Crowdsourcing and Crowdfeeding

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Presentation at the World Bank country office in Zambia for the Pilot Project for Climate Resilience Mission on August 2010.

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Crowdsourcing and Crowdfeeding

  1. 1. World Bank Zambia<br />PPCR Mission – August 2010<br />CROWDSOURCING AND CROWDFEEDING<br />TOOLS AND TIPS FOR PARTECIPATORY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS<br />Anahi Ayala Iacucci<br />anahi@crisismappers.net<br />
  2. 2. CROWDSOURCING AND CROWDFEEDING<br />CROWDSOURCING: use the crowd to collect information. The act of outsourcing tasks, traditionally performed by an employee to a large group of people or community (a crowd), through an open call for action. Jeff Howe coined the term in June 2006 explaining that because technological advances have allowed for cheap consumer electronics, the gap between professionals and amateurs has been diminished. <br />CROWDFEEDING: the need for the crowd to share information with the crowd, ie, not top-down, or bottom-up, but information from the crowd, for the crowd; horizontal communication. The act of sharing information out to a large group of people or community, through an open sharing system. In the same time for the international community it means to share all available information with all stakeholders to allow better decision to be taken and better actions to be implemented. <br />
  3. 3. Advantages of using crowdsourcing<br />Information during a crisis or for early warning systems is as important as food and water<br />Affected communities know what is going on on the ground in real time<br />The ability to collect information is limited by the availability of sources of information: more sources, more information<br />Affected population get engaged in the process because they have an interest in the outcome<br />Crowdsourcing is relatively cheaper than the use of selected monitoring teams<br />Crowdsourcing allow for triangulation of information permitting verification and accountability <br />
  4. 4. Typologies of crowdsourcing methods<br />Unbounded crowd-sourcing: a large group of people is reporting. This system allows for an unlimited number of information to come in, but lack in reliability of information. <br />Bounded crowd-sourcing: the reporting is done by a specific group. This system allows for verified information to come in but is subjected to the limitation of the limited source. <br />Combined bounded and unbounded crowd-sourcing: information are collected by a specific group of people, but also by the crowd. Reliable sources and unreliable sources are combines. This system allows for: <br />increase in overall reporting<br />Increase in the ability to validate reports from unknown sources <br />
  5. 5. : CROWDSOURCING, MAPPING<br />AND CROWDFEEDING TOOL<br />Ushahidi, which means “testimony” in Swahili, began as a one-off deployment for mapping reports of election violence after the December 2007 Kenyan elections. Ushahidi is a crowdsourcing mapping system that people to report into the platform by web submission, SMS, Twitter or e-mail. The Ushahidi platform is right now being used in more than 30 countries and 60 projects, from electoral monitoring in Burundi to violence in Congo to Early Warning system in the Rift Valley.<br />
  6. 6. What is Ushahidi?<br />Platform<br /> Methodology<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. What is Ushahidi?<br />Platform<br />Methodology<br />
  9. 9. What you can do with<br />Visualization of data on a map<br />Multiple layers<br />Crowdfeeding<br />
  10. 10. Visualizing data on an interactive map<br />
  11. 11. Multiple layers<br />The categories<br />The map layers<br />The static layers<br />
  12. 12. 1st layer: the categories<br />
  13. 13. 2nd Layer: The map layers<br />
  14. 14. 3rd Layer: The static layers<br />
  15. 15. Two typologies of static layers<br />Points (ex. Fixed points like wells, dams, irrigation systems)<br />Areas (ex.Agro-ecological regions, risk maps, crop suitability)<br />
  16. 16. Crowdfeeding<br />
  17. 17. OPENSTREET MAP: CROWDSOURCED MAPPING<br />OpenStreet Map (OSM) was founded in July 2004 by Steve Coast. OpenStreet Map data is published under an open content license, with the intention of promoting free use and re-distribution of the data (both commercial and non-commercial). The Map is entirely built by volunteers who can be expert mappers or not. In April 2006, a foundation was established to encourage the growth, development and distribution of free geospatial data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use and share.<br />
  18. 18. Advantages of using OSM<br />Open data available for everybody<br />Easy to edit and share even for people with no GPS skills<br />On line active community<br />
  19. 19. Map data under an open content license<br />
  20. 20. Free editing and sharing<br />
  21. 21. On Line Community<br />
  22. 22. OpenAction develop tools to help change-makers tell a more engaging story of impact to a larger audience. Using smart technology and open data standards, the organization brings greater connectivity to the social impact space by creating something called aggregator of maps. <br />
  23. 23. What<br />Aggregator of map<br />Who does what and where<br />Open Data and network visualization<br />can do<br />
  24. 24. Aggregator of Maps<br />
  25. 25. Who does what where<br />
  26. 26. Open Data and network visualization<br />
  27. 27. MAP KIBERA<br />Map Kibera was developed in response to the lack of available map data and other public, open, and shared information about one of the world's largest slums: Kibera, in Nairobi, Kenya. The project started with the simple creation of a map using the open source free software OpenStreet Map and the Ushahidi platform, to become a project involving now media, health organizations, GBV working groups and grassroots organizations.<br />
  28. 28. Kibera 500,000 people(?), 2.5 km2 was a blank spot on the map<br />
  29. 29. 1st STEP: Training the mappers<br />
  30. 30. 2nd STEP: the base map<br />What was mapped?<br />roads and paths and rail<br /> water points<br /> pit latrines / sewer<br /> medical facilities<br /> schools<br /> churches/mosques<br /> businesses<br /> community organizations<br /> administrative units<br />
  31. 31. 3rd STEP: Voices of Kibera<br />Develop Entities and Skills: Kibera Mappers, Kibera News Network (video journalism), SMS Reporting<br />Deeply Explore Themes: Health, Education, Water/Sanitation and Safety with detailed mapping and reporting<br />Set up a short code 3002, “Kibera”<br />www.voiceofkibera.org<br />
  32. 32. The integration with the Ushahidi Platform<br /><ul><li>Community website for sharing info relevant to Kibera residents
  33. 33. News, videos, and SMS
  34. 34. Reports are mapped</li></li></ul><li>
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Map Kibera Results:<br />A group of engaged and skilled citizens, mappers, and journalists<br />Linkages between Nairobi tech scene and slumdwellers<br />Platforms and mediums to share the information locally and globally (printed maps, SMS reporting, USHAHIDI and new media creation).<br />Slowly building movement for shared and open information among NGOs and CBOs<br />
  37. 37. Next Steps<br />Register mapping group locally<br />Expand to other communities in and around Kenya – including the other slums in Nairobi <br />Taking the model to Haiti and elsewhere via GroundTruth<br />Materials and curriculum, thorough documentation and training others<br />Maps for Data: your surveys for our printout<br />
  38. 38. Lessons Learned from MapKibera<br />Community Mapping can be a system to create community awareness and support social networks<br />Communication management in risk environment needs to incorporate vulnerable population<br />Early warning systems are effective when they are based on shared information and open data<br />Gatekeepers to information and data can often be bypassed or ignored completely, allowing for a new parallel information system to be created and used by marginalized citizens. <br />
  39. 39. HOW TO USE CROWDSOURCING AND WHAT TO BE AWARE OF<br />
  40. 40. CROWDSOURCING IS NOT PERFECT AND IT IS NOT ALWAYS NECESSARY<br />CROWDSOURCING AND CROWDFEEDING NEED TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION THE IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATION<br />IT IS ALWAYS BETTER TO START ON A SMALL SCALE AND THEN SCALE UP THAN THE CONTRARY<br />NEVER CHOOSE A TOOL AND THEN DECIDE WHAT TO USE IT FOR<br />
  41. 41. RISK AND PROBLEMES OF CROWDSOURCING SYSTEMS<br />VERIFICATION<br />STRUCTURE<br />IMPACT<br />
  42. 42. VERIFICATION<br />PROBLEM: when you do crowdsourcing you don’t know who is the source of your information. The risk is to receive and use false or bias information that can affect your work and credibility.<br />POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS:<br />Verification can be crowdsourced too (ex. OpenStreet Map and Ushahidi)<br />New systems to triangulate information and create reliability scores (ex. Swift River)<br />Bound and Unbound crowdsourcing is for now the best solution (ex. Uchaguzi)<br />
  43. 43. STRUCTURE<br />PROBLEM: people thinks that a good tool is enough to make a good project. This is not the case: a tool is only a tool, a good project is much more than this.<br />POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS:<br />Planning and strategy design need to be always the first step of a project<br />Crowdsourcing is not immune to its own principle: the best crowdsourcing project is the one managed by the involved population<br />Sustainability and integration with local systems need to be always taken into consideration<br />
  44. 44. IMPACT<br />Information is power, so if you share information you are sharing power. Crowdsourcing projects cannot be detached by their political implications.<br />Crowdsourcing projects are bi-directional projects: the crowd will always modify and affect the project as much as the project will modify and affect the crowd.<br />Crowdsourcing projects to be effective need to be adapted to the existing flow of information and information management systems existing in the environment where they are implemented.<br />
  45. 45. THANK YOU!<br />Anahi Ayala Iacucci<br />anahi@crisismappers.net<br />

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