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Tenses for ESO-4

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Basic tenses for EFL students

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Tenses for ESO-4

  1. 1. ESO-4 English Department / CPI Tino Grandío Revision of tenses: form and use Present simple (go/goes) Form Use Examples  affirmative: subject + infinitive (+3 rd p – (e)s)  negative: subject + don’t/doesn’t + infinitive  question: do/does + subject + infinitive  Remember that we only add the –(e)s in the 3 rd person affirmative form  Remember that be is an exception: am / is / are  facts and permanent states.  habits and routines  1 st type conditional sentences  stative verbs that are not used in the pres. cont. (see, hear, believe, want, know, understand, think, like, love...)  Key words: how often / always / sometimes / often / never / usually / every day / once a week / twice a month... / if (in conditional sentences)  Snow melts at 0ºC.  Harry lives in Liverpool.  My dog plays football with us.  Daniel washes his jacket every week.  We don’t like football.  She doesn’t understand baseball.  Do you enjoy dining out?  Does Rafael Nadal train in the morning?  If you drink too much you’ll have to go to the toilet. Present continuous (am/is/are going) Form Use Examples  subject + am / is / are + (not) + -ing  Remember the rules for -ing  actions happening at the moment of speaking  Key words: now / at the moment  My sister is watching TV now.  They aren’t listening to me.  I’m not sleeping now. Past simple (went) Form Use Examples  affirmative: subject + past verb  negative: subject + didn’t + verb  question: did + subject + verb  Remember that in the affirmative we use the –ed form in regular verbs and the form from the second column in irregular ones. In the negative and interrogative we only need the infinitive  actions completed at a specific time in the past (finished action + finished time)  2 nd type conditional sentences  Key words: when / yesterday / last week / in 2009 / if (in conditional sentences)  I played cards with them.  We went for a walk last week.  She didn’t come with me last night.  My friends didn’t understand the mistake.  Did you like the match?  If you read the book you’d learn to cook.  If you didn’t arrive so late, your boss would be happy with you. Past continuous (was going) Form Use Examples  subject + was / were + (not) + -ing  Remember the rules for -ing  actions in progress at a particular time in the past  Key words: while / as / at 9 o’clock (or any other time)  They were watching TV while I was studying Music.  She wasn’t paying attention  Were they listening to the radio as they were crossing the road? Present perfect (have/has gone) Form Use Examples  subject + have/has + (not) + past participle  Remember that the past participle is made with an –ed in regular verbs and the form from the third column in irregular ones  We need the past participle in the affirmative, negative and interrogative  actions completed in the past in an unspecified time or within a period that gets to the present  actions completed in the past that are still relevant in the present  actions that started in the past that continue up to the present or completed at an unspecified time  Key words: already / just / yet / since / for / how long / ever / this year-week...  We have never been to Italy.  She has already understood the exercise.  We haven’t done it yet.  They have lived in Guntín for a long time .  They have lived in Guntín since 2009.  Have you ever eaten sushi? Past perfect (had gone) Form Use Form  subject + had (not) + past participle  actions finished before a past time or action  3 rd type conditional sentences  Key words: if  He hadn’t finished the exercise when the bell rang.  If you had come earlier we would have gone with you.
  2. 2. Future simple (will go) Form Use Form  subject + will / won’t + infinitive  Instant decisions at the time of speaking.  Predictions.  1 st type conditional sentences  Key words: I think / if  I’m cold. I’ll close the window.  I think I won’t go to the party.  Will you come with me?  If you have a minute I’ll show you how to make a presentation. Future progressive/continuous (will be going) Form Use Form  subject + will / won’t + be + -ing  actions in progress at a certain time in the future  Key words: by this time  By this time next week we will be taking the driving test.  Will they be flying to Rome tomorrow at 6? Going to (am/is/are going to go) Form Use Examples  subject + am/is/are (not) + going to + infinitive  future plans and intentions when we have already decided what to do  predictions based on real facts  Key words: a future time expression  I have bought some sandwiches. We are going to have a picnic this afternoon.  Look at the clouds! It’s going to rain.  She’s written the invitations. She’s probably going to invite all her classmates. Conditional (would go) Form Use Examples  subject + would / wouldn’t + infinitive  Offerings and requests  2nd type conditional sentences  Key words: if  Would you like to come with us?  If you had a minute I’d show you how to make a presentation. Perfect conditional (would have gone) Form Use Examples  subject + would / wouldn’t + have + infinitive  3rd type conditional sentences  Key words: if  I would have gone if he had told me where.  He wouldn’t have failed if he had studied harder. SPELLING RULES: Spelling rules for 3rd person singular (affirmative only) - Present simple Rule Base form 3rd person form  Most verbs add –s to the infinitive form  walk, read, play  walks, reads, plays  Verbs ending in –s / -sh / -ch / -x / -o + -es  wash, fix, go  washes, fixes, goes  Verbs ending in consonant + -y -ies  study  studies Spelling rules for adding –ing to the verb - Present & past continuous Rule Base form 3rd person form  Most verbs add –ing to the infinitive form  walk, read, play, study  walking, reading, playing, studying  Verbs ending in –e drop the –e and add -ing  come, drive  coming, driving  Monosyllabic verbs (and two-syllable verbs with the stress on the last syllable) ending with a vowel + a consonant double the final consonant and add -ing  run, sit, begin  running, sitting, beginning  Verbs ending in –l add -ling  travel  travelling  Verbs ending in –ie change the –ie to –y and add -ing  die, lie  dying, lying Spelling rules for adding –ed to the verb – Past simple affirmative (regular verbs only) Rule Base form 3rd person form  Most verbs add –ed to the infinitive  walk, play  walked, played  Verbs ending in –e add -d  arrive, live  arrived, lived  Monosyllabic verbs (and two-syllable verbs with the stress on the last syllable) ending with a vowel + a consonant double the final consonant and add -ed  stop, rob, prefer  stopped, robbed, preferred  Verbs ending in –l add -led  travel  travelled  Verbs ending in consonant + -y -ied  study  studied

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