperation. 5. Cooperation is a universal process which is found in all groups, societies and nations. 6. Cooperation is based upon two elements such as common end and organized effort. 7. Common ends can be better achieved by cooperation and it is necessary for the progress of individual as well as society.