Unit 10 - The Russian Revolution

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Unit 10 - The Russian Revolution

  1. 1. Unit 10 The Russian Revolution (1917) Social Studies – ESO-4
  2. 2. 2 The Russian Revolution • Background • Tsar Nicholas II • The beginning of the revolution • Lenin's succession • Trotsky • Stalin • The terror and the purges
  3. 3. 3 The Russian Revolution • Background • 1900 Russia – poor country • Peasants – primitive life • Tsar – absolute power & control • 1905 – rebellion – Duma • 1917 - WWI
  4. 4. 4 The Russian Revolution • The beginning of the Revolution • February 1917 riots in Petrograd • March 1917 Tsar abdicated • Republic with Kerensky • Opposition by SDLP (marxists): • Communist state • The party split – Bolsheviks (Lenin) – Mensheviks (Martov)
  5. 5. 5 The Russian Revolution • The beginning of the Revolution-2 • Lenin • exiled in Switzerland • In April he returned • April thesis: “peace, bread, land and freedom” • Lenin wanted: • End of the capitalist war • Power for soviets • Revolution against government- marxism-leninism
  6. 6. 6 The Russian Revolution • The beginning of the Revolution-3 • Red guards – Trotsky • October 1917 – revolution (Winter Palace attacked in St. Petersburg) • Bolsheviks in Moskow (Brest-Litovsk) • Tsar and family executed • 1918 civil war (Bolshevik Red Army against Communist White Russians) • 1921 – only the communist party was legal
  7. 7. 7 The Russian Revolution • The beginning of the Revolution-4 • Cheka (secret police) & labour camps • 1921 New Economic Policy: • Peasants could sell surplus production • Non-state-owned businesses • Vital industries – state • 1924 – new constitution – USSR • 1924 – Lenin died
  8. 8. 8 The Russian Revolution • Lenin's succession • Trotsky • the most able and popular • He led the Red Army • But arrogant & former Menshevik • Stalin • Secretary of the party • But rude & ambitious • Trotsky was exiled to Siberia and out of the USSR in 1929
  9. 9. 9 The Russian Revolution • Stalin-1 • Planned industry & agriculture -Gosplan • Five year plans • In 10 years production doubled • Poor Soviet workers • 1929 – kolkhos (kulaks opposed) • 10 million kulaks to labour camps - died
  10. 10. 10 The Russian Revolution • Stalin-2 • In 1937 complete collectivization - no kulaks • State farms (soukhos)
  11. 11. 11 The Russian Revolution • The terror and the purges • Joseph Jughashuili – Stalin • He purged his enemies • NKUD (secret police) took away disloyals • In 1939 • 3 million were dead • 9 million were prisoners • Trotksy condemned this – murdered in 1940
  12. 12. 12 The Russian Revolution • Stalin • He controlled information • History was re-written to favour him • Trotsky disappeared – he was removed from books, articles and photographs

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