Pronunciation of –s and –ed• WRAPPED BEGGED KISSED WORKED• BEES BIRDS CATS DOGS• STUDIED LOVED BURIED STARTED• MAKES KILLS SHOWS EXPLAINSWhy is this being studied in a grammar book?Find the odd one out.Read the information on p.86 to check.
Pronunciation of –s and –ed• With nouns, is the plural marker.-s-s• With verbs, is used for the third person singularform in the Simple Present.-s• With nouns, is also used to mark possession.-s• is associated with the Simple Past.-ed-ed• is also associated with the Past Participle form.PERFECT TENSES / PASSIVE VOICE / ADJECTIVES-edWhat is it associated with?What is it associated with?
Pronunciation of –s and –edTypical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- Some cats /s/ are sleeping by the trees /s/ that weplanted /əd/ last year.- The police followed /əd/ the speeding car andproceeded / əd/ to interrogate the driver and herpassengers /z/.- The most popular animals at the zoo are the monkeys/s/, giraffes /s/ and elephants /s/.- There are many reasons /z/ why the judges / əz/reached / əd/ their verdict so quickly.- When spring arrived əd/, the seeds /z/ that she hadplanted / əd/ a month earlier began to sprout from theearth.
Pronunciation of –s and –ed/s/How can we pronounce –s? Which one is the mostcommon?How can we pronounce –ed? Which one is themost common?/z/ /əz//t/ /d/ /əd/
Pronunciation of –s and –edVariations of sounds are produced by...1) ... altering the place where the sound is made(point of articulation).2) ... altering the manner in which the sound ismade (manner of articulation).3) ... altering voicing.How are sounds made? How do sounds vary?1) beat ≠ but 2) f ≠ b 3) p ≠ b
Pronunciation of –s and –edConsonantsVoiced Voiceless/b/ cab /ð/ bathe /p/ cap/d/ grade /l/ call /t/ grate/g/ bag /m/ name /k/ back/v/ have /n/ can /f/ half/z/ rise /ŋ/ song /s/ rice/dʒ/ surge /tʃ/ search/ʒ/ massage /ʃ/ cash/r/ purr /θ/ bathWhat about the vowels? Which ones are voicedand which ones are voiceless?
Pronunciation of –s and –edDo we need to memorizethis chart at this point?Voiced Voiceless/b/ cab /ð/ bathe /p/ cap/d/ grade /l/ call /t/ grate/g/ bag /m/ name /k/ back/v/ have /n/ can /f/ half/z/ rise /ŋ/ song /s/ rice/dʒ/ surge all vowels /tʃ/ search/ʒ/ massage /ʃ/ cash/r/ purr /θ/ bathHow else can we find outif a sound is voiced orvoiceless?To verify if a phoneme is voiced orvoiceless, try putting your fingersover your Adam’s apple. If you canfeel an increased vibration whenpronouncing the sound, then it is avoiced sound.
Pronunciation of –s and –edVoiceless Ending Phoneme Voiced Ending Phonemesock love listen stop number watch soundfollow influence take language dogClassify these words according to their ending phoneme.elephantwrite measure victory giraffe business tiesockstopwatchlovelistennumbersoundfollowinfluencetakelanguage dogelephantwritemeasurevictorygiraffebusinesstie
Pronunciation of –sMatch the phonemes to theircorresponding uses andcome up with examples.Voiced Voiceless/b/ cab /ð/ bathe /p/ cap/d/ grade /l/ call /t/ grate/g/ bag /m/ name /k/ back/v/ have /n/ can /f/ half/z/ rise /ŋ/ song /s/ rice/dʒ/ surge all vowels /tʃ/ search/ʒ/ massage /ʃ/ cash/r/ purr /θ/ bathAdd This Sound Ending Sound1. /z/Voiceless_____ /t/, /f/, /k/, /p/, /θ/2. /s/Other_____ /s/, /z/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /dʒ/,/ʒ/3. /əz/Voiced_____ /d/, /v/, /g/, /b/, /ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /r/, all vowels123
/s/ /z/ /əz/arrivesdogstreesplantsreachescats bees birds dresseselephantshousesgiraffes judges workswashes followsPronunciation of –sClassify these words according to their ending phoneme.WB – page 158, ex 3.8.14
Pronunciation of –edMatch the phonemes to theircorresponding uses and comeup with examples.Voiced Voiceless/b/ cab /ð/ bathe /p/ cap/d/ grade /l/ call /t/ grate/g/ bag /m/ name /k/ back/v/ have /n/ can /f/ half/z/ rise /ŋ/ song /s/ rice/dʒ/ surge all vowels /tʃ/ search/ʒ/ massage /ʃ/ cash/r/ purr /θ/ bathAdd This Sound Ending Sound1. /t/Voiceless_____ /f/, /k/, /p/, /θ/, /s/, /tʃ/, /ʃ/2. /d/Other_____ /d/, /t/3. /əd/Voiced_____ /v/, /g/, /b/, /ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /r/, /z/, /dʒ/,/ʒ/,all vowels213
/t/ /d/ /əd/faxedinfluencedcloseddislikedexplainedavoidedguardeddisarmed chewedfacedcalculatededucatedimaginedextendedguidedfetchedPronunciation of –edClassify these words according to their ending phoneme.WB – page 157, ex 3.8.13
Pronunciation of –ed WB – page 156, ex .8 and .9
Now, let’s try listening for the differentpronunciations of –ed.Try the exercise your teacher will propose.Pronunciation of –ed
Passive Voice- Active Voice: Subject + Verb + Direct ObjectMary has written six e-mails.- Passive Voice: Subject + Verb to be + Past ParticipleSix e-mails have been written.Typical ELL Errors (Can you correct them?)- Thousands of people went to California in the 1840s becausegold discovered there.- Where were you when the accident was happened?- More than one hundred people killed in that plane crash.- The Japanese language can write from left to right or form topto bottom.- If you find a wallet, it should be returning to the ownerimmediately.
Passive Voice- BE + PAST PARTICIPLE1) correct verb tense2) correct formbe + PAST PARTICIPLEThe residence of the president ofthe United Statesis called the WhiteHouse.The current White House was built in 1818.By 1815, the original WhiteHousehad beendestroyedin a fire.
Active Voice X Passive Voice- Active Voice1) Common sentence pattern: Subject + Verb + Direct Object.2) Most important topic: The person or thing doing theaction.3) The subject is the agent of the action.4) Examples:a) The people of France gave the Statue of Liberty to the UnitedStates.b) Leonardo da Vinci painted the famous Mona Lisa.c) We will make a decision about our trip soon.d) The people reelected George Washington for a second term in1792.
Active Voice X Passive Voice- Passive Voice1) Common sentence pattern: Subject + Verb to be + PastParticiple.2) Most important topic: The person or thing receiving theaction.3) The subject is the receiver of the action.4) Examples:a) The Statue of Liberty was given to the United States by thepeople of France .b) The famous Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.c) A decision about our trip will be made soon.d) George Washington was reelected for a second term in 1792.
Passive Voice – Verb TensesVerbTensesActive PassivePresentSimplePeople buy candies at thesupermarket.Candies are bought at thesupermarket.PresentCont.People are buying candies atthe supermarket.Candies are being bought atthe supermarket.PresentPerfectPeople have bought candiesat the supermarket.Candies have been bought atthe supermarket.PastSimplePeople bought candies at thesupermarket.Candies were bought at thesupermarket.PastCont.People were buying candiesat the supermarket.Candies were being bought atthe supermarket.PastPerfectPeople had bought candies atthe supermarket.Candies had been bought atthe supermarket.
Passive Voice – Verb TensesVerbTensesActive PassiveFuture People will buy candies at thesupermarket.People are going to buycandies at the supermarket.Candies will be bought at thesupermarket.Candies are going to be boughtat the supermarket.ModalVerbsPeople could buy candies atthe supermarket.People should buy candies atthe supermarket.Candies could be bought at thesupermarket.Candies should be bought atthe supermarket.Intransitive Verbs are never used in the passive voice,for they are never followed by a direct object.Examples: happen/die/arrive/departWB – page 186 and 187
Passive Voice- When is the passive voice used?Generally when the agent of the action is not the mostimportant thing.If you need to name the agent of the passive, use the by + agentphrase.a) The Statue of Liberty was given to the United States by thepeople of France .b) The famous Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.c) A decision about our trip will be made by us soon.d) George Washington was reelected for a second term by thepeople in 1792.- We should not name the agent if it is not new information,not important, redundant or, of course, unknown.
Passive Voice with GET- get + past participle: It indicates change or process- be + past participle: It indicates a result, a state, a condition.Examples:a) We were lost. (It describes our situation at a certain point.)b) We got lost. (It indicates that we were traveling and suddenlydid not know our location.)- The passive voice with get is considered informal.
Teaching the PassiveOrganize yourselves into 6 groups (pairs or trios):• Situation: You are a substitute teacher and was called infor an emergency substitution. You only have 10 minutesto get into class. All you have is the topic and the bookpages.• What do you do? With your partner(s) come up with a quick plan toexplain the passive, using the material you have. Present your plan to the class, explaining whoyour target audience is
Passive Voice used as Adjectives- In some situations, it is possible to use a passive verb formas an adjective to describe a condition or state instead ofan action.Compare:Adjective PassiveThe windows are closed. At the end of the day, all windowsare closed by the security people.All the checks are gone. --Don’t come in. I’m notdressed.The child prefers to be dressed byher mother, not her nanny.
Past Participles x Present Participles- Both past participles and present participles can functionas an adjective.Participial Form ExamplePast Participle When I heard the news yesterday. I wassuprised.Present Participle The news was surprising.- ELLs have a particularly difficult time figuring out whento use the past participle and the present participleforms as adjectives.- Present Participles: The person or thing causes the action.- Past Participles: The person or thing suffers the action.
Past Participle + Preposition- past participles in passive voiceThey were married by an old minister.- past participles used as adjectivesI am interested in something.be accustomed tobe acquainted withbe ashamed ofbe bored with / bybe commited tobe composed ofbe confused aboutbe convinced ofbe dedicated tobe devoted tobe disappointed withbe divorced frombe done withbe dressed inbe excited aboutbe exhausted frombe finished withbe fed up withbe impressed by/withbe interested inbe known forbe made of/frombe married tobe opposed tobe related tobe satisfied withbe scared ofbe surprised at/bybe terrified ofbe tired of/frombe used tobe worried aboutWB – page 193 ex. 3.14.19