Last Lesson Recap (work in groups of two or three)
1.What does the term prehistory mean/what chronological period does
it refer to?
2. Define Paleolithic and Neolithic
3.How might we define the term “culture”?
4.What did we learn about the Woman of Willendorf (context, but also
date, size, area found etc)?
5.What was the function of cave art? Which cave did Werner Herzog go
into, and how old is the art in it? What was painted on the walls? When
was the cave art at this site discovered by modern man?
6.What did you fill out in your Stonehenge Graphic Organizer? Compare
with your partner.
Some characteristics of civilization:
1)the creation of permanent urban and administrative centers;
2) the invention of basic political (a political system based on territory
instead of kinship), social, and economic institutions (which then attempt to
solve man’s basic needs: food, shelter, and security);
3) a method of taxation;
4) the division and specialization of labor;
5) external trade;
6) a hierarchical system of classes;
7) the development of the arts and sciences;
8) the creation of a complex religious life;
9) the invention of a written language for communication, record keeping,
and the transmission of culture. Civilization possibly first appeared among
the ancient Sumerians and then among the Egyptians.
The term "Sumerian" is the common name given to the
ancient inhabitants of southern Mesopotamia, Sumer, by
their successors, the Akkadians.
One of the earliest known forms of writing, emerging in
Sumer c. 3000 BCE.
The Epic of Gilgamesh may be the oldest written story unearthed to date. It depicts the
adventures of the historical King Gilgamesh of Uruk in Babylonia on the Euphrates River in
modern-day Iraq. The Epic of Gilgamesh dates to about 2700 BC and was originally written
on 12 clay tablets in the cuneiform script of ancient Sumeria.
Tablet 11 of the Epic of Gilgamesh contains an extensive flood story that’s similar in many
ways to the biblical account in Genesis.
Stele of Naram-Sin. 2254–2218 BCE, height 6'6”.
Votive Statue of Gudea, c. 2090 BCE, height 29”.
Stele of Hammurabi, c. 1792–1750 BCE,
height of stele approx. 7'; height of relief 28”.
Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions, c 875 BCE (Iraq), height approx. 39".
Assurbanipal and his Queen in the Garden,
The 'Garden Party' relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal (Room S), Nineveh,
northern Iraq. Assyrian, about 645 BC.
Human-headed Winged Bull and Winged Lion, Neo-Assyrian, ca. 883-859
Height 10 ft. 3 ½ in.
Reconstruction drawing of Babylon in the 6th Century BCE.
Ishtar Gate and Throne Room Wall. c. 575 BCE,
height of gate originally 40’, with towers rising 100’.
Photo of the remains from the 1930s
of the excavation site in Babylon.
Model of the main procession street (Aj-ibur-shapu)
towards Ishtar Gate.
Palace of Nebuchadnezzar (reconstruction during Saddam Hussain’s
New bricks stand atop ancient foundations at the wall of Babylon.
Saddam’s Presidential Palace and ruins of ancient Babylon (aerial view).
Air View of the Ceremonial Complex, Persepolis. 518–c. 460 BCE.
Apadana (Audience Hall) of Darius and Xerxes, Persepolis, 518–c. 460 BCE.
Ceremonial complex, Persepolis, Iran, Apadana (audience hall) of Darius and Xerxes,
stairway, relief detail, Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute, 491-486 BCE.
1) What was the purpose of votive figures?
2) What is the subject of the carving on the Stele of Naramsin,
and what was its function?
3) How/where did Cuneiform develop, and for what purpose?
4) What relationship can you describe between the relief on top
of the Code of Hammurabi stele, and the written code itself?
Collection: Digital Media Collection Work Record ID:23198 Work Type - Category: architecture Title: White Temple and Ziggurat Display Date: circa 3200-3000 BCE Location: Uruk Location: Warka Location: Iraq ID Number: 1187 Style/Period Term: Ancient Near Eastern Image ID: 5000805 Source: Gardners Art Through the Ages 11th Ed./Stokstad 4th Ed. Fig. 2-2 Resolution Size: 5 Format: JP2 Media Type: Image File Name: 23198.jp2 Width: 2404 Height: 1507 Rights Statement: For Educational or Research Purposes Only. Please direct questions of use in academic publications to firstname.lastname@example.org. Any commercial use is strictly prohibited.
Collection: Digital Media Collection Work Record ID: Img005799 Work Type - Category: musical instrument Title: Bull-Headed lyre Material: wood inlay Display Date: circa 2600 BCE Description: from Ur, Muqaiyir, Iraq Style/Period Term: Ancient Near Eastern Culture: Sumerian Repository: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, The University of Pennsylvania Museum Image ID:5000929 Source: Stokstad 2nd Ed. 2-11/Stokstad 4th Ed. Pg. 35, Fig. B Resolution Size: 6 Format: JP2 Media Type: Image File Name: Stok_2-11.jp2 Width: 2184 Height: 3414 Rights Statement: For Educational or Research Purposes Only. Please direct questions of use in academic publications to email@example.com. Any commercial use is strictly prohibited.
Collection: Digital Media Collection Work Record ID: 23468 Work Type - Category: sculpture Work Type: relief Title: Assurbanipal and His Queen in the Garden Display Measurement: height: approximately 21 in. Material: alabaster Display Date: circa BCE 647 Description: from Kuyunjik, Iraq Style/Period Term: Ancient Near Eastern Repository: London, England, UK, The British Museum ID Number:1197 Image ID: 5000904 Source: Stokstad 3rd Ed. 2-19/Stokstad 4th Ed. Fig. 2-13 Resolution Size: 5 Format: JP2 Media Type: Image File Name: 23468_2-21.jp2 Width: 2433 Height: 961 Rights Statement: For Educational or Research Purposes Only. Please direct questions of use in academic publications to firstname.lastname@example.org. Any commercial use is strictly prohibited.
Collection: Digital Media Collection Work Record ID: 02-12 Work Type - Category: sculpture Title: Guardian Figures at Gate a of the Citadel of Sargon II Display Measurement: 10 feet 2 inches Material: limestone Description: During its excavation. Guardian protectors of palaces and throne rooms Display Date:c. 721–706 BCE Location: Dur Sharrukin Location: Khorsabad Location: Iraq Culture: Assyrian Source: Stokstad 2nd Ed. 2-1/4th Ed. 2-12
Work Record ID: 02-18 Work Type – Category: Sculpture Work Type: relief Title: Darius and Xerxes Receiving Tribute Display Date:491–486 BCE Materials:Limestone Display measurement: height: 8&apos;4” Description: Detail of a relief from the stairway leading to the Apadana (ceremonial complex), Persepolis, Iran. Re Rights Statement: For Educational or Research Purposes Only. Please direct questions of use in academic publications to email@example.com. Any commercial use is strictly prohibited. pository: The Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago.