Connectors

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What are linking words?
Why are they so useful?

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Connectors

  1. 1. LINKING WORDS
  2. 2. LINKING WORDS • Linking words are words and phrases which indicate a connection. They usually appear at the beginning of the sentences. • These words work in the way that help the reader understand how the information in the text is organised. That´ s why, they are also called text organisers and discourse makers. Moreover, (and this is one example of linking word, as you will see) hiere are a long selection of words and phrases that set a particular pace in the sentences.
  3. 3. ADDING LINKING WORDS • This type of linking word introduces more information which extends the previous statement. For instance: Besides, Moreover, Furthermore, What is more, In addition, In addition to… Apart from this / that, For example, For instance, as well as also too Likewise,
  4. 4. ADDING LINKING WORDS ◊ The city is a famous shopping centre. Moreover, it is well-known for its art galleries and museum. Furthermore, people can enjoy its long beach. ◊ He´s got a wonderful job in the main city. Besides, he has got a good income. Apart from this, he also has got a company car. ◊ Mark adores spiders. In addition, he wants to buy a snake. ◊ He is an excellent football player as well as an excellent athlete. ◊ He is an excellent football player and an excellent athlete, too. ◊ He is also an excellent football player and athlete. ◊ He is an excellent football player. Likewise, he is an excellent athlete. ◊ In addition to having a three spiders, he also has a snake at home. ◊ He is reading his shopping list. For example, / For instance, he has to buy potatoes, onions, carrots, pears and tomatoes.
  5. 5. SUMMARISING LINKING WORDS • Summarising comes from summary. For this reason, (another linking word meaning consequence) these linking words are used to put an end to a text or to introduce a conclusion to a text. To sum up, Summing up, All in all, Overall, In short, In conclusion, In brief, In general, In the main, On the whole, Broadly speaking, To conclude,
  6. 6. SUMMARISING LINKING WORDS ◊ In conclusion, / In short, it is important to spread the news about the medical discovery. ◊ On the whole, / Broadly speaking, she had a very happy childhood. ◊ In brief, / In general,/ In the main, we are satisfied with the work. ◊ To sum up, / Summing up, To conclude, the meal in the new restaurant was appalling. ◊ All in all, / Overall, the decision was generally applauded by everyone.
  7. 7. LINKING WORDS • So far so good? Now your teacher is going to deliver a worksheet to practise linking words. • The answers can be checked here
  8. 8. CONTRASTING LINKING WORDS • These linking words sets a surprise contrast with the previous sentence. Although, Though, Even though, While Despite (the fact that) In spite of (the fact that) But However, Nevertheless, On one hand … on the other (hand) In contrast, In contrast to… On the contrary,
  9. 9. CONTRASTING LINKING WORDS ►Although and though have the same meaning. In informal speech though is more common. They introduce an idea A with which the main clause or sentence B is in contrast. ►When we say “Although / Though (sentence B), (sentence A)” hiere is something unexpected or suprising about sentence B. ►Despite and In spite of are used when you are mentioned circumstances which surprisingly do not avoid something from happening. ►But / However / Nevertheless are used when you are adding a comment which contrasts with the previous sentence. ►On one hand … on the other (hand) means “that is true and this is also true if we look at it from a different viewpoint”. ►On the contrary means “that is not true, the opposite is true”.
  10. 10. CONTRASTING LINKING WORDS ◊Although / Though / While the machine is old, it should work for a few more years. ◊ Despite the fact that / In spite the fact that the machine is old, it should work for a few more years. ◊ The machine is old. However, / Nevertheless, it should work for a few more years. ◊ The machine is old, but it should work for a few more years. ◊ On one hand, it is not actually raining now. On the other hand, it may rain later, so you should take the umbrella. ◊ All in all, / Overall, the decision was generally applauded by everyone. ◊ The machine is old. In contrast, it should work for a few more years. ◊ In contrast to being old, the machine should work for a few more years. ◊ Do you ask me if the film was interesting? On the contrary, it was a complete waste of time.
  11. 11. LINKING WORDS • So far so good? Now your teacher is going to deliver a worksheet to practise linking words. • The answers can be checked here

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