1. What is the difference between count and non-count nouns?2. What must all singular count nouns have?3. According to Folse, when do most ELLs mistakenly omit the indefinite article?4. Are there any exceptions to the rule described in question 2?5. What is a determiner? What types of determiners are there?6. Is there a way to predict whether a given word is count or non-count? Explain it.7. Is there a way to predict whether a given word is count or non-count? Explain it. Should this information be included in a beginning lesson about non-count nouns? Why (not)?8. How do we quantify non-count nouns? Exemplify.9. What quantifiers are easier for ELLs? What quantifiers are more difficult? Why?10. To ask about the quantity of a noun, English uses two question phrases. What are they? How similar are they to other languages? Is the distinction between the two question phrases used in English easy for all ELLs to learn?11. In what situations is "much" used? How does it differ from the use of "many"?12. What is the distinction between "I have a few friends" and "I have few friends"? How can this distinction be explained to ELLs?
When I read Shakespeare - D.H. LawrenceWhen I read Shakespeare I am struck with (1) wonderThat such trivial people should muse and thunderIn such lovely (2) language.Lear, the old buffer, you wonder his (3) daughtersDidn’t treat him rougherthe (4) chough, the old chuffer!And Hamlet, how boring, how boring to live with,So mean and self-conscious blowing and snoringHis wonderful (5) speeches, full of other folks’ whoring!And Macbeth and his (6) Lady, who should have been choring,Such suburban (7) ambition, so messily goringold Duncan with (8) daggers!How boring, how small Shakespeare’s (9) people are!Yet the language so lovely! Like the dyes from (10) gas-tar.
Parts of Speech - Uses Verbs a verb shows action or being (existence) The verb is the heart of the sentence Group 1 – page 64 Group 2 – page 47 – 48 Group 3 – page 48 – 49 Group 4 – page50 Group 5 – page 51
Parts of Speech - Uses Nouns – Subject / Direct Object / Indirect Object / Subject or Object Complement / Object of Preposition Pronouns – Subject / Direct Object / Indirect Object / Subject or Object Complement / Object of Preposition Adjectives – Modifying Noun or Pronoun/ Subject Complement / Object Complement Verbs – Predicate Adverbs – Modifying Verb/ Modifying Adjective / Modifying Adverb / Modifying Passages Prepositions – Introducing Prepositional Phrases Conjunctions – Coordinating: Joining Words, Phrases or Clauses of Equal Rank / Subordinating: Joining Clauses Interjections – Showing Emotion
Phrases, Clauses and Sentences• A word is the smallest element that may be uttered in isolation with semantic or pragmatic meaning.• A phrase • A clause • A sentence consists of consists of consists of one or more one or more one or more words. phrases. clauses.• Based on the entries above, come up with your own definition of the terms phrase, clause and sentence.
Phrases, Clauses and Sentences • A phrase is a group of words (or sometimes a single word) that form a constituent and so function as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.Examples:The very rare volume of the collection thatshe was looking for so desperately wasWoodland Ecology.All the underlined forms are phrases.Different colors indicate different types of phrases.
Types of PhrasesIdentify the types of phrasesin the following sentence:Noun The very rare volume of theVerb collection that she was lookingAdjective for so desperately was WoodlandAdverbPreposition Ecology.
Noun Phrase - NP A phrase whose head is a noun: NP = NOUN(determiner) (modifier) I (modifier) apple the red in my bag Italy beautiful cheese some on my pasta
Verb Phrase - VPA phrase whose head is a verb: VP = (auxiliary) VERB ate could have eaten were sleeping
Prepositional Phrase - PPA phrase whose head is a preposition:PP = prep + NP for me under the bed by my most favorite Hollywood actor
Adjective Phrase - AdjPA phrase whose noun is an adjective: AdjP = (modifier) adjective gorgeous very unpleasant
Adverb Phrase (AdvP)A phrase whose head is an adverb: AdvP = (modifier) adverb merrily very slowly
Clauses• A clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.• A clause is a group of words that require both a subject AND a conjugated verb (predicate). S V I love chocolate. S V because it makes me happy
Clauses INDEPENDENT x DEPENDENTI love chocolate because it makes me happy. Independent Dependent Main SubordinateIndependent clause: It’s a clause that nad standalone without being subordinate to anotherclause. It’s also known as main clause.Dependent clause: It’s a type of clause that issubordinated to an independent clause. Alsoknown as subordinate clause.
Types of dependent clauses:Noun: I don’t know who wrote it.Adjective: She’s the girl who sent him that weird e-mail.Adverb: The package arrived before Mark had the chance to leave.
Phrases, Clauses and Sentences • A sentence is a grammatical unit expressing an independent statement , question, request, etc, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses. Example:The very rare volume of the collection that shewas looking for so desperately was WoodlandEcology.
SentencesA sentence may appear in any lenght. All of the examples beloware sentences. Compare: Sentences may contain multiple phrasesLook! and clauses.Don’t go. Sentences must have full punctuation.I love chocolate.My husband and I have three cats.Driving too fast isn’t advisable because it can result in a seriousaccident.How many times have I told you that you can’t bring yourfriends here unless you check with me first?
Phrases, Clauses and SentencesCan clauses or phrases be sentences?Yes, if they have a conjugated verb and complete punctuation:Example: lookThis is a verb phrase, but if we are using the imperative, it is alsoa clause because, in this case, it also have a subject.If you add the punctuation, Look!the verb phrase/independent clause becomes a sentence.
Sentences • A sentence is a grammatical unit expressing an independent statement , question, request, etc, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses. 4 _____ Washington died before Lincoln1. Simple was born, so these two famous2. Compound citizens never met each other.3. Complex 2 _____ Washington died in 1799, and4. Compound- Lincoln was born in 1809. complex 3 _____ Washington died before Lincoln was born. 1 _____ Washington was the first U.S. president.
Sentences1) A simple sentence... ... has one independent clause.2) A compound sentence... ... contains two independent clauses.3) A complex sentence... ... has one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.4) A compound-complex sentence... ... contains two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
HomeworkBook:- Pages 64 – 73 (Self-study) “Basic Grammar Labels for Sentence Structures”- Pages 193 – 200 (Self-study) “Adjective Clauses and Reductions”Workbook:- Pages 63 – 76 (Self-study) “Adjctive Clauses and Reductions”- Pages 162 – 165 (Self-study) “Adjctive Clauses and Reductions”
Moodle Week1) Grammar Key 9 3) Graded Exercise• Adjective Clauses and • Parts of Speech Reductions • Verb Tenses • Phrases2) Basic GrammarLabels for SentenceStructure• Subject, Predicate• Phrases, Clauses and Sentences• Verb Transitivity• Objects