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Garlic deep processing industry


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Garlic can be divided into hardneck and softneck varieties.It can be processed into garlic flake, garlic powder, and garlic oil, etc. Measures are taken for deodorization to prevent garlic breath.

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Garlic deep processing industry

  1. 1. Tel: 86-0371-65903478 Fax: 86-0371-65903401 Garlic Deep Processing Industry 1. Garlic Overview 1.1 Garlic species Garlic(Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium. It is native to central Asia, and has been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes. There are two subspecies of allium sativum: hardneck (Allium sativum ophioscorodon) and softneck (Allium sativum sativum). 1.11 Hardneck garlic Hardneck garlic grow best in cold climates. Hardnecks have a hard central stalk and produce delicious curled scapes from the top. Removing the scapes encourages larger bulbs. Hardneck garlics have fewer, larger cloves than the softnecks, and have little or no papery outer wrapper. Hardneck garlic has a rich and complex flavor. Porcelain, pocambole, and purple stripe types are hardnecks. 1.12 Softneck garlic Softneck types grow best in mild climates. It is the type found most often in the grocery store. Softneck garlic has a white, papery skin. It doesn’t produce scapes, and has more cloves forming several layers surrounding the core. Softnecks mature faster than hardnecks and keep longer. The flexible stem makes it ideal for braiding. Flavor of softneck garlic is generally mild. Most processed garlic foods, like garlic powder and seasoning, come from softneck garlic. Artichoke and Silverskin are two types of softneck garlic. 1.2 Health benefits and uses 1.21 Nutritional value One raw clove(3g) contains 4 calories, 0.02g fat, no cholesterol, 1mg sodium, 1g carbohydrates, 0.2g protein. It is rich in potassium, calcium, manganese, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B6, and vitamin C. 1.22 Medical and culinary uses Garlic has been used to prevent or treat a variety of diseases including diabetes, high blood
  2. 2. Tel: 86-0371-65903478 Fax: 86-0371-65903401 pressure, high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cancer, and infections. Garlic is consumed fresh as well as used as a condiment in various food preparations like pickles, chutneys, curries powders, sauce, salad dressings, meat sausages, etc. 2. Garlic Deep Processing Technology and Processed Garlic Products 2.1 Garlic deodorization Fresh garlic contains Alliin and an enzyme called Alliinase, each kept in separate cells. When garlic is chopped or crushed, the enzyme alliinase contacts with alliin and converts alliin into allicin. Allicin is very unstable and breaks down quickly producing allyl methyl sulfide. The chemical goes into our blood stream and gets expelled through skin’s pores when we sweat causing garlicky sweat. It also enters our lungs and comes out as we exhale causing garlic breath. The odor of garlic poses negative influence on its application. Therefore, it’s important to choose a proper deodorizing method during garlic deep processing. Two methods are listed as follow: 1). Add 5kg water and 100g vinegar to every kilogram of garlic and mix evenly. Allow to boil for 15 minutes and then cool to ambient temperature. Clean the garlic with water. 2). Put the garlic in the solution made by 0.3% citric acid, 0.2% cyclodextrine, and 0.1% magnesium chloride, soak for 3 hours at 50℃, then rinse with clean water. 2.2 Garlic products in the industry There are many types of garlic products in the market, including garlic flake, garlic powder, garlic oil, aged garlic extract, black garlic, etc.
  3. 3. Tel: 86-0371-65903478 Fax: 86-0371-65903401 2.21 Garlic flake Working Process of Garlic Flake Production garlic separating→garlic peeling→garlic washing→garlic slicing→garlic slice rinsing→garlic slice dehydration→garlic slice drying→garlic slice grading→garlic slice packing Garlic flake production line mainly includes the following equipment: (1).Garlic separating machine Garlic bulbs are separated into cloves by passing between rubber rollers of garlic separating machine. With the built-in draught fan, garlic peels, garlic stem and cloves are separated automatically. (2). Garlic peeling machine By using pneumatic type garlic peeling machine, the outer skin of garlic cloves are removed off
  4. 4. Tel: 86-0371-65903478 Fax: 86-0371-65903401 without water. (3). Garlic washing machine Garlic cloves are washed by washing machine to remove off foreign matters. (4). Garlic slicing machine With garlic slicing machine, clean garlic cloves are uniformly sliced to 1.5-2.2mm. The surface of garlic slice is smooth without damage. (5). Garlic rinsing machine Sliced garlic are washed again in the rinsing machine. (6). Garlic dehydration machine Garlic slices are processed by the centrifugal dewatering machine to remove surface water. (7). Garlic drying machine Dehydrated garlic flakes are spread uniformly on the drying tray and dried in the hot air drying oven at 65℃ for about 6 hours. The final moisture content should be less than 5%. (8). Garlic grading machine Dried garlic slices are graded by garlic grading machine. Unqualified products are removed. (9). Garlic packing machine Dried garlic slices are packed by garlic packing machine for safe storage. 2.22 Garlic powder
  5. 5. Tel: 86-0371-65903478 Fax: 86-0371-65903401 Garlic powder can be made by grinding dried garlic flakes in the garlic grinding machine into fine powder. If you make it coarser, it will be granulted garlic. Garlic powder can also be made in the following process: garlic separating→garlic peeling→garlic grinding→garlic paste dehydration→garlic drying→garlic powder crushing→garlic powder packing Garlic powder production line mainly includes the following equipments: (1). Garlic separating machine Garlic bulbs are separated into cloves by garlic separating machine. (2). Garlic peeling machine Garlic cloves are peeled by using garlic peeling machine. (3). Garlic paste making machine Peeled garlic cloves are put into the garlic grinding machine which grinds the cloves into paste. (4). Garlic paste dehydration machine Garlic paste are put into the centrifugal dewatering machine to remove water. (5). Garlic drying machine Dehydrated garlic powder are spread uniformly on the drying tray and dried in the hot air drying oven at 55℃ for about 6 hours. The final moisture content should be less than 5%. (6). Garlic powder crushing machine Garlic powder crushing machine grinds the dried powder into fine powder. (7). Garlic powder packing machine Garlic powder is packed by garlic packing machine automatically and store for sale. 2.23 Garlic oil Garlic oil is mainly obtained by steam distillation from the crushed garlic. The working process is as follows: Garlic separating→garlic peeling→garlic washing→garlic crushing→fermentation→steam distillation → separation → refining → packing First the bulbs are separated into cloves, and then the cloves are peeled. After cleaning and crushing, 2-folds of water are added and the mixture are fermented at 55℃ for 3 hours. Then the mixture are subject to steam distillation. The distillate is separated by oil-water separator to get crude oil. The crude oil is refined and packed. This method has the advantages of simple equipment, low cost and good stability. Vegetable oil is usually added to refined oil to make capsules. 2.24 Aged garlic extract Aged garlic extract is produced by extraction and aging of fresh garlic at room temperature for up to 20 months in stainless steel tanks. During this period, harsh unstable compounds, such as allicin in fresh garlic are converted into stable health-promoting substances. 2.25 Black garlic Black garlic is produced through fermentation by heating whole bulbs of fresh garlic at high
  6. 6. Tel: 86-0371-65903478 Fax: 86-0371-65903401 temperature under controlled humidity for several weeks. During fermentation, the cloves gradually darken to their final black appearance. Black garlic has soft, sweetish taste.