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English tenses-form and use

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sheet for ESO-3 tense revision

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English tenses-form and use

  1. 1. ESO-3 English Department Revision of tenses: form and use CPI Tino Grandío ………………………………………………………………………… Present simple Form Use Examples  affirmative: subject + infinitive (+3 rd p –(e)s)  negative: subject + don’t/doesn’t + infinitive  question: do/does + subject + infinitive  Remember that we only add the –(e)s in the 3 rd person affirmative form  Remember that be is an exception: am / is / are  facts and permanent states.  habits and routines  1 st type conditional sentences  stative verbs that are not used in the pres. cont. (see, hear, believe, want, know, understand, think, like, love...)  Key words: how often / always / sometimes / often / never / usually / every day / once a week / twice a month... / if (in conditional sentences)  Snow melts at 0ºC.  Harry lives in Liverpool.  My dog plays football with us.  Daniel washes his jacket every week.  We don’t like football.  She doesn’t understand baseball.  Do you enjoy dining out?  Does Rafael Nadal train in the morning?  If you drink too much you’ll have to go to the toilet. Present continuous Form Use Examples  subject + am / is / are + (not) + -ing  Remember the rules for -ing  actions happening at the moment of speaking  Key words: now / at the moment  My sister is watching TV now.  They aren’t listening to me.  I’m not sleeping now.  He’s setting the washing machine. Past simple Form Use Examples  affirmative: subject + past verb  negative: subject + didn’t + verb  question: did + subject + verb  Remember that in the affirmative we use the –ed form in regular verbs and the form from the second column in irregular ones. In the negative and interrogative we only need the infinitive  actions completed at a specific time in the past (finished action + finished time)  Key words: when / yesterday / last week / in 2009  I played cards with them.  We went for a walk last week.  She didn’t come with me last night.  My friends didn’t understand the mistake.  Did you like the match?  Did the concert finish at 10? Past continuous Form Use Examples  subject + was / were + (not) + -ing  Remember the rules for -ing  actions in progress at a particular time in the past  Key words: while / as / at 9 o’clock (or any other time)  They were watching TV while I was studying Music.  She wasn’t paying attention  Were they listening to the radio as they were crossing the road? Present perfect Form Use Examples  subject + have/has + (not) + past participle  Remember that the past participle is made with an –ed in regular verbs and the form from the third column in irregular ones  We need the past participle in the affirmative, negative and interrogative  actions completed in the past in an unspecified time or within a period that gets to the present  actions completed in the past that are still relevant in the present  actions that started in the past that continue up to the present or completed at an unspecified time  Key words: already / just / yet / since / for / how long /  We have never been to Italy.  She has already understood the exercise.  We haven’t done it yet.  They have lived in Guntín for a long time .  They have lived in Guntín since 2009.  Have you ever eaten sushi?
  2. 2. ever / this year-week... Future simple (will) Form Use Examples  subject + will / won’t + infinitive  Instant decisions at the time of speaking.  Predictions.  1 st type conditional sentences  Key words: I think / if  I’m cold. I’ll close the window.  I think I won’t go to the party.  Will you come with me?  If you have a minute I’ll show you how to make a presentation. Going to future Form Use Examples  subject + am/is/are (not) + going to + infinitive  future plans and intentions when we have already decided what to do  predictions based on real facts  Key words: a future time expression  I have bought some sandwiches. We are going to have a picnic this afternoon.  Look at the clouds! It’s going to rain.  She’s written the invitations. She’s probably going to invite all her classmates. Spelling Rules: Spelling rules for 3rd person singular (affirmative only) - Present simple Rule Base form 3rd person form  Most verbs add –s to the infinitive form  walk  read  play  walks  reads  plays  Verbs ending in –s / -sh / -ch / -x / -o + -es  wash  fix  go  washes  fixes  goes  Verbs ending in consonant + -y  -ies  study  studies Spelling rules for adding –ing to the verb - Present & past continuous Rule Base form 3rd person form  Most verbs add –ing to the infinitive form  walk  read  play  study  walking  reading  playing  studying  Verbs ending in –e drop the –e and add -ing  come  drive  coming  driving  Monosyllabic verbs (and two-syllable verbs with the stress on the last syllable) ending with a vowel + a consonant double the final consonant and add -ing  run  sit  begin  running  sitting  beginning  Verbs ending in –l add -ling  travel  travelling  Verbs ending in –ie change the –ie to –y and add -ing  die  lie  dying  lying Spelling rules for adding –ed to the verb – Past simple affirmative (regular verbs only) Rule Base form 3rd person form  Most verbs add –ed to the infinitive  walk  play  walked  played  Verbs ending in –e add -d  arrive  live  arrived  lived  Monosyllabic verbs (and two-syllable verbs with the stress on the last syllable) ending with a vowel + a consonant double the final consonant and add -ed  stop  rob  prefer  stopped  robbed  preferred  Verbs ending in –l add -led  travel  travelled  Verbs ending in consonant + -y  -ied  study  studied

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