II. The Gods, the Creation, and the Earliest
A. The Gods
o Cronus (Saturn) - leader of Titans, father of
o Ocean - river that encircled the earth
o Thetys - Ocean’s wife
o Hypherion - the sun, the moon, and the
o Themis - justice
o Iapetus - father of Atlas (who bore the
world on his shoulders) and Prometheus
(savior of mankind)
Olympians (Mt. Olympus at Thessaly, northeast of
o Zeus (Jupiter)
God of all gods
Breastplate: Aegis, Wielder of
Two sides: Low (amorous) and High
Sacred animal: eagle, tree: oak
o Poseidon (Neptune)
God of sea (not to be confused with
Gave the first horse to man
o Hades (Pluto)
God of the underworld
God of Wealth
Not evil, terrible but just
God of the Dead (not to be confused
with Thanatos, God of Death)
o Hera (Juno)
Protector of Marriage
Raised by Ocean and Thetys
Sacred: cow, peacock
Favorite city: Argos
Mother of Ilithyia, who aids in
o Hestia (Vesta)
Goddess of hearth
Each city had a public hearth for her
Meals began and ended with an
offering to her
o Pallas Athena (Minerva)
Daughter of Zeus alone
Goddess of the City, protector of
civilized life, of handicrafts and
agriculture, inventor of bridle
Zeus’ favorite child
Chief of the virgin goddesses
Maiden or Parthenos
Special city: Athens, tree: olive,
o Phoebus Apollo
Son of Zeus and Leto, born in Delos
‚The most Greek of all the gods‛
Master musician, the Archer-god, the
Healer, God of Light and of Truth
Delian from Delos; Pythian from killing
Python; the Lycian
Not to be confused with Helios, the
god of the sun, son of Hypherion
o Artemis (Diana)
Apollo’s twin sister, daughter of Zeus
and Leto, born in Delos
Lady of Wild Things
When women died a swift and
painless death, they were held to be
slain by her silver arrows
Selene in the sky, Artemis on earth,
Hecate in the lower world
Hecate: goddess of the dark moon,
the black nights when the moon was
Sacred: cypress tree, and all the wild
animals (esp. deer)
o Aphrodite (Venus)
Goddess of Love and Beauty
Daughter of Zeus and Dione or sprung
from seafoam (foam: Aphros) near
Wafted to Cyprus
Both islands are sacred to her
Tree: myrtle, bird: dove
o Hephaestus (Vulcan and Mulciber)
God of Fire
Son of Hera alone
Important in the life of the city
God of ceremony when children were
formally admitted to the city
o Hermes (Mercury)
Son of Zeus and Maia, daughter of
Winged sandals and crown
Magic wand: Caduceus
Master Thief; stole Apollo’s herd on
the day he was born and asked for
forgiveness by giving Apollo the lyre
God of the Commerce and the Market,
protector of trade
The Divine Herald who led the souls
down to their last home
o Ares (Mars)
Son of Zeus and Hera
Sister: Eris (discord) and her son:
Romans: Mars > Greeks: Ares
Has no cities where he is worshipped
Came from Thrace
Bird: vulture, animal: dog
The Lesser Gods of Olympus
o Eros (Cupid)
God of Love
Fairest of the deathless gods
Often represented as blindfolded
Anteros: avenger of slighted love, the
one who opposes love; Himeros:
longing; Hymen: God of the Wedding
Goddess of Youth
Daughter of Zeus and Hera
Cupbearer to the gods (but sometimes
Goddess of the Rainbow
Messenger of the gods (the only one
o The Graces
Aglaia (Splendor), Euphrosyne (Mirth),
and Thalia (Good Cheer)
Daughters of Zeus and Eurynome,
child of Ocean
Not to be treated as separate
personalities, but always together, a
triple incarnation of grace and beauty
‚Queens of song‛ together with the
o The Muses
Nine in number, daughters of Zeus
and Mnemosyne (Memory)
Calliope: Epic Poetry
Polyhymnia: Songs to the Gods
Euterpe: Lyric Poet
Mountains: Helicon (where Hesiod
lives), Pierus in Pieria, Parnassus, and
o August forms who sat beside Zeus in
Themis: Right, or Divine Justice
Dike: Human Justice
o Two personified emotions esteemed
highest of all feelings
Nemesis: Righteous Anger
Aidos: reverence and the shame that
holds men back from wrongdoing, but
also means the feeling a prosperous
man should have in the presence of
The Gods of the Waters
Lord and Ruler of the Sea (the
Mediterranean) and the Friendly Sea
(the Euxine, now the Black Sea)
Underground rivers were his
Lord of the river Ocean, a great river
encircling the earth
Daughters: the Oceanids
Sons: gods of all the rivers on earth
Son of Gaea (Mother Earth)
Father of Nereus
Old Man of the Sea (the Mediterranean)
Wife: Doris, daughter of Ocean
Daughters: Nereids, nymphs of the Sea
(e.g. Thetis, Ampithrite)
Trumpeter of the Sea
Son of Poseidon and Amphitrite
Poseidon’s son or attendant
Foretells the future or changes his
shape at will
o The Naiads
Dwelt in brooks and springs and
Once mortals, but became divinities of
the sea (along with Glaucus)
o Divided into two: Tartarus and Erebus
o The place where the wicked are punished
and the good rewarded
o Acheron: river of woe; Cocytus: river of
o Charon: ferries the souls of the dead
o Cereberus: three-headed, dragon-tailed dog
o Three judges: Rhadamanthus, Minos,
o Place of blessedness: Elysian Fields
o Three rivers that separate the underworld
from the world above
Phlegethon, the river of fire
Styx, the river of the unbreakable
oath by which the gods swear
Lethe, the river of forgetfulness
o Erinyes (the Furies)
Punish evildoers, pursue sinners on
Inexorable, but just
Tisiphone, Megaera, and Alecto
o Sleep, Death, Dreams
The Lesser Gods of Earth
o Demeter (Ceres)
Goddess of the Corn
o Dionysus (Bacchus)
God of the Vine
Son of Hermes
God of goatherds and shepherds,
companion of the woodland nymphs
Born in Arcady
Son of Pan or of Hermes
Always rode an ass because he was
too drunk to walk
o Castor and Pollux (Polydeuces)
Lived half of their time on earth and
half in heaven
Sons of Leda
Special protectors of sailors
Leda: wife of King Tyndareus of
Sparta, bore two mortal children to
him (Castor and Clytemnestra,
Agamemnon’s wife) and two immortal
children to Zeus (swan; Pollux and
Helen, heroine of Troy)
Idas killed Castor, and in turn Pollux
stabbed Lynceus& Zeus struck Idas
with his thunderbolt. Zeus in pity
allowed Pollux to share his life with
his brother, and the two never
o The Sileni
Part men and part horse
Walked on two legs with horses’
hoofs, sometimes horses’ ears, and
always horses’ tails
o The Satyrs
o Woodland nymphs
Oreads: nymphs of the mountains
Dryads (or Hamadryads): nymphs of
King of the Winds
Four Chief Winds: Boreas (Aquilo;
north), Zephyr (Favonius; west), Notus
(Auster; south), Eurus (east)
*from this point, they are no longer gods of the earth, but beings neither
human nor divine*
o The Centaurs
Half-man half-horse, more like beasts
Chiron: known everywhere for his
goodness and his wisdom
o The Gorgons
Out of three, two are immortal
Dragonlike creatures with wings,
whose look turned men to stone
Father: Phorcys, son of the Sea and
o The Graiae
Sisters to the Gorgons
Three gray women who had but one
eye between them
Lived on the farther bank of Ocean
o The Sirens
Lived on an island in the Sea
Had enchanting voices that lured
sailors to death
*very important but assigned to no abode*
o The Fates (Moirae, Parcae)
Give to men at birth evil and good to
Clotho, the Spinner, who spun the
thread of life
Lachesis, the Disposer of Lots, who
assigned to each man his destiny
Atropos, she who could not be turned,
who carried ‚the abhorred shears‛
and cut the thread at death
The Roman Gods
o The Numina - gods of Romans before they
took over from Greece
o Romans felt no need for beautiful, poetic
gods until Greek lit. and art entered Italy
o Lares (spirit of an ancestor) and Penates
(gods of hearth and guardians of the
storehouse) were the most prominent and
o Terminus: Guardian of Boundaries
o Priapus: Cause of Fertility
o Pales: Strengthener of Cattle
o Sylvanus: Helper of Plowmen and
Protector of the Sowers and the Seed
Wife: Ops, Harvest Helper
Later said to be the same as Cronus
o Janus: God of good beginnings
o Faunus: Saturn’s grandson, sort of like
Pan; the Fauns: Roman satyrs
o Quirinus: deified Romulus, founder of Rome
o The Manes: spirits of the good dead in
o The Lemures or Larvae: spirits of the
o The Camenae
Began as useful and practical
goddesses who cared for springs and
wells and cured diseases and foretold
Later identified with the Muses
Ex. Egeria, who taught King Numa
Sometimes regarded as a Roman
Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth
Usually the epithet of both Juno and
B. The Two Great Gods of Earth
Demeter and Dionysus are worshipped together.
o Latin: Ceres
o Goddess of the Corn
o Older than Dionysus because corn was
sowed before vines
o Daughter of Cronus and Rhea
o Chief festival came at harvest time
(September, every 5 years @ Eleusis)
o Daughter: Persephone (Prosperine), the
maiden of spring taken by Hades
o 9 days until Sun told her what really
o Left Olympus and lived on earth in grief
o Taken in by Metaneira, and nursed
o Metaneira angered the goddess Temple
must be built to win back her favor
o Demeter wasted herself away in the
temple nothing grew
o Zeus sent Hermes to get Persephone, but
Hades made her eat pomegranate seed for
o Rhea convinced Demeter to come back to
o City: Thebes
o Last god to enter Olympus; not admitted
o Son of Zeus and Theban princess Semele
o Cared for by the nymphs of Nysa
o God of the Vine
o Insulted by Lycurgus, whom Zeus struck
blind soon after
o Fell in love with Ariadne
o Maenads (or Bacchantes): women frenzied
o Worship of Dionysus centered in two
ideas: freedom and ecstatic joy, and
o Pentheus, the King of Thebes, is his
C. How the World and Mankind Were
(read ‘pag ‘di ka natinatamadhuhuhu)
D. The Earliest Heroes
Prometheus and Io
The Cyclops Polyphemus
Flower Myths: Narcissus, Hyacinth, Adonis
III. Stories of Love and Adventure
A. Cupid and Psyche
o Psyche, youngest of three daughters,
was super beautiful that people
o Venus ordered Cupid to make Psyche fall
madly in love with the vilest and most
despicable creature there is in the whole
o ‚Psyche, the all-beautiful, sat sad and
solitary, only admired, never loved.‛
o Cupid fell in love with Psyche HIHIHIHI.
o Cupid asked help from Apollo, and so
when Psyche’s father asked advice from
an oracle, Apollo practically told him to
leave her on the summit of a rocky hill
where a fearful winged serpent awaits.
o As she was weeping on the high hilltop,
Zephyr (sweetest and mildest of winds)
transported her down a grassy meadow
near a mansion where she will live.
o She was alone by day, and with Cupid at
night (though she did not know yet).
o Her jealous sisters made her wonder why
she never saw her husband’s face. She
started thinking he was really a serpent.
o She finds out he’s not a serpent, but he
wakes up and realizes her faithlessness,
so he leaves.
o ‚Love (Eros) cannot live where there is
o ‚I can spend the rest of my life
searching for him. If he has no more love
left for me, at least I can show him how
much I love him.‛
o Cupid went to Venus, who gets angry
and leaves him. So she started to look
for Psyche in displeasure.
o Psyche decided to go straight to Venus
and offer herself as Venus’ servant.
o Venus scorned her and made her do
impossible tasks: sort seeds (ants
helped her), get golden wool (found them
hanging on the sharp briars at night),
get water from steep and rocky waterfall
(an eagle helped her), and get beauty (to
be filled in a box) from Prosperine in the
o She fell into deep sleep when she
opened the box, but Cupid woke her
o Cupid asked Jupiter for help, and so
Cupid and Psyche were formally married,
and Psyche was made immortal.
o ‚Love and Soul (Psyche) had sought and,
after sore trials, found each other; and
that union could never be broken.‛
B. Eight Brief Tales of Lovers
Pyramus and Thisbe
o Pyramus, the most beautiful youth, and
Thisbe, the loveliest maiden of all the
East, lived in Babylon, the city of Queen
o They lived a wall away from each other.
They talked through a chink in the wall.
Their love was forbidden.
o Eventually they decided to slip away
every night and be together.
o They agreed to meet in the Tomb of
Ninus, under a tall mulberry full of snow-
o When Thisbe came, Pyramus was not
there yet. A lioness came and so she
fled, leaving her cloak.
o Pyramus came and saw the bloodstained
shreds of cloak and the tracks of the
lioness. He thought Thisbe was killed
and so he stabbed himself. Berries
became dark red from his blood.
o Thisbe went back and saw Pyramus
dying. She killed herself ala-Juliet style.
Orpheus and Eurydice
o The very earliest musicians were the
gods. (Athena invented the flute, Hermes
gave Apollo a lyre, Hermes made the
shepherd-pipe for himself, Pan made the
pipe of reeds, the Muses had lovely
o Next in order came a few mortals
Orpheus, son of one of the Muses and a
o Sailed with Jason on the Argo, where he
would play music
o He was able to break free their fleet
from the Sirens by drowning their voice
with his lyre music
o He married Eurydice, but directly after
the wedding, she was stung by a viper
and she died.
o He was determined to go down to the
world of death and try to bring her back.
o They granted his wish, in one condition:
he must not look back at her until they
had reached the upper world.
o He got to the upper world, and turned to
her, who was still in the cavern. She
o He wantered through the wild solitudes
of Thrace, until a band of Maenads killed
Ceyx and Alcyone
o Ceyx, king of Thessaly, was the son of
Lucifer, the light-bearer.
o Alcyone, his wife, was the daughter of
o Ceyx decided he must make a long
journey across the sea, but she begs
him not to go, or at least take her with
o He felt that he must get counsel from
the oracle there, and does not want her
to share the perils of the voyage, so he
still left her.
o Ceyx was killed, and meanwhile Alcyone
was still waiting for him.
o She prayed most to Juno, who was
touched. Juno summoned Iris. She
ordered Iris to go to Somnus (god of
sleep) and make him send a dream to
Alcyone to tell her the truth about Ceyx.
o Somnus aroused his son, Morpheus, to
take shape of Ceyx and tell Alcyone he’s
o The next morning she finds Ceyx’ body
ashore. She tried to sink herself into the
waves but instead was transformed into
a bird with Ceyx.
Pygmalion and Galatea
o Pygmalion: gifted sculptor of Cyprus;
o He fell in love with the statue of a
woman, that he made.
o He pretended, as children do with their
toys, but eventually gave up.
o Venus became interested. On her feast
day, Pygmalion asked her that he might
find a maiden like his statue.
o Venus transformed the statue instead
into a woman.
o Pygmalion named her Galatea, and they
had a son named Paphos.
Baucis and Philemon
o Jupiter gets bored in Olympus, and often
goes down to earth, disguised, looking
o He was determined to find out how
hospitable Phrygia people were.
o He and Mercury were treated coldly until
one humble hovel welcomed them
o This was the abode of Philemon (the old
guy) and Baucis (the old woman).
o ‚We are poor folk, but poverty isn’t so
bad when you’re willing to own up to it,
and a contented spirit is a great help,
o Because of their kidness, they were
blssed with a great lake and a stately
o The gods granted them their wishes, to
let them be the gods’ priests in the
temple, and that they die together.
o Eventually, they became treest, but still
they were together.
o He was a youth of surpassing beauty.
o Selene loved him, and gave him magic
slumber, in which he never wakes.
o Independent, love-and-marriage-hating
o Apollo’s first love
o Father: Peneus, was sad because she
refused all the men who wooed her
o Before Apollo could catch up to her, she
screamed for help to her father, and so
she became a laurel tree.
o Apollo was dismayed, but made her his
Alpheus and Arethusa
o Arethus, sacred spring in Ortygia, an
island part of Syracuse, the greatest city
o She was once a young huntress and
follower of Artemis had wanted nothing
to do with men.
o She bathed in a river, and fled when she
realized Alpheus, the god of the river,
o Alpheus pursued her in a race.
o Eventually worn out, Arethusa called to
Artemis, who changed her into a spring
that would flow to a tunnel under the
sea from Greece to Sicily.
o Alpheus did not give up, and so he
changed back into a river and followed
her in the tunnel.
C. The Quest of the Golden Fleece
o Greek king Athamas put his wife, Nephele,
away and married another, Ino.
o Nephele was afraid for her two children,
especially Phrixus, because Ino might try
to kill him so that her own son could
inherit the kingdom.
o When there was starvation, Ino bribed the
king’s messenger to say that the oracle
had declared that they must sacrifice
Phrixus before corn would grow again.
o When he was taken to the altar, a ram
with golden fleece snatched him and his
sister, Helle, up. This was because of
Hermes, who answered Nephele’s prayer.
o While crossing a strait, Helle slipped and
fell into the water. She drowned, and the
strait was named for her: the Sea of Helle,
o Phrixus got to the country of Colchis on
the Unfriendly Sea (the Black Sea). He
married one of King Ætes’ daughters.
o Phrixussacrifieced the gold fleeced-ram to
Zeus, and gave the golden fleece to King
o Phrixus’ uncle was a king in Greece, but
was overthrown by Pelias, the king’s
nephew. Jason, the king’s son, came back
to claim the throne.
o Pelias agrees, but Jason must retrieve the
golden fleece first supposedly
o Jason went on journey with Hercules,
Orpheus, Castor and Pollux, Peleus, and
o Sequence of Events in the Journey
1. Women of Lemnos (Hypsipyle)
2. Hercules leaves (because of Hylas)
3. Phineus; Harpies vs the two sons of
4. Phineus gives information that helps
them pass through the Symplegades
5. Amazons, warrior women (daughters of
peace-loving nymph Harmony and Ares)
o Hera asked Aphrodite for help, and so
Aphrodite made Cupid shoot an arrow to
Medea, daughter of the Colchian king, to
fall in love with Jason.
o King Ætes did not like foreigners, and
planned to kill them. He suggests a
dangerous task in exchange for the fleece.
o He asked help from Medea, who gave him
an ointment that would prevent him from
being harmed by anything.
o Jason was victorious!!!!! But the king was
planning treachery against the heroes.
o Medea joined them and aids them. She
lulled the serpent (who was guarding the
fleece) to sleep and so Jason got it and
o The king sent Apsyrtus (Medea’s brother)
and his army to pursue the heroes. Medea
o Trials en route to Greece: Scylla (dreaded
rock) and Charybdis (whirlpool), Talus (all
made of bronze except one ankle)
o Pelias forced Jason’s father to kill himself
and Jason’s mother died in grief. Jason
o With the help of Medea, Pelias’ daughters
were tricked into killing their father.
o Medea and Jason had 2 kids, but Jason
leaves her to marry the daughter of the
King of Corinth.
o King of Corinth exiled her and her kids in
fear that she would do harm to his
o Jason was such a male genitalia to her. In
exile, he offered her gold in exchange for
all her help, but she refused.
o Medea killed Jason’s new wife using a
robe, which, when worn, engulfs into
flames. Medea also killed her own kids.
D. Four Great Adventurers
o Son of the Helios and Clymene
o To prove to Phaethon that he, the Sun-
god, is indeed his father, he swore by
the Styx river to grant any wish.
o Phaethon wished to drive the Helios’s
chariot. The father warned him of the
dangers, but the son does not yield.
o Phaethon cannot handle the rage of the
wild horses. He accidentally set the
world on fire, and Jove killed Phaethon
o River Eridanus received him and cooled
of his body. Naiads buried him. Heliades
(his sisters, daughters of Helios)
mourned for him. They were turned into
Pegasus and Bellerophon
o Bellerophon wanted to possess Pegasus.
o Pegasus sprung from the Gorgon’s blood
when Perseus killed her.
o Polyidus advised him to sleep in
Athena’s temple one night. There he
found a golden bridle.
o Anteia, wife of Argos King Proteus, fell in
love with him, but he refused her.
Proteus sent him to the Lycian king, who
learned that Proteus wants Bellerophon
killed. The king asked him to slay the
Chimaera, confident that he won’t be able
o Other trials: Solymi, might warriors;
o Eventually Proteus was won over and
they became friends. He marries Proteus’
o He wanted to go to Olympus, but
Pegasus threw him on the way.
o Bellephron wandered alone since.
Pegasus found shelter in the stalls of
Olympus where the steeds of Zeus were
Otus and Ephialtes
o Twin brothers, giants
o Sons of Iphimedia (others say Canace)
o Aloadae, sons of Aloeus, their mother’s
o They wanted to prove that they were the
gods’ superiors (e.g. imprisoning Ares).
o They tried to kidnap Artemis (Ephialtes
thought he loved her) but Artemis sought
vengeance by tricking them into killing
o Architect who made the Labyrinth for the
Minotaur in Crete
o Showed Ariadne how Theseus could
escape from it
o King Minos was convinced that Daedalus
helped the Athenians find their way out.
He imprisoned him and Icarus (Daedalus’
son) in the Labyrinth.
o Daedalus invented wings for them. He
warned his son not to fly too high
because the wax (keeps the wings
together) might melt. Icarus disregarded
this, and died.
o Daedalus flew to Sicily, where he was
received kindly by the king.
o Minos thought of a plan to find him, and
when he did, the Sicilian king refused to
surrender him, and Minos was slain.
IV. The Heroes of the Trojan War
A. The Trojan War
Prologue: The Judgement of Paris
o Eris, the evil goddess of Discord, was
always left out when the gods gave a
o Resenting this, she threw a golden
apple, marked For the Fairest, in the
marriage of King Peleus and sea nymph
Thetis. This caused a fight, narrowed
among Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena.
o The goddesses asked Zeus to judge, but
he told them to go to Mount Ida, where
Paris (Alexander) lived.
Great judge of beauty
Exiled by King Priam because he
was said to someday be the ruin of
Lived with Oenone
o He did not judge their beauty, but
instead choose from the bribes given.
Hera: lord of Europe and Asia
Athena: Trojans victory against
Aphrodite: fairest woman in all the
The Trojan War
o Helen: fairest woman in the world;
daughter of Zeus and Leda; sister of
Castor and Pollux
o King Tyndareus (Leda’s husband) was
afraid of selecting a prince among the
other princes because those not chosen
might unite against him. He exacted
first an oath that everyone must support
whoever Helen’s husband would be.
o Menelaus, brother of Agamemnon, was
chosen, and was made King of Sparta.
o Paris snatched Helen. The princes helped
in, bound by the oath. Odysseus and
Achilles were missing.
Odysseus did not want to leave his
family for the sake of a faithless
wife. He pretended to have gone
mad, but the messenger proved he
Achilles was kept back by Thetis,
his mom. She knew that he was
fated to die there. He was disguised
as a peddler among Lycomedes.
Odysseus knew better, and had no
trouble in making him disregard
what his mother had said.
o Wind was against them. Soothsayer
Calchas told them that Artemis was
angry for Greeks killed a hare with its
young. They must sacrifice Iphigenia,
eldest daughter of Agamemnon.
o Upon reaching Simois, one of the rivers
of Troy, Protesilaus leaped ashore he
who landed first would be the first to die
(Laodamia, the wife, went with him)
o Hector: son of King Priam and Queen
o For nine years, victory wavered.
o Achilles and Agamemnon fought.
(Remember Iliad: Chryseis, Apollo, Briseis,
Calchas, etc.) Angry Thetis asked Zeus to
give success to the Trojans. Zeus was
o Greeks’ side: Athena, Hera, Poseidon
o Trojans’ side: Aphrodite, Ares, Hector,
o Zeus was with Trojans, but wanted to be
neutral because Hera gets disagreeable
whenever he opposed her.
o King Priam and the other old men did not
o Paris faced Menelaus, but Paris
eventually flees. Menelaus was declared
victor and so Helen must be given back,
but Athena made Pandarus (Trojan) break
the truce by shooting an arrow at
Athena and Hera want Troy in ruins.
o Diomedes almost killed Prince Aeneas
(son of Aphrodite). Apollo enveloped him
in a cloud and carried where to
Pergamos where Artemis healed his
o Diomedes faced Hector (with Ares). Hera
and Athena helped him defeat Ares, who
leaves for Olympus.
o Hector’s brother told him to tell the
Queen to offer Athena her most beautiful
robe and pray for mercy. Athena denied
o Hector leaves his wife, Andromache, and
his son, Astyanax, to go back to the
o While Troy was winning, Agamemnon
wanted to return to Greece. Nestor said
that had he not angered Achilles they
wouldn’t have been losing.
o Odysseus and two chieftains went to him
and Patroclus, but Achilles denied their
o Hera seduced Zeus to distract him from
his promise to Thetis. So the battle
turned in favor of the Greeks. When he
woke up, Hera told him that Poseidon
was the cause of the winning of the
Greeks. So Zeus sent Iris to tell
Poseidon to withdraw, and the tide of
battle turned against the Greeks.
o Apollo, meanwhile, was healing Hector
(who was wounded by Ajax). Patroclus,
wearing Achilles’ armor and leading the
Myrmidons (Achilles’ men), went to battle.
Hector killed him, stripped his armor from
him and wore it.
o Nestor’s son, Antilochus, told Achilles
about Patroclus. He swore vengeance.
Thetis tried to stop him, but he did not
yield. She asked got a new armor for
o Achilles was fated to kill Hector.
Meanwhile, gods were also fighting:
Athena vs. Ares, Hera vs. Artemis,
Poseidon vs. Apollo
o Trojans were crowding into town, but
Hector stayed outside the gates. Priam
and Hecuba tried to talk him into going
in, but he refused.
o Deiphobos (Athena in disguise) stopped
Hector from running from Achilles, so
they fought face-to-face. Achilles won,
stripped the armor from him, fastened his
ankles to Achilles’ chariot to be
devoured by dogs later on.
o Achilles’ abuse of the dead displeased
all the Olympians except Hera, Athena,
and Poseidon. Zeus sends Iris to Priam
to tell him to retrieve Hector’s body by
o Hermes guided him to Achilles’s tent. He
was able to convince Achilles to return
Hector’s body. They lamented him for
B. The Fall of Troy
o Achilles knew his own death was near.
o Prince Memnon of Ethiopia, son of the
Goddess of the Dawn, helped Troy with a
large army. Achilles killed him, and the
former himself fell.
o Paris shot an arrow, and Apollo guided it
so that it struck his heel, where he was
o Ajax carried his body out of the battle
while Odysseus held the Trojans back.
o Achilles’ armor was going to be inherited
by either Odysseus or Ajax. Odysseus
got them, and was honored.
o Ajax was dishonored, and wanted to kill
Agamemnon and Menelaus. Athena struck
him with madness. He killed herds,
thinking it was the chieftains. When he
realized what he has done, he killed
o Calchas told the Greeks to capture
Helenus (Trojan) to know what they
should do next. Odysseus got him.
o ‚Troy would not fall until some one
fought against the Trojans with the bow
and the arrows of Hercules.‛ Was with
o Philoctetes joined the Greeks, but en
route was bitten by a serpent. They left
him at Lemnos, now uninhabited (refer to
Quest of the Golden Fleece).
o In the end, he was persuaded to go with
them again. He was healed by a wise
physician of the Greeks.
o First shot: Paris He begged for
Oenone to cure him but she refused.
After his death, she killed herself.
o Greeks learned of Palladium (most sacred
image of Athena). As long as the Trojans
had it, Troy could not be taken. Diomedes
and Odysseus succeeded in taking it.
o Odysseus makes a wooden horse that
could hold a number of men. The Trojans
were shocked that the Greek camp was
empty. Sinon, the Greek left behind, was
seized and dragged to Priam, and said he
no longer wanted to be a Greek.
His ‚story‛: Athena was angry at the
theft of Palladium. The Greeks must
sacrifice him, Sinon, but he managed
to escape. The wooden horse was
made as an offering to Athena
(Trojans thought that by placing it
in the city, they would gain
o The priest Lacoon, and his two sons
were the only ones who doubted the
story. Poseidon killed them with his
serpents. Trojans saw this as
o The horse was brought in, and at night,
the Greeks sack the city.
o Achilles’ son, Neoptolemus, killed Priam.
Aphrodite was the only god who helped
that day. Aeneas, with his father and his
son, escaped. Helen was brought back to
o Men were killed. Women and children
were made slaves.
o Astyanax was thrown from the wall. ‚With
the death of Hector’s son, Troy’s last
sacrifice was accomplished.‛
C. The Adventures of Odysseus
o Athena and Poseidon became the
enemies of the Greeks.
o Cassandra: daughter of Priam. Apollo
once loved her, and he gifted her the
power to foretell the future. She refused
him, so Apollo cursed that no one
believed what she said, though they
were true. She was in Athena’s temple.
o Greeks found her and lay violent hands
on her (esp. Ajax the Lesser). Athena was
furious and so she went to Poseidon and
asked help in vengeance.
o Poseidon made a storm. Agamemnon lost
almost all his ships, Menelaus was blown
to Egypt, and Ajax the Lesser was
o Odysseus did not suffer as much as
some of the Greeks, but he suffered
longer than them all.
o He wandered for 10 years before he saw
his home. His son, Telemachus had left
and grown to manhood (he was gone for
20 years). Everyone in Ithaca believed he
was dead, except Penelope and their
son. Men tried wooing Penelope but he
refused them all.
o Athena had favored Odysseus in the
Trojan War, and after 10 years of grudge
against the Greeks, she felt sorry for
o Odysseus was on an island ruled by the
nymph Calypso, who loved him. She gave
him everything but freedom. He longed
for his family. Zeus sent Hermes to
Calypso to tell her that she must let go
o Athena disguised herself as a seafaring
man and went to Telemachus. She told
him to find out something about his
father’s fate, to drive his mother’s
o Telemachus was taunted when people
find out of his plan. He prayed to Athena,
and she, in disguise as Mentor
(Odysseus’ most trusted), comforted and
o He set off toward Pylos’, Nestor’s home.
Nestor had no idea about Odysseus, but
offered to send him to Sparta in a
chariot and ask Menelaus. He told
Telemachus that Calypso had Odysseus.
o Hermes told Calypso about Zeus’ orders,
and she had no other choice but to
abide by them. She helped in making a
raft for Odysseus.
o Odysseus leaves on the fifth day from
Hermes’ visit. Poseidon gave him a hard
time in the sea, but goddess Ino pitied
him, told him to abandon his raft, and
gave him her veil that would keep him
from harm as long as he was in the sea.
o After two days and two nights of
swimming, he arrived in the country of
the Phaeacians. King: Alcinous, wife:
o Nausicaa, the princess, found him and
brought him back to their place.
o He narrated to them his story, starting
from the departure from Troy:
1. Lotus Land
2. Cyclops Polyphemus (the reason
why Poseidon resented Odysseus)
3. Country of the Winds
4. Storm Winds
6. Aeaea, realm of Circe the witch
7. Underworld (Teiresias)
9. Scylla and Charybdis
10. Island of the Sun
11. Calypso’s island
o A ship was prepared for him, and he left
for his own country. Athena (disguised
as a shepherd) welcomed him to Ithaca.
She changed him into a beggar so he
can go around unrecognized.
o He spent the night with Eumaeus, his
swineherd. Meanwhile, Athena prompted
Telemachus to go to Eumaeus first.
o Father and son finally meet. ‚I am your
father.‛ (HAHAHA ok)
o They devise a plan to drive the suitors
away by force, with Athena aiding them.
o Argos: Odysseus’ old dog. They
recognized each other and Odysseus did
not go to him in fear of arousing
suspicion. The dog died when he turned
o Eventually, Penelope realized Odysseus
D. The Adventures of Aeneas
Part One: From Troy to Italy
o Aeneas was told in a dream that the place
destined for the Trojans was Italy (then
Hesperia, the Western Country).
o They came upon the Harpies, and were
o Next they met Andromache. When Troy fell
she was given to Neoptolemus, who soon
abandoned her for Helen’s daughter,
Hermione. When he died, Andromache
married Helenus, and they were now ruling
a country. They were warmly welcomed,
and as they left, Helenus advised them
not to land on the nearest coast of Italy,
for it was full of Greeks.
o Helenus’ careful directions helped Aeneas
avoid Scylla and Charybdis.
o They landed on an island inhabited by the
Cyclopes. They met one of Odysseus’
sailors, and told them to leave before
o They were struck by a great storm by
Aeolous and Juno, who tried to drown
She felt especial hatred for Aeneas.
Rome, which was to be founded by
Trojans, was bound to conquer
Carthage, her pet city.
o Poseidon intervened and calmed the sea.
o Carthage was founded by a woman named
Dido. Juno planned for Dido and Aeneas to
fall in love, but Venus intervened.
o Venus (in disguise) told Aeneas and his
friend Achates to go to the queen and ask
for advice. Cupid shot an arrow to Dido
and so she fell in love. Eventually, Aeneas
started to abandon his idea of leaving.
o Jupiter sent Mercury to Aeneas, reminding
him of the kingdom he’s destined to, and
so he left. Dido killed herself.
Part Two: The Descent into the Lower World
o Helenus told Aeneas to seek the cave of
the Sibyl of Cumae, who could advise him
what to do.
o She told him that she would guide him to
the underworld, where his father, Anchises,
will tell him what he needed to learn. But
first he must find a golden bough.
o Lake Avernus: foul-smelling sheet of water,
led to the underworld
o The doves (birds of Venus) got them a
golden bough. They get ferried to the
o Otw he saw Dido in the Fields of Mourning,
and he shed tears.
o They arrived in the Elysian Fields, where
Anchises was. He gave his son
instructions on how he would best
establish his home, and how he could
avoid or endure the hardships.
Part Three: The War in Italy
o Juno caused it!!! She made the Latins and
the Rutulians oppose of the Trojans’
o King of Latium Latinus, had been warned
by his father, Faunus, not to marry his
daughter, Lavinia, to any man but a
stranger who was soon to arrive. He
believed his foreigner to be Aeneas.
o Juno stepped in. She summoned Alecto,
one of the Furies, to loose bitter war over
the land. Alecto got Queen Amata to
oppose Aeneas x Lavinia. Rutulian King
Turnus wanted to marry Lavinia himself, so
he was also against the Trojans. Aeneas’
young son, Ascanius, was guided by Alecto
to harm a beloved creature, enraging the
o Rutulians and Latins, Mezentius, Camilla
vs. Trojans, Pallas, Etruscans
o Arcady: poor little town destined to
become the proudest of the earth’s cities;
King: Evander, son: Pallas
o Nisus and Euryalus tried to reach Aeneas
as the others defended themselves from
Turnus. Euryalus was captured, and Nisus
was killed with him.
o Many are killed (Camilla, Mezentius, Pallas,
etc) Turneus and Aeneas fight
Aeneas and Lavinia get married and
founded the Roman race
V. The Great Families of Mythology
A. The House of Atreus
Tantalus and Niobe
o Tantalus: son of Zeus, honored by the
gods beyond all the mortal children of
o He had his only son Pelops killed, boiled
in a cauldron, and served to the gods.
He hated the gods, and wanted to
bring upon them the horror of being
The gods knew and punished him.
They restored Pelops to life, but with
a shoulder out of ivory.
Pelops was the only one of Tantalus’
descendants not marked out by
misfortune. Married Princess
o Niobe: daughter of Tantalus, sister of
Pelops, wife of Amphion
Arrogant, like Tantalus; defied the
She insulted Leto, so Apollo and
Artemis killed all of her sons and
She was changed into a stone which
forever, night and day, was wet with
o Pelops sons: Atreus and Thyestes
Thyestes fell in love with Atreus’ wife
and they cheated on Atreus.
Atreus found out and swore that
Thyestes will pay. He killed Thyestes’
Atreus was made King, and Thyestes
had no power.
Agamemnon and his Children
o Remember when Iphigenia was killed?
(refer to Trojan Wars haha) Clymnestra
cheated on Agamemnon with Aegisthus
(son of Thyestes)
o Clymnestra killed Agamemnon
o Electra and Orestes were the other two
children of Clymnestra and
Agamemnon.Aegisthus hated them both.
Orestes was sent away. Electra
stayed, wretched by Aegisthus
Orestes was torn. It was his duty to
kill his father’s murderers, but killing
his mother was abhorrent. He went to
Delphi and asked the oracle for help.
He killed Aegisthus and Clymnestra.
o Furies became the Benignant Ones, the
Eumenides, protectors of the suppliant.
o The cure of the House of Atreus was
Iphigenia among the Taurians
o Artemis had taken Iphigenia to the land of
the Taurians (the Crimea) on the shore of
the Unfriendly Sea. A deer with its throat
cut took her place in the altar.
o She became the priestess of the temple.
o (Different version) Orestes and Pylades
came to the Taurian land to get the sacred
image of Artemis to set it up in Athens, to
at last be healed and at peace.
o Iphigenia and Orestes meet, but they don’t
realize they’re talking to their own sibling.
Eventually, they find out. And they escape.
o King Thaos was initially furious, but
Athena told him they were acting under
B. The Royal House of Thebes
Cadmus and his Children
o Cadmus: brother of Europa
Instead of looking for Europa like his
brothers, he went to Delphi to ask
Apollo where she was.
Apollo told him to build a city
instead. Thebes, country round
First, he had to fight and kill a
dragon, which slew all his
companions. Athena told him to sow
earth with its teeth, which became
o He introduced the alphabet into Greece.
He married Harmonia (daughter of Ares
and Aphrodite) and had four daughters
and one son.
o All their daughters were visited by great
Semele, mom of Dionysus, perished
before the unveiled glory of Zeus.She
was made immortal by Dionysus in
Ino’s husband went mad and killed
their son, Melicertes. She and her dea
son leaped into the sea, but the gods
saved them. She became sea-goddess
Leucothea and her son sea-god
Agave, driven mad by Dionysus,
believed her son, Pentheus was a lion
and so she killed him.
Autonoe’s son, Actaeon, was turned
into a stag and got eaten by hounds.
o Son of King Laius of Thebes and Jocasta
o Left at a mountain to die
o Grows up as son of King Polybus of
o Leaves Corinth because of a Delphic
oracle (he was fated to kill his father),
thinking he was Polybus’ real son
o Thebes plagued by Sphinx. He killed
Laius, became the king of Thebes and
o Thebes was visited by a terrible plague.
He sent Jocasta’s brother Creon to
Delphi, and he asked for Apollo’s help.
o Apollo declared that the plague would be
lifted once King Laius’ murderer was
o Teiresias, the old blind prophet, says
Oedipus is the murderer.
o Eventually he realized
everything!!!Jocasta killed herself and he
o Daughter of Oedipus (others were
Polyneices and Eteocles, and Ismene)
o When Oedipus was exiled, only his
daughters were his friends. Antigone
went and guided him, while Ismene
stayed in Thebes to look out for his
stuff and keep him updated.
o She and Oedipus went to Colonus, where
they took refuge under the care of the
Benignant Goddesses. Oedipus died
o Ismene was with Antigone when Oedipus
died, and Athens King Theseus sent both
o They return to find Polyneices attacking
Thebes and Eteocles defending her.
o Seven chieftains vs. Seven gates of
o Menoeceus’ death was the noblest of all.
Teiresias said that Thebes would only be
saved if he died.
o Eteocles and Polyneices killed each
other. Eteocles was given proper burial.
Whoever buries Polyneices would be put
o Antigone buried him anyway. Ismene
tried to go with her, but Antigone would
not have it.
o ‚Your choice was to live, mine to die.‛
The Seven against Thebes
o Adrastus, the only one alive of the seven
came to Theseus to ask him to ask the
Thebans to allow the bodies to be
o Creon did not listen, and the Athenians
marched against Thebes.
o The only thing left of the old Thebes was
Harmonia’s necklace, which was taken to
o Sons of the seven champions Epigoni
C. The Royal House of Athens
o First King of Attica
o Son of King Erechtheus
o Decided Athens’ protector between
Athena and Poseidon
o Sisters: Procne and Philomela
Procne and Philomela
o Procne married Tereus of Thrace, son of
Ares, and had a son, Itys.
o Procne begged Tereus to let her invite
Philomela to visit, and he agreed to even
escort Philomela from Athens.
o He fell in love with Philomela. On the
journey, he told Philomela that Procne
died and forced her into a pretended
o Philomela eventually found out and
threatened him. In fury and fear, he
seized her, cut her tongue, and left her
in a strongly guarded place. He went to
Procne and told her that Philomela is
o Philomela produced a tapestry, which
told her story. She gave it to an old
woman to be given to the Queen.
o Procne found out everything. She took
Philomela back to the palace, killed Itys,
and served him to Tereus for supper.
o Tereus found out what he had just eaten,
and froze (thus the sisters were able to
flee). Near Daulis, he was about to kill
them until the gods turned them into
Procne nightingale, her song is
sweetest because it is saddest (she
never forgets the son she killed
Philomela swallow, only twitters
and never sings
Procris and Cephalus
o Procris was the daughter of Erectheus.
o Procris was married to Cephalus,
grandson of Aeolus. During his hunt,
Aurora, the Goddess of the Dawn, fell in
love with him. Cephalus loved only
Procris, and Aurora told him to go back
to her and make sure she was as
o Cephalus disguised himself and returned
to the household, determined to sway
Procris. She was faithful, but at one
momenthesitated. He got mad and
o Procris left him. He came back to his
senses and looked for her and begged
for forgiveness. He won her back.
o One day during hunting, Procris gave him
a javelin that never missed. Cephalus
thought something moved in the thicket
ahead and aimed for it. It was Procris,
and she died.
Orithyia and Boreas
o Orithyia: Sister of Procris
o Boreas, the North Wind, fell in love with
her, but Erectheus opposed. They
hated people from the North because
Tereus came from the North.
o Boreas got her anyway. They had two
sons, Zetes and Calais, and both went on
the Quest of the Golden Fleece with
Creusa and Ion
o Creusa was another sister of Procris and
o Apollo abducted her. They had a child,
but she didn’t tell her parents because
it was disgraceful.
o She left her son in the same cave where
Apollo brought her.
o She married Xuthus, a foreigner. They
didn’t have kids, so they went to Delphi
to ask if they could hope for a child.
o She met Ion in the sanctuary. Pythoness,
Apollo’s priestess and prophetess, found
him and brought him up.
o Creusa insulted Apollo and Ion felt
defensive of the god. Xuthus arrived and
declared Ion as his son. The prophetess
came and gave Ion the clothes Creusa
left him, and Creusa realized it was her
o Athena: ‚I am Pallas Athena. Apollo has
sent me to you to tell you that Ion is
his son and yours. He had him brought
here from the cave where you left him.
Take him with you to Athens, Creusa. He
is worthy to rule over my land and my