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  1. 1. apgabesamis MYTHOLOGY Edith Hamilton I. Introduction II. The Gods, the Creation, and the Earliest Heroes A. The Gods Titans o Cronus (Saturn) - leader of Titans, father of Zeus o Ocean - river that encircled the earth o Thetys - Ocean’s wife o Hypherion - the sun, the moon, and the dawn o Themis - justice o Iapetus - father of Atlas (who bore the world on his shoulders) and Prometheus (savior of mankind) Olympians (Mt. Olympus at Thessaly, northeast of Greece) o Zeus (Jupiter)  Wife: Hera  God of all gods  Breastplate: Aegis, Wielder of thunderbolt  Two sides: Low (amorous) and High (just)  Sacred animal: eagle, tree: oak  Oracle: Dodona o Poseidon (Neptune)  Wife: Amphitrite  God of sea (not to be confused with Ocean)  Gave the first horse to man o Hades (Pluto)  Wife: Persephone  God of the underworld  God of Wealth  Not evil, terrible but just  God of the Dead (not to be confused with Thanatos, God of Death) o Hera (Juno)  Protector of Marriage  Jealous wife  Raised by Ocean and Thetys  Sacred: cow, peacock  Favorite city: Argos  Mother of Ilithyia, who aids in childbirth o Hestia (Vesta)  Goddess of hearth  Each city had a public hearth for her  Meals began and ended with an offering to her  Virgin goddess o Pallas Athena (Minerva)  Daughter of Zeus alone  Goddess of the City, protector of civilized life, of handicrafts and agriculture, inventor of bridle  Zeus’ favorite child  Chief of the virgin goddesses  Maiden or Parthenos  Temple: Parthenon  Special city: Athens, tree: olive, animal: owl o Phoebus Apollo  Son of Zeus and Leto, born in Delos  ‚The most Greek of all the gods‛  Master musician, the Archer-god, the Healer, God of Light and of Truth  Oracle: Delphi  Delian from Delos; Pythian from killing Python; the Lycian  Not to be confused with Helios, the god of the sun, son of Hypherion o Artemis (Diana)  Apollo’s twin sister, daughter of Zeus and Leto, born in Delos  Virgin goddess
  2. 2. apgabesamis  Lady of Wild Things  When women died a swift and painless death, they were held to be slain by her silver arrows  Selene in the sky, Artemis on earth, Hecate in the lower world  Hecate: goddess of the dark moon, the black nights when the moon was hidden  Sacred: cypress tree, and all the wild animals (esp. deer) o Aphrodite (Venus)  Goddess of Love and Beauty  Daughter of Zeus and Dione or sprung from seafoam (foam: Aphros) near Cythera  Wafted to Cyprus  Both islands are sacred to her  Husband: Hephaestus  Tree: myrtle, bird: dove o Hephaestus (Vulcan and Mulciber)  God of Fire  Son of Hera alone  Important in the life of the city  God of ceremony when children were formally admitted to the city organization o Hermes (Mercury)  Son of Zeus and Maia, daughter of Atlas  Winged sandals and crown  Magic wand: Caduceus  Zeus’ messenger  Master Thief; stole Apollo’s herd on the day he was born and asked for forgiveness by giving Apollo the lyre he invented  God of the Commerce and the Market, protector of trade  The Divine Herald who led the souls down to their last home o Ares (Mars)  Son of Zeus and Hera  Coward  Sister: Eris (discord) and her son: Strife  Romans: Mars > Greeks: Ares  Has no cities where he is worshipped  Came from Thrace  Bird: vulture, animal: dog The Lesser Gods of Olympus o Eros (Cupid)  God of Love  Fairest of the deathless gods  Often represented as blindfolded  Anteros: avenger of slighted love, the one who opposes love; Himeros: longing; Hymen: God of the Wedding Feast o Hebe  Goddess of Youth  Daughter of Zeus and Hera  Cupbearer to the gods (but sometimes it’s Ganymede)  Married Hercules o Iris  Goddess of the Rainbow  Messenger of the gods (the only one in Iliad) o The Graces  Aglaia (Splendor), Euphrosyne (Mirth), and Thalia (Good Cheer)  Daughters of Zeus and Eurynome, child of Ocean  Not to be treated as separate personalities, but always together, a triple incarnation of grace and beauty  ‚Queens of song‛ together with the Muses
  3. 3. apgabesamis o The Muses  Nine in number, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory)  Clio: History  Urania: Astronomy  Melpomene: Tragedy  Thalia: Comedy  Terpsichore: Dance  Calliope: Epic Poetry  Erato: Love-poetry  Polyhymnia: Songs to the Gods  Euterpe: Lyric Poet  Mountains: Helicon (where Hesiod lives), Pierus in Pieria, Parnassus, and Olympus o August forms who sat beside Zeus in Olympus  Themis: Right, or Divine Justice  Dike: Human Justice o Two personified emotions esteemed highest of all feelings  Nemesis: Righteous Anger  Aidos: reverence and the shame that holds men back from wrongdoing, but also means the feeling a prosperous man should have in the presence of the unfortunate The Gods of the Waters o Poseidon  Lord and Ruler of the Sea (the Mediterranean) and the Friendly Sea (the Euxine, now the Black Sea)  Underground rivers were his o Ocean  Lord of the river Ocean, a great river encircling the earth  Daughters: the Oceanids  Sons: gods of all the rivers on earth o Pontus  Deep Sea  Son of Gaea (Mother Earth)  Father of Nereus o Nereus  Old Man of the Sea (the Mediterranean)  Wife: Doris, daughter of Ocean  Daughters: Nereids, nymphs of the Sea (e.g. Thetis, Ampithrite) o Triton  Trumpeter of the Sea  Son of Poseidon and Amphitrite o Proteus  Poseidon’s son or attendant  Foretells the future or changes his shape at will o The Naiads  Water nymphs  Dwelt in brooks and springs and fountains o Leucothea  Son: Palaemon  Once mortals, but became divinities of the sea (along with Glaucus) The Underworld o Divided into two: Tartarus and Erebus o The place where the wicked are punished and the good rewarded o Acheron: river of woe; Cocytus: river of lamentation o Charon: ferries the souls of the dead o Cereberus: three-headed, dragon-tailed dog o Three judges: Rhadamanthus, Minos, Aeacus o Place of blessedness: Elysian Fields o Three rivers that separate the underworld from the world above  Phlegethon, the river of fire  Styx, the river of the unbreakable oath by which the gods swear  Lethe, the river of forgetfulness o Erinyes (the Furies)
  4. 4. apgabesamis  Punish evildoers, pursue sinners on earth  Inexorable, but just  Tisiphone, Megaera, and Alecto o Sleep, Death, Dreams The Lesser Gods of Earth o Demeter (Ceres)  Goddess of the Corn o Dionysus (Bacchus)  God of the Vine o Pan  Son of Hermes  God of goatherds and shepherds, companion of the woodland nymphs  Born in Arcady o Silenus  Son of Pan or of Hermes  Always rode an ass because he was too drunk to walk o Castor and Pollux (Polydeuces)  Lived half of their time on earth and half in heaven  Sons of Leda  Special protectors of sailors  Leda: wife of King Tyndareus of Sparta, bore two mortal children to him (Castor and Clytemnestra, Agamemnon’s wife) and two immortal children to Zeus (swan; Pollux and Helen, heroine of Troy)  Idas killed Castor, and in turn Pollux stabbed Lynceus& Zeus struck Idas with his thunderbolt. Zeus in pity allowed Pollux to share his life with his brother, and the two never separated again. o The Sileni  Part men and part horse  Walked on two legs with horses’ hoofs, sometimes horses’ ears, and always horses’ tails o The Satyrs  Goat-men o Woodland nymphs  Oreads: nymphs of the mountains  Dryads (or Hamadryads): nymphs of trees o Aeolus  King of the Winds  Home: Aeolia  Four Chief Winds: Boreas (Aquilo; north), Zephyr (Favonius; west), Notus (Auster; south), Eurus (east) *from this point, they are no longer gods of the earth, but beings neither human nor divine* o The Centaurs  Half-man half-horse, more like beasts than men  Chiron: known everywhere for his goodness and his wisdom o The Gorgons  Out of three, two are immortal  Dragonlike creatures with wings, whose look turned men to stone  Father: Phorcys, son of the Sea and the Earth o The Graiae  Sisters to the Gorgons  Three gray women who had but one eye between them  Lived on the farther bank of Ocean o The Sirens  Lived on an island in the Sea  Had enchanting voices that lured sailors to death *very important but assigned to no abode* o The Fates (Moirae, Parcae)  Give to men at birth evil and good to have
  5. 5. apgabesamis  Clotho, the Spinner, who spun the thread of life  Lachesis, the Disposer of Lots, who assigned to each man his destiny  Atropos, she who could not be turned, who carried ‚the abhorred shears‛ and cut the thread at death The Roman Gods o The Numina - gods of Romans before they took over from Greece o Romans felt no need for beautiful, poetic gods until Greek lit. and art entered Italy o Lares (spirit of an ancestor) and Penates (gods of hearth and guardians of the storehouse) were the most prominent and revered. o Terminus: Guardian of Boundaries o Priapus: Cause of Fertility o Pales: Strengthener of Cattle o Sylvanus: Helper of Plowmen and Woodcutters o Saturn  Protector of the Sowers and the Seed  Wife: Ops, Harvest Helper  Later said to be the same as Cronus o Janus: God of good beginnings o Faunus: Saturn’s grandson, sort of like Pan; the Fauns: Roman satyrs o Quirinus: deified Romulus, founder of Rome o The Manes: spirits of the good dead in Hades o The Lemures or Larvae: spirits of the wicked dead o The Camenae  Began as useful and practical goddesses who cared for springs and wells and cured diseases and foretold the future  Later identified with the Muses  Ex. Egeria, who taught King Numa o Lucina  Sometimes regarded as a Roman Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth  Usually the epithet of both Juno and Diana B. The Two Great Gods of Earth Demeter and Dionysus are worshipped together. Demeter o Latin: Ceres o Goddess of the Corn o Older than Dionysus because corn was sowed before vines o Daughter of Cronus and Rhea o Chief festival came at harvest time (September, every 5 years @ Eleusis) Eleusian Mysteries o Daughter: Persephone (Prosperine), the maiden of spring  taken by Hades o 9 days until Sun told her what really happened o Left Olympus and lived on earth in grief o Taken in by Metaneira, and nursed Demophoon o Metaneira angered the goddess  Temple must be built to win back her favor o Demeter wasted herself away in the temple  nothing grew o Zeus sent Hermes to get Persephone, but Hades made her eat pomegranate seed for forced return o Rhea convinced Demeter to come back to Olympus o Dionysus o City: Thebes o Last god to enter Olympus; not admitted by Homer o Son of Zeus and Theban princess Semele o Cared for by the nymphs of Nysa o God of the Vine
  6. 6. apgabesamis o Insulted by Lycurgus, whom Zeus struck blind soon after o Fell in love with Ariadne o Maenads (or Bacchantes): women frenzied with wine o Worship of Dionysus centered in two ideas: freedom and ecstatic joy, and savage brutality o Pentheus, the King of Thebes, is his cousin C. How the World and Mankind Were Created (read ‘pag ‘di ka natinatamadhuhuhu) D. The Earliest Heroes Prometheus and Io Europa The Cyclops Polyphemus Flower Myths: Narcissus, Hyacinth, Adonis III. Stories of Love and Adventure A. Cupid and Psyche o Psyche, youngest of three daughters, was super beautiful that people neglected Venus. o Venus ordered Cupid to make Psyche fall madly in love with the vilest and most despicable creature there is in the whole world. o ‚Psyche, the all-beautiful, sat sad and solitary, only admired, never loved.‛ AWWW o Cupid fell in love with Psyche HIHIHIHI. o Cupid asked help from Apollo, and so when Psyche’s father asked advice from an oracle, Apollo practically told him to leave her on the summit of a rocky hill where a fearful winged serpent awaits. o As she was weeping on the high hilltop, Zephyr (sweetest and mildest of winds) transported her down a grassy meadow near a mansion where she will live. o She was alone by day, and with Cupid at night (though she did not know yet). o Her jealous sisters made her wonder why she never saw her husband’s face. She started thinking he was really a serpent. o She finds out he’s not a serpent, but he wakes up and realizes her faithlessness, so he leaves. o ‚Love (Eros) cannot live where there is no trust.‛ o ‚I can spend the rest of my life searching for him. If he has no more love left for me, at least I can show him how much I love him.‛ o Cupid went to Venus, who gets angry and leaves him. So she started to look for Psyche in displeasure. o Psyche decided to go straight to Venus and offer herself as Venus’ servant. o Venus scorned her and made her do impossible tasks: sort seeds (ants helped her), get golden wool (found them hanging on the sharp briars at night), get water from steep and rocky waterfall (an eagle helped her), and get beauty (to be filled in a box) from Prosperine in the Underworld o She fell into deep sleep when she opened the box, but Cupid woke her o Cupid asked Jupiter for help, and so Cupid and Psyche were formally married, and Psyche was made immortal. o ‚Love and Soul (Psyche) had sought and, after sore trials, found each other; and that union could never be broken.‛ B. Eight Brief Tales of Lovers Pyramus and Thisbe o Pyramus, the most beautiful youth, and Thisbe, the loveliest maiden of all the East, lived in Babylon, the city of Queen Semiramis. o They lived a wall away from each other. They talked through a chink in the wall. Their love was forbidden.
  7. 7. apgabesamis o Eventually they decided to slip away every night and be together. o They agreed to meet in the Tomb of Ninus, under a tall mulberry full of snow- white berries. o When Thisbe came, Pyramus was not there yet. A lioness came and so she fled, leaving her cloak. o Pyramus came and saw the bloodstained shreds of cloak and the tracks of the lioness. He thought Thisbe was killed and so he stabbed himself. Berries became dark red from his blood. o Thisbe went back and saw Pyramus dying. She killed herself ala-Juliet style. Orpheus and Eurydice o The very earliest musicians were the gods. (Athena invented the flute, Hermes gave Apollo a lyre, Hermes made the shepherd-pipe for himself, Pan made the pipe of reeds, the Muses had lovely voices) o Next in order came a few mortals  Orpheus, son of one of the Muses and a Thracian prince o Sailed with Jason on the Argo, where he would play music o He was able to break free their fleet from the Sirens by drowning their voice with his lyre music o He married Eurydice, but directly after the wedding, she was stung by a viper and she died. o He was determined to go down to the world of death and try to bring her back. o They granted his wish, in one condition: he must not look back at her until they had reached the upper world. o He got to the upper world, and turned to her, who was still in the cavern. She disappeared. o He wantered through the wild solitudes of Thrace, until a band of Maenads killed him. Ceyx and Alcyone o Ceyx, king of Thessaly, was the son of Lucifer, the light-bearer. o Alcyone, his wife, was the daughter of Aeolus. o Ceyx decided he must make a long journey across the sea, but she begs him not to go, or at least take her with him. o He felt that he must get counsel from the oracle there, and does not want her to share the perils of the voyage, so he still left her. o Ceyx was killed, and meanwhile Alcyone was still waiting for him. o She prayed most to Juno, who was touched. Juno summoned Iris. She ordered Iris to go to Somnus (god of sleep) and make him send a dream to Alcyone to tell her the truth about Ceyx. o Somnus aroused his son, Morpheus, to take shape of Ceyx and tell Alcyone he’s dead. o The next morning she finds Ceyx’ body ashore. She tried to sink herself into the waves but instead was transformed into a bird with Ceyx. Pygmalion and Galatea o Pygmalion: gifted sculptor of Cyprus; hates women o He fell in love with the statue of a woman, that he made. o He pretended, as children do with their toys, but eventually gave up. o Venus became interested. On her feast day, Pygmalion asked her that he might find a maiden like his statue. o Venus transformed the statue instead into a woman.
  8. 8. apgabesamis o Pygmalion named her Galatea, and they had a son named Paphos. Baucis and Philemon o Jupiter gets bored in Olympus, and often goes down to earth, disguised, looking for adventures. o He was determined to find out how hospitable Phrygia people were. o He and Mercury were treated coldly until one humble hovel welcomed them cheerfully. o This was the abode of Philemon (the old guy) and Baucis (the old woman). o ‚We are poor folk, but poverty isn’t so bad when you’re willing to own up to it, and a contented spirit is a great help, too.‛ o Because of their kidness, they were blssed with a great lake and a stately pillared home. o The gods granted them their wishes, to let them be the gods’ priests in the temple, and that they die together. o Eventually, they became treest, but still they were together. Endymion o He was a youth of surpassing beauty. o Selene loved him, and gave him magic slumber, in which he never wakes. Daphne o Independent, love-and-marriage-hating young huntress o Apollo’s first love o Father: Peneus, was sad because she refused all the men who wooed her o Before Apollo could catch up to her, she screamed for help to her father, and so she became a laurel tree. o Apollo was dismayed, but made her his sacred tree. Alpheus and Arethusa o Arethus, sacred spring in Ortygia, an island part of Syracuse, the greatest city of Sicily o She was once a young huntress and follower of Artemis had wanted nothing to do with men. o She bathed in a river, and fled when she realized Alpheus, the god of the river, was there. o Alpheus pursued her in a race. o Eventually worn out, Arethusa called to Artemis, who changed her into a spring that would flow to a tunnel under the sea from Greece to Sicily. o Alpheus did not give up, and so he changed back into a river and followed her in the tunnel. C. The Quest of the Golden Fleece o Greek king Athamas put his wife, Nephele, away and married another, Ino. o Nephele was afraid for her two children, especially Phrixus, because Ino might try to kill him so that her own son could inherit the kingdom. o When there was starvation, Ino bribed the king’s messenger to say that the oracle had declared that they must sacrifice Phrixus before corn would grow again. o When he was taken to the altar, a ram with golden fleece snatched him and his sister, Helle, up. This was because of Hermes, who answered Nephele’s prayer. o While crossing a strait, Helle slipped and fell into the water. She drowned, and the strait was named for her: the Sea of Helle, the Hellespoint. o Phrixus got to the country of Colchis on the Unfriendly Sea (the Black Sea). He married one of King Ætes’ daughters. o Phrixussacrifieced the gold fleeced-ram to Zeus, and gave the golden fleece to King Ætes.
  9. 9. apgabesamis o Phrixus’ uncle was a king in Greece, but was overthrown by Pelias, the king’s nephew. Jason, the king’s son, came back to claim the throne. o Pelias agrees, but Jason must retrieve the golden fleece first  supposedly impossible task o Jason went on journey with Hercules, Orpheus, Castor and Pollux, Peleus, and many others. o Sequence of Events in the Journey 1. Women of Lemnos (Hypsipyle) 2. Hercules leaves (because of Hylas) 3. Phineus; Harpies vs the two sons of Boreas 4. Phineus gives information that helps them pass through the Symplegades 5. Amazons, warrior women (daughters of peace-loving nymph Harmony and Ares) 6. Prometheus o Hera asked Aphrodite for help, and so Aphrodite made Cupid shoot an arrow to Medea, daughter of the Colchian king, to fall in love with Jason. o King Ætes did not like foreigners, and planned to kill them. He suggests a dangerous task in exchange for the fleece. o He asked help from Medea, who gave him an ointment that would prevent him from being harmed by anything. o Jason was victorious!!!!! But the king was planning treachery against the heroes. o Medea joined them and aids them. She lulled the serpent (who was guarding the fleece) to sleep and so Jason got it and left. o The king sent Apsyrtus (Medea’s brother) and his army to pursue the heroes. Medea killed him. o Trials en route to Greece: Scylla (dreaded rock) and Charybdis (whirlpool), Talus (all made of bronze except one ankle) o Pelias forced Jason’s father to kill himself and Jason’s mother died in grief. Jason wants revenge. o With the help of Medea, Pelias’ daughters were tricked into killing their father. o Medea and Jason had 2 kids, but Jason leaves her to marry the daughter of the King of Corinth. o King of Corinth exiled her and her kids in fear that she would do harm to his daughter. o Jason was such a male genitalia to her. In exile, he offered her gold in exchange for all her help, but she refused. o Medea killed Jason’s new wife using a robe, which, when worn, engulfs into flames. Medea also killed her own kids. D. Four Great Adventurers Phaethon o Son of the Helios and Clymene o To prove to Phaethon that he, the Sun- god, is indeed his father, he swore by the Styx river to grant any wish. o Phaethon wished to drive the Helios’s chariot. The father warned him of the dangers, but the son does not yield. o Phaethon cannot handle the rage of the wild horses. He accidentally set the world on fire, and Jove killed Phaethon with thunderbolt. o River Eridanus received him and cooled of his body. Naiads buried him. Heliades (his sisters, daughters of Helios) mourned for him. They were turned into poplar trees. Pegasus and Bellerophon o Bellerophon wanted to possess Pegasus. o Pegasus sprung from the Gorgon’s blood when Perseus killed her. o Polyidus advised him to sleep in Athena’s temple one night. There he found a golden bridle.
  10. 10. apgabesamis o Anteia, wife of Argos King Proteus, fell in love with him, but he refused her. Proteus sent him to the Lycian king, who learned that Proteus wants Bellerophon killed. The king asked him to slay the Chimaera, confident that he won’t be able to. o Other trials: Solymi, might warriors; Amazons o Eventually Proteus was won over and they became friends. He marries Proteus’ daughter. o He wanted to go to Olympus, but Pegasus threw him on the way. o Bellephron wandered alone since. Pegasus found shelter in the stalls of Olympus where the steeds of Zeus were cared for. Otus and Ephialtes o Twin brothers, giants o Sons of Iphimedia (others say Canace) and Poseidon o Aloadae, sons of Aloeus, their mother’s husband o They wanted to prove that they were the gods’ superiors (e.g. imprisoning Ares). o They tried to kidnap Artemis (Ephialtes thought he loved her) but Artemis sought vengeance by tricking them into killing each other. Daedalus o Architect who made the Labyrinth for the Minotaur in Crete o Showed Ariadne how Theseus could escape from it o King Minos was convinced that Daedalus helped the Athenians find their way out. He imprisoned him and Icarus (Daedalus’ son) in the Labyrinth. o Daedalus invented wings for them. He warned his son not to fly too high because the wax (keeps the wings together) might melt. Icarus disregarded this, and died. o Daedalus flew to Sicily, where he was received kindly by the king. o Minos thought of a plan to find him, and when he did, the Sicilian king refused to surrender him, and Minos was slain. IV. The Heroes of the Trojan War A. The Trojan War Prologue: The Judgement of Paris o Eris, the evil goddess of Discord, was always left out when the gods gave a banquet. o Resenting this, she threw a golden apple, marked For the Fairest, in the marriage of King Peleus and sea nymph Thetis. This caused a fight, narrowed among Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena. o The goddesses asked Zeus to judge, but he told them to go to Mount Ida, where Paris (Alexander) lived.  Great judge of beauty  Exiled by King Priam because he was said to someday be the ruin of Troy  Lived with Oenone o He did not judge their beauty, but instead choose from the bribes given.  Hera: lord of Europe and Asia  Athena: Trojans victory against Greeks  Aphrodite: fairest woman in all the world The Trojan War o Helen: fairest woman in the world; daughter of Zeus and Leda; sister of Castor and Pollux o King Tyndareus (Leda’s husband) was afraid of selecting a prince among the other princes because those not chosen might unite against him.  He exacted
  11. 11. apgabesamis first an oath that everyone must support whoever Helen’s husband would be. o Menelaus, brother of Agamemnon, was chosen, and was made King of Sparta. o Paris snatched Helen. The princes helped in, bound by the oath. Odysseus and Achilles were missing.  Odysseus did not want to leave his family for the sake of a faithless wife. He pretended to have gone mad, but the messenger proved he was not.  Achilles was kept back by Thetis, his mom. She knew that he was fated to die there. He was disguised as a peddler among Lycomedes. Odysseus knew better, and had no trouble in making him disregard what his mother had said. o Wind was against them. Soothsayer Calchas told them that Artemis was angry for Greeks killed a hare with its young. They must sacrifice Iphigenia, eldest daughter of Agamemnon. o Upon reaching Simois, one of the rivers of Troy, Protesilaus leaped ashore  he who landed first would be the first to die (Laodamia, the wife, went with him) o Hector: son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba o For nine years, victory wavered. o Achilles and Agamemnon fought. (Remember Iliad: Chryseis, Apollo, Briseis, Calchas, etc.) Angry Thetis asked Zeus to give success to the Trojans. Zeus was reluctant o Greeks’ side: Athena, Hera, Poseidon o Trojans’ side: Aphrodite, Ares, Hector, Artemis o Zeus was with Trojans, but wanted to be neutral because Hera gets disagreeable whenever he opposed her. o King Priam and the other old men did not blame Helen. o Paris faced Menelaus, but Paris eventually flees. Menelaus was declared victor and so Helen must be given back, but Athena made Pandarus (Trojan) break the truce by shooting an arrow at Menelaus.  Athena and Hera want Troy in ruins. o Diomedes almost killed Prince Aeneas (son of Aphrodite). Apollo enveloped him in a cloud and carried where to Pergamos where Artemis healed his wound. o Diomedes faced Hector (with Ares). Hera and Athena helped him defeat Ares, who leaves for Olympus. o Hector’s brother told him to tell the Queen to offer Athena her most beautiful robe and pray for mercy. Athena denied the prayer. o Hector leaves his wife, Andromache, and his son, Astyanax, to go back to the battle. o While Troy was winning, Agamemnon wanted to return to Greece. Nestor said that had he not angered Achilles they wouldn’t have been losing. o Odysseus and two chieftains went to him and Patroclus, but Achilles denied their offer. o Hera seduced Zeus to distract him from his promise to Thetis. So the battle turned in favor of the Greeks. When he woke up, Hera told him that Poseidon was the cause of the winning of the Greeks. So Zeus sent Iris to tell Poseidon to withdraw, and the tide of battle turned against the Greeks. o Apollo, meanwhile, was healing Hector (who was wounded by Ajax). Patroclus, wearing Achilles’ armor and leading the Myrmidons (Achilles’ men), went to battle.
  12. 12. apgabesamis Hector killed him, stripped his armor from him and wore it. o Nestor’s son, Antilochus, told Achilles about Patroclus. He swore vengeance. Thetis tried to stop him, but he did not yield. She asked got a new armor for Achilles. o Achilles was fated to kill Hector. Meanwhile, gods were also fighting: Athena vs. Ares, Hera vs. Artemis, Poseidon vs. Apollo o Trojans were crowding into town, but Hector stayed outside the gates. Priam and Hecuba tried to talk him into going in, but he refused. o Deiphobos (Athena in disguise) stopped Hector from running from Achilles, so they fought face-to-face. Achilles won, stripped the armor from him, fastened his ankles to Achilles’ chariot to be devoured by dogs later on. o Achilles’ abuse of the dead displeased all the Olympians except Hera, Athena, and Poseidon. Zeus sends Iris to Priam to tell him to retrieve Hector’s body by ransom. o Hermes guided him to Achilles’s tent. He was able to convince Achilles to return Hector’s body. They lamented him for nine days. B. The Fall of Troy o Achilles knew his own death was near. o Prince Memnon of Ethiopia, son of the Goddess of the Dawn, helped Troy with a large army. Achilles killed him, and the former himself fell. o Paris shot an arrow, and Apollo guided it so that it struck his heel, where he was vulnerable. o Ajax carried his body out of the battle while Odysseus held the Trojans back. o Achilles’ armor was going to be inherited by either Odysseus or Ajax. Odysseus got them, and was honored. o Ajax was dishonored, and wanted to kill Agamemnon and Menelaus. Athena struck him with madness. He killed herds, thinking it was the chieftains. When he realized what he has done, he killed himself. o Calchas told the Greeks to capture Helenus (Trojan) to know what they should do next. Odysseus got him. o ‚Troy would not fall until some one fought against the Trojans with the bow and the arrows of Hercules.‛  Was with Prince Philoctetes o Philoctetes joined the Greeks, but en route was bitten by a serpent. They left him at Lemnos, now uninhabited (refer to Quest of the Golden Fleece). o In the end, he was persuaded to go with them again. He was healed by a wise physician of the Greeks. o First shot: Paris  He begged for Oenone to cure him but she refused. After his death, she killed herself. o Greeks learned of Palladium (most sacred image of Athena). As long as the Trojans had it, Troy could not be taken. Diomedes and Odysseus succeeded in taking it. o Odysseus makes a wooden horse that could hold a number of men. The Trojans were shocked that the Greek camp was empty. Sinon, the Greek left behind, was seized and dragged to Priam, and said he no longer wanted to be a Greek.  His ‚story‛: Athena was angry at the theft of Palladium. The Greeks must sacrifice him, Sinon, but he managed to escape. The wooden horse was made as an offering to Athena (Trojans thought that by placing it
  13. 13. apgabesamis in the city, they would gain Athena’s favor). o The priest Lacoon, and his two sons were the only ones who doubted the story. Poseidon killed them with his serpents. Trojans saw this as punishment. o The horse was brought in, and at night, the Greeks sack the city. o Achilles’ son, Neoptolemus, killed Priam. Aphrodite was the only god who helped that day. Aeneas, with his father and his son, escaped. Helen was brought back to Menelaus. o Men were killed. Women and children were made slaves. o Astyanax was thrown from the wall. ‚With the death of Hector’s son, Troy’s last sacrifice was accomplished.‛ C. The Adventures of Odysseus o Athena and Poseidon became the enemies of the Greeks. o Cassandra: daughter of Priam. Apollo once loved her, and he gifted her the power to foretell the future. She refused him, so Apollo cursed that no one believed what she said, though they were true. She was in Athena’s temple. o Greeks found her and lay violent hands on her (esp. Ajax the Lesser). Athena was furious and so she went to Poseidon and asked help in vengeance. o Poseidon made a storm. Agamemnon lost almost all his ships, Menelaus was blown to Egypt, and Ajax the Lesser was drowned. o Odysseus did not suffer as much as some of the Greeks, but he suffered longer than them all. o He wandered for 10 years before he saw his home. His son, Telemachus had left and grown to manhood (he was gone for 20 years). Everyone in Ithaca believed he was dead, except Penelope and their son. Men tried wooing Penelope but he refused them all. o Athena had favored Odysseus in the Trojan War, and after 10 years of grudge against the Greeks, she felt sorry for him. o Odysseus was on an island ruled by the nymph Calypso, who loved him. She gave him everything but freedom. He longed for his family. Zeus sent Hermes to Calypso to tell her that she must let go of Odysseus. o Athena disguised herself as a seafaring man and went to Telemachus. She told him to find out something about his father’s fate, to drive his mother’s suitors away. o Telemachus was taunted when people find out of his plan. He prayed to Athena, and she, in disguise as Mentor (Odysseus’ most trusted), comforted and encouraged him. o He set off toward Pylos’, Nestor’s home. Nestor had no idea about Odysseus, but offered to send him to Sparta in a chariot and ask Menelaus. He told Telemachus that Calypso had Odysseus. o Hermes told Calypso about Zeus’ orders, and she had no other choice but to abide by them. She helped in making a raft for Odysseus. o Odysseus leaves on the fifth day from Hermes’ visit. Poseidon gave him a hard time in the sea, but goddess Ino pitied him, told him to abandon his raft, and gave him her veil that would keep him from harm as long as he was in the sea. o After two days and two nights of swimming, he arrived in the country of the Phaeacians. King: Alcinous, wife: Acrete
  14. 14. apgabesamis o Nausicaa, the princess, found him and brought him back to their place. o He narrated to them his story, starting from the departure from Troy: 1. Lotus Land 2. Cyclops Polyphemus (the reason why Poseidon resented Odysseus) 3. Country of the Winds 4. Storm Winds 5. Laestrygons 6. Aeaea, realm of Circe the witch 7. Underworld (Teiresias) 8. Sirens 9. Scylla and Charybdis 10. Island of the Sun 11. Calypso’s island o A ship was prepared for him, and he left for his own country. Athena (disguised as a shepherd) welcomed him to Ithaca. She changed him into a beggar so he can go around unrecognized. o He spent the night with Eumaeus, his swineherd. Meanwhile, Athena prompted Telemachus to go to Eumaeus first. o Father and son finally meet. ‚I am your father.‛ (HAHAHA ok) o They devise a plan to drive the suitors away by force, with Athena aiding them. o Argos: Odysseus’ old dog. They recognized each other and Odysseus did not go to him in fear of arousing suspicion. The dog died when he turned away. (aidjnfkagorefuvsbfdhjv) o Eventually, Penelope realized Odysseus was back. D. The Adventures of Aeneas Part One: From Troy to Italy o Aeneas was told in a dream that the place destined for the Trojans was Italy (then Hesperia, the Western Country). o They came upon the Harpies, and were driven away. o Next they met Andromache. When Troy fell she was given to Neoptolemus, who soon abandoned her for Helen’s daughter, Hermione. When he died, Andromache married Helenus, and they were now ruling a country. They were warmly welcomed, and as they left, Helenus advised them not to land on the nearest coast of Italy, for it was full of Greeks. o Helenus’ careful directions helped Aeneas avoid Scylla and Charybdis. o They landed on an island inhabited by the Cyclopes. They met one of Odysseus’ sailors, and told them to leave before Polyphemus arrives. o They were struck by a great storm by Aeolous and Juno, who tried to drown Aeneas.  She felt especial hatred for Aeneas. Rome, which was to be founded by Trojans, was bound to conquer Carthage, her pet city. o Poseidon intervened and calmed the sea. o Carthage was founded by a woman named Dido. Juno planned for Dido and Aeneas to fall in love, but Venus intervened. o Venus (in disguise) told Aeneas and his friend Achates to go to the queen and ask for advice. Cupid shot an arrow to Dido and so she fell in love. Eventually, Aeneas started to abandon his idea of leaving. o Jupiter sent Mercury to Aeneas, reminding him of the kingdom he’s destined to, and so he left. Dido killed herself. Part Two: The Descent into the Lower World o Helenus told Aeneas to seek the cave of the Sibyl of Cumae, who could advise him what to do. o She told him that she would guide him to the underworld, where his father, Anchises, will tell him what he needed to learn. But first he must find a golden bough.
  15. 15. apgabesamis o Lake Avernus: foul-smelling sheet of water, led to the underworld o The doves (birds of Venus) got them a golden bough. They get ferried to the underworld. o Otw he saw Dido in the Fields of Mourning, and he shed tears. o They arrived in the Elysian Fields, where Anchises was. He gave his son instructions on how he would best establish his home, and how he could avoid or endure the hardships. Part Three: The War in Italy o Juno caused it!!! She made the Latins and the Rutulians oppose of the Trojans’ settlement. o King of Latium Latinus, had been warned by his father, Faunus, not to marry his daughter, Lavinia, to any man but a stranger who was soon to arrive. He believed his foreigner to be Aeneas. o Juno stepped in. She summoned Alecto, one of the Furies, to loose bitter war over the land. Alecto got Queen Amata to oppose Aeneas x Lavinia. Rutulian King Turnus wanted to marry Lavinia himself, so he was also against the Trojans. Aeneas’ young son, Ascanius, was guided by Alecto to harm a beloved creature, enraging the farmers. o Rutulians and Latins, Mezentius, Camilla vs. Trojans, Pallas, Etruscans o Arcady: poor little town destined to become the proudest of the earth’s cities; King: Evander, son: Pallas o Nisus and Euryalus tried to reach Aeneas as the others defended themselves from Turnus. Euryalus was captured, and Nisus was killed with him. o Many are killed (Camilla, Mezentius, Pallas, etc) Turneus and Aeneas fight  Aeneas and Lavinia get married and founded the Roman race V. The Great Families of Mythology A. The House of Atreus Tantalus and Niobe o Tantalus: son of Zeus, honored by the gods beyond all the mortal children of Zeus o He had his only son Pelops killed, boiled in a cauldron, and served to the gods.  He hated the gods, and wanted to bring upon them the horror of being cannibals.  The gods knew and punished him.  They restored Pelops to life, but with a shoulder out of ivory.  Pelops was the only one of Tantalus’ descendants not marked out by misfortune.  Married Princess Hippodamia o Niobe: daughter of Tantalus, sister of Pelops, wife of Amphion  Arrogant, like Tantalus; defied the gods openly  She insulted Leto, so Apollo and Artemis killed all of her sons and daughters.  She was changed into a stone which forever, night and day, was wet with tears. o Pelops sons: Atreus and Thyestes  Thyestes fell in love with Atreus’ wife and they cheated on Atreus.  Atreus found out and swore that Thyestes will pay. He killed Thyestes’ two sons.  Atreus was made King, and Thyestes had no power. Agamemnon and his Children o Remember when Iphigenia was killed? (refer to Trojan Wars haha) Clymnestra
  16. 16. apgabesamis cheated on Agamemnon with Aegisthus (son of Thyestes) o Clymnestra killed Agamemnon o Electra and Orestes were the other two children of Clymnestra and Agamemnon.Aegisthus hated them both.  Orestes was sent away. Electra stayed, wretched by Aegisthus  Orestes was torn. It was his duty to kill his father’s murderers, but killing his mother was abhorrent. He went to Delphi and asked the oracle for help.  He killed Aegisthus and Clymnestra. o Furies became the Benignant Ones, the Eumenides, protectors of the suppliant. o The cure of the House of Atreus was ended. Iphigenia among the Taurians o Artemis had taken Iphigenia to the land of the Taurians (the Crimea) on the shore of the Unfriendly Sea. A deer with its throat cut took her place in the altar. o She became the priestess of the temple. o (Different version) Orestes and Pylades came to the Taurian land to get the sacred image of Artemis to set it up in Athens, to at last be healed and at peace. o Iphigenia and Orestes meet, but they don’t realize they’re talking to their own sibling. Eventually, they find out. And they escape. o King Thaos was initially furious, but Athena told him they were acting under divine guidance. B. The Royal House of Thebes Cadmus and his Children o Cadmus: brother of Europa  Instead of looking for Europa like his brothers, he went to Delphi to ask Apollo where she was.  Apollo told him to build a city instead.  Thebes, country round named Boeotia  First, he had to fight and kill a dragon, which slew all his companions. Athena told him to sow earth with its teeth, which became his helpers. o He introduced the alphabet into Greece. He married Harmonia (daughter of Ares and Aphrodite) and had four daughters and one son. o All their daughters were visited by great misfortunes.  Semele, mom of Dionysus, perished before the unveiled glory of Zeus.She was made immortal by Dionysus in the end.  Ino’s husband went mad and killed their son, Melicertes. She and her dea son leaped into the sea, but the gods saved them. She became sea-goddess Leucothea and her son sea-god Palaemon.  Agave, driven mad by Dionysus, believed her son, Pentheus was a lion and so she killed him.  Autonoe’s son, Actaeon, was turned into a stag and got eaten by hounds. Oedipus o Son of King Laius of Thebes and Jocasta o Left at a mountain to die o Grows up as son of King Polybus of Corinth o Leaves Corinth because of a Delphic oracle (he was fated to kill his father), thinking he was Polybus’ real son o Thebes plagued by Sphinx. He killed Laius, became the king of Thebes and married Jocasta. o Thebes was visited by a terrible plague. He sent Jocasta’s brother Creon to Delphi, and he asked for Apollo’s help.
  17. 17. apgabesamis o Apollo declared that the plague would be lifted once King Laius’ murderer was punished. o Teiresias, the old blind prophet, says Oedipus is the murderer. o Eventually he realized everything!!!Jocasta killed herself and he blinded himself. Antigone o Daughter of Oedipus (others were Polyneices and Eteocles, and Ismene) o When Oedipus was exiled, only his daughters were his friends. Antigone went and guided him, while Ismene stayed in Thebes to look out for his stuff and keep him updated. o She and Oedipus went to Colonus, where they took refuge under the care of the Benignant Goddesses. Oedipus died happy. o Ismene was with Antigone when Oedipus died, and Athens King Theseus sent both safely home. o They return to find Polyneices attacking Thebes and Eteocles defending her. o Seven chieftains vs. Seven gates of Thebes o Menoeceus’ death was the noblest of all. Teiresias said that Thebes would only be saved if he died. o Eteocles and Polyneices killed each other. Eteocles was given proper burial. Whoever buries Polyneices would be put to death. o Antigone buried him anyway. Ismene tried to go with her, but Antigone would not have it. o ‚Your choice was to live, mine to die.‛ The Seven against Thebes o Adrastus, the only one alive of the seven came to Theseus to ask him to ask the Thebans to allow the bodies to be buried. o Creon did not listen, and the Athenians marched against Thebes. o The only thing left of the old Thebes was Harmonia’s necklace, which was taken to Delphi. o Sons of the seven champions Epigoni C. The Royal House of Athens Cecrops o First King of Attica o Son of King Erechtheus o Decided Athens’ protector between Athena and Poseidon o Sisters: Procne and Philomela Procne and Philomela o Procne married Tereus of Thrace, son of Ares, and had a son, Itys. o Procne begged Tereus to let her invite Philomela to visit, and he agreed to even escort Philomela from Athens. o He fell in love with Philomela. On the journey, he told Philomela that Procne died and forced her into a pretended marriage. o Philomela eventually found out and threatened him. In fury and fear, he seized her, cut her tongue, and left her in a strongly guarded place. He went to Procne and told her that Philomela is dead. o Philomela produced a tapestry, which told her story. She gave it to an old woman to be given to the Queen. o Procne found out everything. She took Philomela back to the palace, killed Itys, and served him to Tereus for supper. o Tereus found out what he had just eaten, and froze (thus the sisters were able to flee). Near Daulis, he was about to kill them until the gods turned them into birds.
  18. 18. apgabesamis  Procne nightingale, her song is sweetest because it is saddest (she never forgets the son she killed  Philomela  swallow, only twitters and never sings Procris and Cephalus o Procris was the daughter of Erectheus. o Procris was married to Cephalus, grandson of Aeolus. During his hunt, Aurora, the Goddess of the Dawn, fell in love with him. Cephalus loved only Procris, and Aurora told him to go back to her and make sure she was as faithful. o Cephalus disguised himself and returned to the household, determined to sway Procris. She was faithful, but at one momenthesitated. He got mad and revealed himself. o Procris left him. He came back to his senses and looked for her and begged for forgiveness. He won her back. o One day during hunting, Procris gave him a javelin that never missed. Cephalus thought something moved in the thicket ahead and aimed for it. It was Procris, and she died. Orithyia and Boreas o Orithyia: Sister of Procris o Boreas, the North Wind, fell in love with her, but Erectheus opposed.  They hated people from the North because Tereus came from the North. o Boreas got her anyway. They had two sons, Zetes and Calais, and both went on the Quest of the Golden Fleece with Jason. Creusa and Ion o Creusa was another sister of Procris and Orithyia. o Apollo abducted her. They had a child, but she didn’t tell her parents because it was disgraceful. o She left her son in the same cave where Apollo brought her. o She married Xuthus, a foreigner. They didn’t have kids, so they went to Delphi to ask if they could hope for a child. o She met Ion in the sanctuary. Pythoness, Apollo’s priestess and prophetess, found him and brought him up. o Creusa insulted Apollo and Ion felt defensive of the god. Xuthus arrived and declared Ion as his son. The prophetess came and gave Ion the clothes Creusa left him, and Creusa realized it was her own son. o Athena: ‚I am Pallas Athena. Apollo has sent me to you to tell you that Ion is his son and yours. He had him brought here from the cave where you left him. Take him with you to Athens, Creusa. He is worthy to rule over my land and my city.‛