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Project Management
Dr. R Bista
NASC
What is Project and What
is not?
What is Project?
• A project can be considered to be any
series of activities and tasks that:
- Have specific objective to be completed
within certain specifications.
- Have defined start and end dates
- Have funding limits
- Consume human and nonhuman
resources
(Kerzner, H. 2003, Project Management, 8th ed. New York:
Willy))
What is Project? Cont…
• Project may range from small infrastructure
project to more complex multipart project such
as integrated hydroelectric project with
irrigation, power and tourism as its components.
• Some examples are: Melemchi Drinking Water
Project, High Land Mountain Agriculture and
Livelihood Project, Upper Tamakoshi Hydro
Power Project, Amazon's "Octocoper" Mini-
drones concept project, Google’s Driverless
Car Project
General Project Characteristics
• Projects are temporary activities with a clear objectives
• Projects are building blocks in the design and execution
of organizational strategies
• Projects are responsible for the newest and most
improved products, services and organizational
processes
• Projects need to be completed within constraints of
technical, cost, and schedule requirements
• Projects are terminated upon successful completion of
performance objectives.
Project vs Operation
Regular Operation
- Ongoing
- Repeat process or
product
- People are
homogeneous
- Greater certainty of
performance, cost,
schedule
Project
- One shot
- New process or
product
- People are
heterogeneous
- Greater uncertainty of
performance, cost,
schedule
Project as a Dream of the
Organisation
• Dream of www.amazon.com to modernize
delivery of goods to customers
• Dreams of Google to provide internet
• Dream of Google to develop Self Driving
Car Project
• Dream of Nepal to Make Modern Second
International Airport in Bara District
Roles of Project
• Projects are one of the principle means by which
we change our world.
• Organisations compete by planning and execution
of new projects
• Projects are the means to execute strategies of
organisation
• Projects are the basic building blocks of
development. Without successful project
identification, preparation and implementation,
developments plans are no more than wishes
(Dennis A. Rondineli (1976), Project Management
Quarterly, Vol VII (1),
• Projects have also been the primary instruments for
grant, credit, loan and technical aid to developing
countries by international agencies
Roles of Project
• Global competition, pressure of low cost,
short product life cycle, fast increasing
people’s expectations are the reasons for
the private organizations to adopt project
management to survive and remain
competitive.
Common Dimensions for Project
Success
Time
Cost of not Completing in time,
cost, quality
Plan, Program and Project
• Program can be defined as a
framework for groping existing
projects or defining new projects
and focusing all the major
activities required to achieve a set
of major benefits
• There will be many programs in a
plan
• Similarly, there will be many
projects in a program
• For example, in an agriculture
development program, there can
be soil development project, seed
development project, irrigation
project etc.
• Plan
• Programs
• Projects
Project management
• In project every things need to be done
within time and budget
• Management must complete all the project
deliverables within quality specification
• So project management is achieving
successful project completion with the
resources available and within time
constraints.
Project Management Cont…
• Project management involves defining project scope.
• Dividing project into tasks and activities
• Deciding the types of project organizations suitable for project
• Selecting project manager and establishing project office
• Managing Team
• Managing Stakeholders
• Managing Risks
• Managing Outsourcing
• Executing plan and monitoring performance and correcting
deviation
• Reporting
• Completing all the project deliverables.
Organizing Projects
• A temporary organisation is set up to
implement a project. Based on the nature
project, a suitable organisation type is
selected. In case of large project, a
dedicated team headed by project
manager is suitable to implement project.
Project Manager (PM)
• The project manager is the person responsible for
achieving project objectives. He is selected to
plan, organise, coordinate and control project
performance.
• He/She is responsible for preparing schedule and
budget, select other other people, procure works,
goods and services, manage conflicts and take
care of routine details necessary to get the project
moving and achieve project objectives.
Consultant in the project
organisation
• As project is an unique activity and needs special type of
knowledge and skill, expert consultants can be a good
component of project organisation. The reasons for
appointing a consultant are:
- to gain from the consultant's deep knowledge and rich
experience
- an independent consultant will view all matters in an
unbiased manner.
- to give full attention to the particular project as the
functional experts have to manage other many regular
operations.
Managing Team
• A team is a small number of people with
complementary skills who are committed
to a common purpose, performance goals,
and approach for which they hold
themselves mutually accountable (Harvard
Business School)
As Per Michael Jordan
• The most talented basketball player of all time
and six-time world champion Michael Jorden:
“There are plenty of teams in every sport that have
great players and never win titles. Most of the
time, those players aren’t willing to sacrifice for the
greater good of the team. The funny thing is, in the
end, their unwillingness to sacrifice only makes
individual goals more difficult to achieve. Talent
wins games, but teamwork and intelligence win
championships.”
Making the Project Team
• When we have a dream, we need a team to
accomplish it.
• Designing a dream team
• Identify necessary skills of team members
• Talk to potential team members matching
skill
• Add key team members
• Develop team members
• Remove ineffective team members
• Motivate Team Members for effective
performance
Managing Stakeholders
• Stakeholders are defined as all individuals
or groups who are influencing / affected /
involved / interested in the project and can
potentially impact, either positively or
negatively, its development.
• Identifying stakeholders, their interests
and power
• Develop strategies to manage for positive
results the impacts of stakeholders on the
project
Managing Procurement
• Procurement is the act of acquiring goods,
works and services by projects or
organizations at the best possible cost in the
right quantity and quality at required time.
Both government and private organizations
needs to acquire various types of goods,
works and services.
Managing schedule
- Prepare time schedule
- Give extra care to critical activities in order
to complete them in scheduled time.
- Making priorities in resource allocation to
critical activities in case of resource
constraints
- Regular schedule monitoring and reporting
- Ensuring critical activities get done on time
Schedule Awareness
• The simple way to create schedule
awareness is by displaying the progress
achievements and target dates at visible
place to remind project team about project
activity deadlines and project completion
time
Managing Resource
• To complete project in time with minimum
resource, careful planning and managing
of resource is necessary to deliver project
results
• Updating resource plan as per updated
schedule and Arrangement of resource as
per requirements,
• Acquiring resource as per required
Managing Quality
• We hear many news of under quality of
our projects. If projects are not completed
within desired/or planned quality, we can
not assure that project will generate
heavier benefits than costs. So managing
quality means to assure project deliverable
as per specification.
Managing Quality Cont…
• Are Inputs as per requirement?
• Are labour skilled as needed?
• Is process as per standard?
• Does project output as per specification?
Managing Budget
- Assuring timely budget available
- Making effective and efficient use of
budget use of budget
Managing Risks
• Identifying different risks during execution
• Analyzing risks and making strategy to
reduce risks
• Executing risks reduction plans
• Monitoring residual risks, identifying new
risks, executing risk reduction plans and
evaluating their effectiveness.
Project Monitoring and Control
• Project monitoring is observing or
checking on project activities to identify the
current status of the project, identifying
deviation of the project cost, schedule and
quality with the plan and identifying
potential problems. A project monitoring
system involves determining what data to
collect; how, when, and who will collect the
data, analysis of the data; and reporting
current progress
Project Cycle
• Projects go through similar stage on the
path from origin to completion
• These stages are generally expressed in
terms of cycles and known as project
cycle
• There are some popular cycle practiced
by Donor Agencies.
• World bank Project Cycle, UNIDO Project
Cycle, ADB Project Cycle etc. are some
examples of project cycle.
World Bank Project Cycle
• Identification
• Preparation
• Appraisal
• Negotiation
• Implementation and supervision
• Evaluation
ADB’s Project Cycle
Sources:
The Project Cycle
National and Local
Level Needs
Benefit M/E Project
Identification
Project
Preparation
GN Founded
Project
Donor Assisted
Project
Loan or Grant Negotiation
& Agreement
Funding
Project
Implementation
Operation and
Maintenance
PWD part 1 Organizational Directives, Nepal Government
Project Cycle
Identification
Pre-Feasibility Study
Feasibility Study
Appraisal/Approval
Implementation
Completion and
Termination
Evaluation
• Project identification stage is also called project
conception stage. The project idea/concept is
developed in the project identification stage.
• So, the task is to find out potential project ideas.
An entrepreneur is always looking for new
business opportunities which can be materialized
or a development related organisation is looking
problems/needs of people that needs to be
addressed.
Project Identification
The project ideas can be discovered from
various sources.
-Needs/problems of society/scarcity of certain
goods/higher price of certain goods
-Unused local material/skill/resources
- Evaluation of development
plans/programs/policies
- Success stories of other regions/countries
- Study of export possibility/import
substitutions etc.
Project Identification:Generation
of Project ideas
Pre-Feasibility Study
• To roughly check whether the project is
technically or economically feasible
• The idea behind the rough check is to
quickly filter out those projects in order to
save the costs which will occur in a more
expensive feasibility study
Feasibility Study
- Feasibility study is related to analyse the
viability of the identified project to support
decision making of investment.
- As its name implies, it is a study to decide
whether the identified project is attractive
enough to go for implementation
Areas of Analysis in Feasibility
study
• Demand/ Need and Market Analysis
• Technical Analysis
• Management Analysis
• Financial Analysis
• Economic Analysis
• Environmental Analysis
• Social Analysis
Appraisal/Approval
• Project appraisal involves critically examining the
basic data, assumptions and methodology used in
project preparation to assure project’s viability,
profitability, sustainability.
• In appraisal, project’s promoter takes a second
look critically and carefully to assure project’s
profitability
• Project is evaluated to check if all the aspects of
project are consistent with the requirement, is it fit
with policy and strategy of organisations/sectors
• Projects risks and sensitivity analysis are carried
out in appraisal to check whether it is within their
risk profile
• Project is approved for investment
Project Implementation
• Once preparation is completed, finance is
assured and design is finalized, project is
forwarded for implementation.
• During project implementation phase, Project
is put into action. Roads will be contracted
and built, project activities will be started and
completed, project output will be produced.
So this is the investment phase of the
project.
Outputs of Project
Implementation
• The output of the implementation
phase is the new road, new
hydropower capacity, new bridge,
New hospital department, new
irrigation system, Trained manpower,
new product etc.
Factors Affecting Project
Implementation
• Transfer of Project Staff
• Poor procurement and Contract
management
• Financial management problems
• Political pressures
• Scope changes
• Local support
• Regular monitoring and control etc.
Project Completion and
Termination
• Once project is completed, project
organisation is closed
• Project is transferred to customer
• Remaining payments are cleared
• Preparation of completion reports
• Termination of contracts
• Handover of assets
• Projects are formally closed out
Evaluation
• Evaluation can be defined as a process by
which general judgments about quality, goal
attainment, project/program effectiveness,
impact can be determined. It can therefore
be conceptualized as a review of the whole
project/program in order to assess its overall
value and effects.
Project Management Fundamentals

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Project Management Fundamentals

  • 2. What is Project and What is not?
  • 3. What is Project? • A project can be considered to be any series of activities and tasks that: - Have specific objective to be completed within certain specifications. - Have defined start and end dates - Have funding limits - Consume human and nonhuman resources (Kerzner, H. 2003, Project Management, 8th ed. New York: Willy))
  • 4. What is Project? Cont… • Project may range from small infrastructure project to more complex multipart project such as integrated hydroelectric project with irrigation, power and tourism as its components. • Some examples are: Melemchi Drinking Water Project, High Land Mountain Agriculture and Livelihood Project, Upper Tamakoshi Hydro Power Project, Amazon's "Octocoper" Mini- drones concept project, Google’s Driverless Car Project
  • 5. General Project Characteristics • Projects are temporary activities with a clear objectives • Projects are building blocks in the design and execution of organizational strategies • Projects are responsible for the newest and most improved products, services and organizational processes • Projects need to be completed within constraints of technical, cost, and schedule requirements • Projects are terminated upon successful completion of performance objectives.
  • 6. Project vs Operation Regular Operation - Ongoing - Repeat process or product - People are homogeneous - Greater certainty of performance, cost, schedule Project - One shot - New process or product - People are heterogeneous - Greater uncertainty of performance, cost, schedule
  • 7. Project as a Dream of the Organisation • Dream of www.amazon.com to modernize delivery of goods to customers • Dreams of Google to provide internet • Dream of Google to develop Self Driving Car Project • Dream of Nepal to Make Modern Second International Airport in Bara District
  • 8. Roles of Project • Projects are one of the principle means by which we change our world. • Organisations compete by planning and execution of new projects • Projects are the means to execute strategies of organisation • Projects are the basic building blocks of development. Without successful project identification, preparation and implementation, developments plans are no more than wishes (Dennis A. Rondineli (1976), Project Management Quarterly, Vol VII (1), • Projects have also been the primary instruments for grant, credit, loan and technical aid to developing countries by international agencies
  • 9. Roles of Project • Global competition, pressure of low cost, short product life cycle, fast increasing people’s expectations are the reasons for the private organizations to adopt project management to survive and remain competitive.
  • 10. Common Dimensions for Project Success Time
  • 11. Cost of not Completing in time, cost, quality
  • 12. Plan, Program and Project • Program can be defined as a framework for groping existing projects or defining new projects and focusing all the major activities required to achieve a set of major benefits • There will be many programs in a plan • Similarly, there will be many projects in a program • For example, in an agriculture development program, there can be soil development project, seed development project, irrigation project etc. • Plan • Programs • Projects
  • 13. Project management • In project every things need to be done within time and budget • Management must complete all the project deliverables within quality specification • So project management is achieving successful project completion with the resources available and within time constraints.
  • 14. Project Management Cont… • Project management involves defining project scope. • Dividing project into tasks and activities • Deciding the types of project organizations suitable for project • Selecting project manager and establishing project office • Managing Team • Managing Stakeholders • Managing Risks • Managing Outsourcing • Executing plan and monitoring performance and correcting deviation • Reporting • Completing all the project deliverables.
  • 15. Organizing Projects • A temporary organisation is set up to implement a project. Based on the nature project, a suitable organisation type is selected. In case of large project, a dedicated team headed by project manager is suitable to implement project.
  • 16. Project Manager (PM) • The project manager is the person responsible for achieving project objectives. He is selected to plan, organise, coordinate and control project performance. • He/She is responsible for preparing schedule and budget, select other other people, procure works, goods and services, manage conflicts and take care of routine details necessary to get the project moving and achieve project objectives.
  • 17. Consultant in the project organisation • As project is an unique activity and needs special type of knowledge and skill, expert consultants can be a good component of project organisation. The reasons for appointing a consultant are: - to gain from the consultant's deep knowledge and rich experience - an independent consultant will view all matters in an unbiased manner. - to give full attention to the particular project as the functional experts have to manage other many regular operations.
  • 18. Managing Team • A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (Harvard Business School)
  • 19. As Per Michael Jordan • The most talented basketball player of all time and six-time world champion Michael Jorden: “There are plenty of teams in every sport that have great players and never win titles. Most of the time, those players aren’t willing to sacrifice for the greater good of the team. The funny thing is, in the end, their unwillingness to sacrifice only makes individual goals more difficult to achieve. Talent wins games, but teamwork and intelligence win championships.”
  • 20. Making the Project Team • When we have a dream, we need a team to accomplish it. • Designing a dream team • Identify necessary skills of team members • Talk to potential team members matching skill • Add key team members • Develop team members • Remove ineffective team members • Motivate Team Members for effective performance
  • 21. Managing Stakeholders • Stakeholders are defined as all individuals or groups who are influencing / affected / involved / interested in the project and can potentially impact, either positively or negatively, its development. • Identifying stakeholders, their interests and power • Develop strategies to manage for positive results the impacts of stakeholders on the project
  • 22. Managing Procurement • Procurement is the act of acquiring goods, works and services by projects or organizations at the best possible cost in the right quantity and quality at required time. Both government and private organizations needs to acquire various types of goods, works and services.
  • 23. Managing schedule - Prepare time schedule - Give extra care to critical activities in order to complete them in scheduled time. - Making priorities in resource allocation to critical activities in case of resource constraints - Regular schedule monitoring and reporting - Ensuring critical activities get done on time
  • 24. Schedule Awareness • The simple way to create schedule awareness is by displaying the progress achievements and target dates at visible place to remind project team about project activity deadlines and project completion time
  • 25. Managing Resource • To complete project in time with minimum resource, careful planning and managing of resource is necessary to deliver project results • Updating resource plan as per updated schedule and Arrangement of resource as per requirements, • Acquiring resource as per required
  • 26. Managing Quality • We hear many news of under quality of our projects. If projects are not completed within desired/or planned quality, we can not assure that project will generate heavier benefits than costs. So managing quality means to assure project deliverable as per specification.
  • 27. Managing Quality Cont… • Are Inputs as per requirement? • Are labour skilled as needed? • Is process as per standard? • Does project output as per specification?
  • 28. Managing Budget - Assuring timely budget available - Making effective and efficient use of budget use of budget
  • 29. Managing Risks • Identifying different risks during execution • Analyzing risks and making strategy to reduce risks • Executing risks reduction plans • Monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, executing risk reduction plans and evaluating their effectiveness.
  • 30. Project Monitoring and Control • Project monitoring is observing or checking on project activities to identify the current status of the project, identifying deviation of the project cost, schedule and quality with the plan and identifying potential problems. A project monitoring system involves determining what data to collect; how, when, and who will collect the data, analysis of the data; and reporting current progress
  • 31. Project Cycle • Projects go through similar stage on the path from origin to completion • These stages are generally expressed in terms of cycles and known as project cycle • There are some popular cycle practiced by Donor Agencies. • World bank Project Cycle, UNIDO Project Cycle, ADB Project Cycle etc. are some examples of project cycle.
  • 32. World Bank Project Cycle • Identification • Preparation • Appraisal • Negotiation • Implementation and supervision • Evaluation
  • 34. The Project Cycle National and Local Level Needs Benefit M/E Project Identification Project Preparation GN Founded Project Donor Assisted Project Loan or Grant Negotiation & Agreement Funding Project Implementation Operation and Maintenance PWD part 1 Organizational Directives, Nepal Government
  • 35. Project Cycle Identification Pre-Feasibility Study Feasibility Study Appraisal/Approval Implementation Completion and Termination Evaluation
  • 36. • Project identification stage is also called project conception stage. The project idea/concept is developed in the project identification stage. • So, the task is to find out potential project ideas. An entrepreneur is always looking for new business opportunities which can be materialized or a development related organisation is looking problems/needs of people that needs to be addressed. Project Identification
  • 37. The project ideas can be discovered from various sources. -Needs/problems of society/scarcity of certain goods/higher price of certain goods -Unused local material/skill/resources - Evaluation of development plans/programs/policies - Success stories of other regions/countries - Study of export possibility/import substitutions etc. Project Identification:Generation of Project ideas
  • 38. Pre-Feasibility Study • To roughly check whether the project is technically or economically feasible • The idea behind the rough check is to quickly filter out those projects in order to save the costs which will occur in a more expensive feasibility study
  • 39. Feasibility Study - Feasibility study is related to analyse the viability of the identified project to support decision making of investment. - As its name implies, it is a study to decide whether the identified project is attractive enough to go for implementation
  • 40. Areas of Analysis in Feasibility study • Demand/ Need and Market Analysis • Technical Analysis • Management Analysis • Financial Analysis • Economic Analysis • Environmental Analysis • Social Analysis
  • 41. Appraisal/Approval • Project appraisal involves critically examining the basic data, assumptions and methodology used in project preparation to assure project’s viability, profitability, sustainability. • In appraisal, project’s promoter takes a second look critically and carefully to assure project’s profitability • Project is evaluated to check if all the aspects of project are consistent with the requirement, is it fit with policy and strategy of organisations/sectors • Projects risks and sensitivity analysis are carried out in appraisal to check whether it is within their risk profile • Project is approved for investment
  • 42. Project Implementation • Once preparation is completed, finance is assured and design is finalized, project is forwarded for implementation. • During project implementation phase, Project is put into action. Roads will be contracted and built, project activities will be started and completed, project output will be produced. So this is the investment phase of the project.
  • 43. Outputs of Project Implementation • The output of the implementation phase is the new road, new hydropower capacity, new bridge, New hospital department, new irrigation system, Trained manpower, new product etc.
  • 44. Factors Affecting Project Implementation • Transfer of Project Staff • Poor procurement and Contract management • Financial management problems • Political pressures • Scope changes • Local support • Regular monitoring and control etc.
  • 45. Project Completion and Termination • Once project is completed, project organisation is closed • Project is transferred to customer • Remaining payments are cleared • Preparation of completion reports • Termination of contracts • Handover of assets • Projects are formally closed out
  • 46. Evaluation • Evaluation can be defined as a process by which general judgments about quality, goal attainment, project/program effectiveness, impact can be determined. It can therefore be conceptualized as a review of the whole project/program in order to assess its overall value and effects.